Help:IPA/Taiwanese Hokkien

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Taiwanese Hokkien (also called Taiwanese) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. See Taiwanese Hokkien phonology for more detail on the sounds of the language.

Note that English equivalents given in this page may represent only loose approximations to the original. In addition, the Pe̍h-ōe-jī (POJ) applied in this page is Ernest Tipson's version, while Chinese Examples are pronounced with literal reading with Taiwanese Romanization System (TL) spelling in default unless specified.

Consonants

Consonants
IPA POJ TL Phonetic Symbols Chinese Example English approximation
p p 布 (pòo) span
ph 普 (phóo) pan
b b Extended Bopomofo U+31A0.svg 明 (bîng) above [a]
m m- 媽 (má) moon
am, om, im Extended Bopomofo U+31B0.svg, Extended Bopomofo U+31B1.svg 暗 (àm), 參 (som)[b], 心 (sim) rim
t t 端 (tuan) stop
th 透 (thò) top
l l 來 (lâi) lime [c]
n n 泥 (nî) noon
-n ㄣ, ㄢ 因 (in), 安 (an)
k k 見 (kiàn) skin
kh 溪 (khe) kin
g g Extended Bopomofo U+31A3.svg 義 (gī) again [a]
ŋ ng- Extended Bopomofo Ng.svg 吳 (ngôo) singer
eng, ang, ong ing, ang, ong ㄥ, ㄤ, Extended Bopomofo U+31B2.svg 櫻 (ing), 幫 (pang), 王 (ông) song
h h 曉 (hiáu) hit
ʔ 影 (íng, [ʔiə̯ŋ˥˩]) uh-oh
t͡s ch [d] ts 走 (tsáu) roughly like seats [d]
t͡ɕ 精 (tsing) like itchy, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (palatalized).[e]
t͡sʰ chh [d] tsh 菜 (tshài) tsunami (English pronunciation)
t͡ɕʰ 市 (tshī) like cheap, pronounced more forward, toward the teeth (palatalized).[e]
s s 三 (sam) same
ɕ 審 (sím) like sheep, pronounced more forward, toward the teeth (palatalized).[e]
d͡z j Extended Bopomofo U+31A1.svg 熱 (jua̍h) pads [f]
z zoo [g]
d͡ʑ Extended Bopomofo U+31A2.svg 日 (ji̍t) like jeep, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (palatalized).[f][e]
ʑ like zip, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (palatalized).[g][e]
Note: Alveolo-palatal consonants ([t͡ɕ], [t͡ɕʰ], [ɕ], and [d͡ʑ / ʑ]) always precede [i] ⟨i / e⟩ as ⟨chi (tsi) / che⟩, ⟨chhi (tshi) / chhe⟩, ⟨si / se⟩, and ⟨ji⟩.
Syllabic consonants
-m Extended Bopomofo U+31AC.svg 姆 (ḿ) rhythm
ŋ̍ -ng Extended Bopomofo U+31AD.svg 光 (kng)[h] song [i]
Stop consonant finals
-p 合 (ha̍p) like sip, but no audible release
-t 七 (tshit) like sit, but no audible release
-k 角 (kak) like sick, but no audible release
ʔ -h 桌 (toh) uh-oh

Vowels

Vowels
IPA POJ TL Phonetic Symbols Chinese Example English approximation
a a 鴨 (ah) California: hat
e e Extended Bopomofo U+31A4.svg 家 (ke) enPR: day
ə o o/or[j] 高 (kor) about [k]
o o 高 (ko) snow [l]
ɔ [m] oo Extended Bopomofo U+31A6.svg 烏 (oo) thought
ong, om,
op, ok
Extended Bopomofo U+31B2.svg, Extended Bopomofo U+31B1.svg,
Extended Bopomofo U+31A6.svg, Extended Bopomofo U+31A6.svg
福 (hok)
i i [n] 一 (it) see [o]
u u 武 (bú) shoe [p]
Diphthongs
ai̯ ai 愛 (ài) fight [o]
au̯ au 交 (kau) out [p]
i̯a ia ㄧㄚ 射 (s) Russia
i̯ɛ ian, iat ㄧㄢ, ㄧㄚ 電 (tn), 結 (kiat) yes [q]
iə̯ eng, ek ing, ik ㄧㄥ, ㄧ 英 (ing), 色 (sik) eon [r][k]
i̯ə io ior ㄧㄜ 腰 (ior)[k]
i̯o io ㄧㄛ 腰 (io)[l] Leo
i̯ɔ iong, iok Extended Bopomofo U+31B2.svg, ㄧExtended Bopomofo U+31A6.svg 中 (tiong), 欲 (io̍k) kiosk
i̯u iu ㄧㄨ 手 (tsh) dew
u̯a oa ua ㄨㄚ 化 (h) like quality
u̯e oe ue Extended Bopomofo U+31A4.svg 尾 (b)[b] question
u̯i ui ㄨㄧ 水 (súi) we
Triphthongs
i̯au̯ iau ㄧㄠ 妖 (iau) meow [o][p]
u̯ai̯ oai uai ㄨㄞ 怪 (kuài) quiet [o]
Nasal vowels
◌̃ m, n, ng , ㄋ, Extended Bopomofo Ng.svg 毛 (môo), 貓 (niau), 雅 (ngá) Nasalized vowel(s) [s]
ã an ann Extended Bopomofo U+31A9.svg 衫 (sann) like naive; nasalized [a]
en enn Extended Bopomofo U+31A5.svg 青 (tsenn)[b] like next; nasalized [e] [t]
ĩ in inn Extended Bopomofo U+31AA.svg [n] 圓 (înn) like niece; nasalized [i]
ɔ̃ on onn Extended Bopomofo U+31A7.svg 否 (hónn) French: son; nasalized [ɔ]
ãĩ̯ ain ainn Extended Bopomofo U+31AE.svg 載 (tsáinn) like nine; nasalized [ai̯]
ĩ̯ã ian iann Extended Bopomofo U+31A9.svg 兄 (hiann) roughly like civilian; nasalized [i̯a]
ĩ̯ũ iun iunn Extended Bopomofo U+31AB.svg 羊 (iûnn)[h] like nuance; nasalized [i̯u] [u]
ũ̯ã oan uann Extended Bopomofo U+31A9.svg 官 (kuann) roughly like wander nasalized [u̯a]
ũ̯ĩ uin uinn Extended Bopomofo U+31B3.svg 快 (khuìnn)[h] roughly like twin; nasalized [u̯i]
ĩ̯ãũ̯ iaun iaunn Extended Bopomofo U+31AF.svg 喓 (iaunn) like meow; nasalized [i̯au̯]
ũ̯ãĩ̯ oain uainn Extended Bopomofo U+31AE.svg 關 (kuainn)[b] roughly like wine; nasalized [u̯ai̯] [v]
Note: ⟨◌n⟩ in POJ is sometimes written as ⟨◌N⟩ when superscript ⟨n⟩ is not supported.

Tones

Tones
Tone
Number
IPA POJ TL Phonetic Symbols Chinese Example Tone number
Kaohsiung Taipei Lukang
0 ◌--a (āu--ji̍t) (varying)
1 ˦˦ a 55 44 33
2 ˥˩ á ˋ 51 53 55
3 ˧˩ à ˪ 31 21 31
4 ˧˨ʔ a◌ 3ʔ 2ʔ 5ʔ
5 ˨˦ â ˊ 24
6 ˨˨ ǎ ˋ 22
7 ˧˧ ā ˫ 33 31
8 ˦ʔ a̍◌ ◌˙ 5ʔ 4ʔ 35ʔ
9 ˧˥ 35
Note: ◌ can be any of the four stop consonant finals in Taiwanese as listed in the above.

Dialectal segments

Choân-chiu Dialect

Consonants
IPA POJ TL Phonetic Symbols Chinese Example English approximation
d͡ʑ j j Extended Bopomofo U+31A2.svg 字 (jī / lī) like jeep, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (palatalized).[f]
l l lap
熱 (jua̍h / lua̍h)
d͡z j Extended Bopomofo U+31A1.svg pads [f]
Vowels
ɘ e er 火 (hér)[w] New Zealand: bit [x]
ɨ i / u ir Extended Bopomofo U+31A8.svg 豬 (tir) roughly like glasses; sometimes pronounced as [ɯ] as goose (California)[y][w]
ɘ̯e oe ere Extended Bopomofo U+31A4.svg 雞 (kere)[y]
ɘ̯u io eru ㄜㄨ 購 (kerù)[w]
ɨ̯̃ĩ eng irinn Extended Bopomofo U+31A8.svgExtended Bopomofo U+31B3.svg 肩 (kirinn)[z]

Chiang-chiu Dialect

Consonants
IPA POJ TL Phonetic Symbols Chinese Example English approximation
ȵ n gn Extended Bopomofo Gn.svg 耳 (gní)[aa] like onion [t][ab]
ʑ j j Extended Bopomofo U+31A2.svg 日 (ji̍t / gi̍t) like zip, pronounced further forward toward the teeth (palatalized).[g]
g g Extended Bopomofo U+31A3.svg give [g]
z j Extended Bopomofo U+31A1.svg 熱 (jua̍h) zoo [g]
Vowels
ɛ e ee / ek / eng 家 (kee) [aa] bet [t]
ɛ̃ en eenn Extended Bopomofo U+31A5 variantion.svg 青 (tsheenn) [aa] French: vin; nasalized [ɛ] [t][ab]
ĩ̯ɔ̃ iun ionn Extended Bopomofo U+31A7.svg 羊 (iônn) [ac] like neon; nasalized [i̯o] [t]

Notes

  1. ^ a b [b] and [g] are sometimes transcribed as [] and [] respectively.
  2. ^ a b c d In Taiwanese Chiang-chiu accent.
  3. ^ [l] is pronounced as [ɾ] or [d] in some sub-accents; some scholars transcribe [l] as [ᵈl] to distinguish from the minor difference with [l].
  4. ^ a b c In some POJ variants, ch and chh are written as ⟨ts⟩ and ⟨tsh⟩ respectively.
  5. ^ a b c d e [t͡ɕ], [t͡ɕʰ], [ɕ], and [ʑ] are pronounced as [t͡s], [t͡sʰ], [s], and [z] in some accents.
  6. ^ a b c d [d͡z] and [d͡ʑ] are used in Taiwanese Choân-chiu accent; they are pronounced as [l] in some sub-accents.
  7. ^ a b c d e [z] and [ʑ] is used in Taiwanese Chiang-chiu accent, while [ʑ] is pronounced as [g] mainly in Taiwanese Hok-Ló-Kheh (zh) sub-accents.
  8. ^ a b c In Taiwanese Choan-chiu accent.
  9. ^ ⟨-ng⟩ [ŋ̍] is pronounced as [ũĩ] mainly in Taiwanese Chiang-chiu accent.
  10. ^ ⟨o⟩ in TL can present both southern accent and northern accent, while ⟨or⟩ in TL is used to specify southern accent for differentiation.
  11. ^ a b c ⟨or⟩ [ə] is used in Taiwanese southern accent and sometimes transcribed as [ɤ].
  12. ^ a b ⟨o⟩ [o] is used in Taiwanese northern accent.
  13. ^ ⟨o͘⟩ [ɔ] is sometimes written as ⟨ou⟩ in POJ as the dot is barely visible for readers.
  14. ^ a b In horizontal writing, it might be written in 90 degrees rotated.
  15. ^ a b c d [] can be transcribed as [ɪ] in ⟨-ai, -ia, -io, -iau⟩.
  16. ^ a b c [] can be transcribed as [ʊ] in ⟨-au
  17. ^ ⟨ian⟩ is pronounced as either [i̯ɛn], [ɛn], or [en] depending on accents.
    ⟨iat⟩ is pronounced as either [i̯ɛt̚], [ɛt̚], or [et̚] depending on accents.
  18. ^ ⟨ing⟩ is pronounced as either [iə̯ŋ], [] or [], depending on accents.
    ⟨ik⟩ is pronounced as either [iə̯k̚], [ik̚] or [ek̚] depending on accents.
  19. ^ The combination of a nasal consonant preceding vowel(s) represents nasal vowel(s) due to a natural process of assimilation.
  20. ^ a b c d e ⟨gn⟩ [ȵ], (enn) [], ⟨ee⟩ [ɛ], ⟨eeh⟩ [ɛʔ], ⟨eenn⟩ [ɛ̃], ⟨ek⟩ [ɛk̚], ⟨eng⟩ [ɛŋ], ⟨ionn⟩ [ĩ̯ɔ̃], and ⟨ionnh⟩ [ĩ̯ɔ̃ʔ] of TL are used in Taiwanese Chiang-chiu accent.
  21. ^ [ĩ̯ũ] is only used in Choân-chiu accent.
  22. ^ [ũ̯ãĩ̯] is pronounced as [ũ̯ĩ], [ũ̯ã], and [u̯ai̯] mainly in Taiwanese Choân-chiu accent.
  23. ^ a b c In Lo̍k-káng Choân-chiu accent
  24. ^ ⟨er⟩ [ɘ] is also transcribed as [ə] by some scholars despite of the slight difference. In addition, ⟨er⟩ is alternatively spelled as ⟨oe⟩ while its Phonetic Symbol is replaced with Extended Bopomofo oe.svg in textbooks and academic publishing by Ngoo Siu Le (zh).
  25. ^ a b In Sam-Kiap Choân-chiu accent
  26. ^ In Po-tiong Choân-chiu Lâm-oaⁿ accent
  27. ^ a b c In Taiwanese Éng-tsēng old Chiang-chiu accent.
  28. ^ a b Note that ⟨gn⟩ [ȵ] and ⟨eenn⟩ [ɛ̃] are not listed in the Taiwanese Romanization System by Ministry of Education, but is featured in textbooks and dictionaries.
  29. ^ In Taiwanese Tâi-lâm Chiang-chiu accent.

References

  • "Tai-Hoa Dictionary". Peh-oe-ji Tai-gu-bun Bang-cham - Written Taiwanese Southern-Min. 
  • "Dictionary for Common Vocabulary in Taiwanese Hokkien". Ministry of Education (Taiwan). 
  • "Taiwanese Hokkien Romanization and Pronunciation Learning Network". National Taichung University of Education. 
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