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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Tibetan pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

IPA Tibetan English approximation
b bog [p] on a low tone
c ཀྱ church
ཁྱ གྱ church
ɕ ཞ ཤ sheep
d dog ([t] on a low tone)
dz adz ([ts] on a low tone)
jeep ([tɕ] on a low tone)
ɡ gone ([k] on a low tone)
h head
j yes
ɟ གྱ judge, (UK) dew ([c] on a low tone)
k scat
ཁ ག cat
l leap
ལྷ (voiceless l, like hl)
m moon
n noon
ɲ canyon
ŋ song
p spin
ཕ བ pin
ɹ the r in drink
ɹ̥ རྷ (voiceless r, like hr)
s ཟ ས song
ʂ ཧྲ like first part of shrew [ʂɹu]
t stop
ཐ ད top
ʈ ~ ʈʂ ཀྲ stream
ʈʰ ~ ʈʂʰ ཁྲ གྲ trunk
tɕʰ ཆ ཇ cheer
ts cats
tsʰ ཚ ཛ tsunami
w water
z zoo ([s] on a low tone)
ʑ genre ([ɕ] on a low tone)
ʔ oh-oh!
ʕ like ɦ but more pharyngeal
ʎ ལྱ Spanish castilla
IPA Tibetan English approximation
a between fat and father
e Spanish e (in Sp. open syllables)
ɛ bed
i see
ɪ sit but more centralised
o Spanish o (in Sp. open syllables)
ø French eu, German ö
ɔ off
u moon
ʊ good but more centralised
ʌ cup, RP
y French u, German ü
̃ nasal vowel
IPA Description
high level: si˥
high falling: si˥˧
low rising: si˩˧
low level: si˩


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