Help:IPA/Ukrainian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet represents Ukrainian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Ukrainian contrasts palatalized "soft" and unpalatalized "hard" consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript ⟨j[ ʲ ], are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like in the [j] sound in yes. The "hard" vs. "soft" distinction is phonemic for only nine pairs and may otherwise be ignored.

See Ukrainian phonology for more details on Ukrainian sounds.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
b бог [bɔɦ] boot
біль [bʲilʲ] beautiful
d дим [dɪm] do
дім, мідь [dʲim], [midʲ] dew
dz дзе́ркало[1] [ˈdzɛrkɑlɔ] pads
dzʲ ґедзь, дзьоб [ɡɛdzʲ], [dzʲɔb]
джміль [dʒmilʲ] jump; ridge
dʒʲ бджіл [bdʒʲil] jeep
f фа́рба [ˈfɑrbɑ] fool
фільм [fʲilʲm] few
ɡ ґа́нок [ˈɡɑnɔk] goo
ɡʲ ґіпс [gʲips] argue
ɦ газе́та [ɦɑˈzɛtɑ] behind
ɦʲ гість [ɦʲisʲtʲ] hue
j йо́га, йти, гай [ˈjɔɦɑ], [jtɪ], [ɦɑj] yes
k ключ [klʲutʃ] scar
кіт [kʲit] cute
l лось [lɔsʲ] leg
лід, сіль [lʲid], [sʲilʲ] least
m мир [mɪr] moot
мі́ра [ˈmʲirɐ] mute
n не́бо [ˈnɛbɔ] noon
ні́жний, день [ˈnʲiʒnɪj], [dɛnʲ] new
p пил [pɪl] spare
піт [pʲit] spew
r лі́кар [ˈlʲikɑr] trilled r, like in Spanish
рі́чка [ˈrʲitʃkɑ]
s суп [sup] soup
сі́но, вісь [ˈsʲinɔ], [wisʲ] suit
ʃ шпари́на, вище [ʃpɑˈrɪnɑ], [wɪʃtʃɛ] shop
ʃʲ шість [ʃʲisʲtʲ] she
t тин [tɪn] star
тінь, мить [tʲinʲ], [mɪtʲ] stew
ts цибу́ля [tsɪˈbulʲɑ] cats
tsʲ ціна́, віне́ць [tsʲiˈnɑ], [wiˈnɛtsʲ]
очерет, вище [ɔtʃɛrɛt], [wɪʃtʃɛ] choose
tʃʲ чіп [tʃʲip] cheer
w віл [wil] wine
до вчи́теля, став [dʊ u̯ˈtʃɪtɛlʲɑ], [stɑu̯] tow
x ховра́х [xɔu̯ˈrɑx] Bach; loch
хід [xʲid]
z зуб [zub] zoo
зіллю, рі́зьблення [zʲilʲːu], [ˈrʲizʲblɛnʲːɑ] presume
ʒ жи́то [ˈʒɪtɔ] measure; garage
ʒʲ жі́нка [ˈʒʲinkɐ] asure
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Stressed
ɑ гай [ɦɑj] father
ɛ день [dɛnʲ] met
ɪ ми́ша [ˈmɪʃɑ] kit
i кіт, і́кла [kit], [ˈiklɑ] meet
ɔ по́ле, льон [ˈpɔlɛ], [lʲɔn] off
u дух, лють [dux], [lʲutʲ] boot
Unstressed
ɐ гарма́та [ɦɐrˈmɑtɑ] trap (Scottish English)
ɪ ете́р [ɪˈtɛr] bit
ʊ туди́, ору́дний [tʊˈdɪ], [ʊˈrudnɪj] put
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ◌ Stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ː Gemination[2] (doubles the consonant)

Notes

  1. ^ [dz, ɣ, v] are allophones of /ts, x, f/ that occur before voiced consonants (Herrity (2000:16)).
  2. ^ In Ukrainian, geminates are found between vowels: багаття [bɑˈɦɑtʲːɑ] bonfire, подружжя [pɔˈdruʒːɑ] married couple, обличчя face. Geminates also occur at the beginning of a few words: лляний [ˈlʲːɑnɪj] flaxen, forms of the verb лити to pour (ллю [lʲːu], ллєш [lʲːɛʃ] etc.), ссати [ˈsːɑtɪ] to suck and derivatives.[citation needed]

Bibliography

  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-929075-08-3 
  • Жовтобрюх, М.А.; Кулик, Б.М. (1965), Курс сучасної української літературної мови. Частина I., Kiev: Радянська школа 
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