Help:IPA/Slovak

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Slovak language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

English approximations are, in some cases, very loose and are intended to give only a general idea of the pronunciation. See Slovak phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds.

Consonants
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
b b, vstup do[1] bill
c radosť, loď[2] stew (UK)
d domov, prvýkrát bolo[1] door
dz dz, noc bez[1] heads
bán, cárovič bol[1] job
f farba, vták[3] focus
ɡ garáž, kde[1] gate
ɦ hlava ahead
ɟ ďaleko, byť zaradený[1] dew (UK)
k koláč, ping-pong[2] cold
l láska[4] lack
vlk little
l̩ː vĺča little left (long)
ʎ ľad[4] failure
m maslo milk
n noc now
ɲ laň canyon
ŋ banka singer
p pavúk, dub[2] spill
r robot similar to water (US)
prst
r̩ː vŕba Spanish perro
s slnko, mráz[2] six
ʃ šach, ž[2] shell
t tulipán, hlad[2] stand
ts cena, jedz[2] bats
človek, [2] chase
v vzrast,[3] Adolf bol[1] vine
ʋ sever[3] between vine and wine
x chlieb, sneh loch (Scottish)
z zima, ananás bol[1] zoo
ʒ žena, Aleš bol[1] fusion
Semivowels
j jogurt yellow
ʊ̯ pravda, krv,[3] Tatrou wine
Vowels[5]
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
Monophthongs
a matka art
ráno father
æ mäso[6] bat
ɛ drevo left
ɛː fén bed
i tri, syr kit
písať, výr leave
ɔ dom off
ɔː móda dog
u ruža bull
úroda food
Diphthongs
ɪ̯a piaty young
ɪ̯ɛ viera yes
ɪ̯u vyššiu use
ʊ̯ɔ stôl water
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress always falls on the first syllable of a word.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /b, d, dz, dʒ, ɡ, ɟ, z, ʒ/, [b, d, dz, dʒ, ɡ, ɟ, z, ʒ] also occur as allophones of /p, t, ts, tʃ, k, c, s, ʃ/ before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/. [v] also occurs as an allophone of /f/ in the same environment.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /c, k, p, s, ʃ, t, ts, tʃ/, [c, k, p, s, ʃ, t, ts, tʃ] also occur as word-final allophones of /ɟ, ɡ, b, z, ʒ, d, dz, dʒ/ unless the following word beings with any of the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/ and is pronounced without a pause, when they are realized as voiced [ɟ, ɡ, b, z, ʒ, d, dz, dʒ].
  3. ^ a b c d The phones transcribed [f, v, ʋ, ʊ̯] are allophones of a single /v/ phoneme (but note that [f, v] are also allophones of the /f/ phoneme):
    [f] occurs word-initially before the voiceless obstruents /p, t, c, k, tʃ, s, ʃ, x/;
    [v] occurs word-initially before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/;
    [ʊ̯] or [ʋ] (in our transcriptions always represented as [ʊ̯]) occur in the syllable coda;
    [ʋ] occurs in all other cases (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)).
  4. ^ a b The /l–ʎ/ contrast is neutralized before front vowels, when only /l/ occurs. The neutralization is taken further in western dialects in which /ʎ/ merges with /l/ in all environments (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)).
  5. ^ In the majority of cases only one long vowel per word may occur. The phonemic diphthongs /ɪ̯a, ɪ̯ɛ, ɪ̯u, ʊ̯ɔ/ count as long vowels - compare the adjectives beliansky [ˈbɛlɪ̯anski] and bratislavský [ˈbracislaʊ̯skiː]. In the latter word, there is a phonetic diphthong [aʊ̯], which is analyzed phonetically as a sequence of /a/ and /v/.
  6. ^ /æ/ often merges with /ɛ/.

References

  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162
  • Kráľ, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo
  • Pavlík, Radoslav (2004), "Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda" (PDF), Jazykovedný časopis, 55: 87–109
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