Help:IPA/Ukrainian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet represents Ukrainian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Ukrainian contrasts palatalized "soft" and unpalatalized "hard" consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript ⟨j[ ʲ ], are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like in the [j] sound in yes. The "hard" vs. "soft" distinction is phonemic for only nine pairs and may otherwise be ignored.

See Ukrainian phonology for more details on Ukrainian sounds.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
b бог [bɔɦ] boot
d дим [dɪm] do
дім, мідь [dʲim], [midʲ] dew
dz дзе́ркало[1][2] [ˈdzɛrkɑlɔ] pads
dzʲ ґедзь, дзьоб[1] [ɡɛdzʲ], [dzʲɔb]
джміль[1] [dʒmilʲ] jump; ridge
f фа́рба [ˈfɑrbɑ] fool
ɡ ґа́нок [ˈɡɑnɔk] goo
ɦ газе́та [ɦɑˈzɛtɑ] behind
j йо́га, йти, гай [ˈjɔɦɑ], [jtɪ], [ɦɑj] yes
k ключ [klʲutʃ] cooper
l лось [lɔsʲ] leg
лід, сіль [lʲid], [sʲilʲ] least
m мир [mɪr] moot; mute
n не́бо [ˈnɛbɔ] noon
ні́жний, день [ˈnʲiʒnɪj], [dɛnʲ] new
p пил [pɪl] poo
r лі́кар [ˈlʲikɑr] trilled r, like in Spanish
рі́чка [ˈrʲitʃkɑ]
s суп [sup] soup
сі́но, вісь [ˈsʲinɔ], [wisʲ] suit
ʃ шпари́на, вище [ʃpɑˈrɪnɑ], [wɪʃtʃɛ] shop
t тин [tɪn] tool
тінь, мить [tʲinʲ], [mɪtʲ] tune
ts цибу́ля[1] [tsɪˈbulʲɑ] cats
tsʲ ціна́, віне́ць[1] [tsʲiˈnɑ], [wiˈnɛtsʲ]
очерет, вище[1] [ɔtʃɛrɛt], [wɪʃtʃɛ] choose
w віл [wil] wine
вчитель, став [u̯tʃɪtɛlʲ], [stɑu̯] tow
x ховра́х [xɔu̯ˈrɑx] Bach; loch
z зуб [zub] zoo
зіллю, рі́зьблення [zʲilʲːu], [ˈrʲizʲblɛnʲːɑ] presume
ʒ жи́то [ˈʒɪtɔ] measure; garage
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Stressed
ɑ гай [ɦɑj] bath
ɛ день [dɛnʲ] met
ɪ ми́ша [ˈmɪʃɑ] kit
i кіт, і́кла [kit], [ˈiklɑ] meet
ɔ по́ле, льон [ˈpɔlɛ], [lʲɔn] lot (Received Pronunciation)
u дух, лють [dux], [lʲutʲ] boot
Unstressed
ɐ гарма́та [ɦɐrˈmɑtɑ] trap (Scottish English)
ɪ ете́р [ɪˈtɛr] bit
ʊ туди́, ору́дний [tʊˈdɪ], [ʊˈrudnɪj] put
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ◌ Stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ː Gemination[3] (doubles the consonant)

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f The affricates [dz, dzʲ, dʒ, ts, tsʲ, tʃ]) are correctly written with ligature ties: [d͡z, d͡zʲ, d͡ʒ, t͡s, t͡sʲ, t͡ʃ]. The ties are omitted in transcriptions on Wikipedia (except in phonology articles), as they do not display correctly in all browsers.
  2. ^ [dz, ɣ, v] are allophones of /ts, x, f/ that occur before voiced consonants (Herrity (2000:16)).
  3. ^ In Ukrainian, geminates are found between vowels: багаття [bɑˈɦɑtʲːɑ] bonfire, подружжя [pɔˈdruʒːɑ] married couple, обличчя face. Geminates also occur at the beginning of a few words: лляний [ˈlʲːɑnɪj] flaxen, forms of the verb лити to pour (ллю [lʲːu], ллєш [lʲːɛʃ] etc.), ссати [ˈsːɑtɪ] to suck and derivatives.[citation needed]

Bibliography

  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-929075-08-3 
  • Жовтобрюх, М.А.; Кулик, Б.М. (1965), Курс сучасної української літературної мови. Частина I., Kiev: Радянська школа 
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