Help:IPA/Slovak

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Slovak language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

English approximations are, in some cases, very loose and are intended to give only a general idea of the pronunciation. See Slovak phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds.

Consonants
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
b b, vstup do[1] bill
c radosť, loď[2] stew (UK)
d domov, prvýkrát bolo[1] door
d͡z dz, noc bez[1] heads
d͡ʒ bán, cárovič bol[1] job
f farba, vták[3] focus
ɡ garáž, kde[1] gate
ɦ hlava ahead
j jogurt yellow
ɟ ďaleko, byť zaradený[1] dew (UK)
k koláč, ping-pong[2] cold
l láska[4] lack
vlk little
l̩ː vĺča little left (long)
ʎ ľad[4] failure
m maslo milk
n noc now
ɲ laň canyon
ŋ banka singer
p pavúk, dub[2] spill
r robot similar to water (US)
prst
r̩ː vŕba Spanish perro
s slnko, mráz[2] six
ʃ šach, ž[2] shell
t tulipán, hlad[2] stand
t͡s cena, jedz[2] bats
t͡ʃ človek, [2] chase
v vzrast,[3] Adolf bol[1] vine
ʋ sever[3] between vine and wine
w pravda, krv,[3] Tatrou wine
x chlieb, sneh loch (Scottish)
z zima, ananás bol[1] zoo
ʒ žena, Aleš bol[1] fusion
Vowels
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
a matka art
ráno father
e drevo, mäso[5] left
fén bed
i tri, syr kit
písať, výr leave
o dom thought (RP)
móda law (RP)
u ruža bull
úroda food
Diphthongs
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
ia piaty young
ie viera yes
iu vyššiu use
uo stôl water
IPA Stress
ˈ Primary stress always falls on the first syllable of a word.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /b, d, dz, dʒ, ɡ, ɟ, z, ʒ/, [b, d, dz, dʒ, ɡ, ɟ, z, ʒ] also occur as allophones of /p, t, ts, tʃ, k, c, s, ʃ/ before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/. [v] also occurs as an allophone of /f/ in the same environment.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /c, k, p, s, ʃ, t, ts, tʃ/, [c, k, p, s, ʃ, t, ts, tʃ] also occur as word-final allophones of /ɟ, ɡ, b, z, ʒ, d, dz, dʒ/ unless the following word beings with any of the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/ and is pronounced without a pause, when they are realized as voiced [ɟ, ɡ, b, z, ʒ, d, dz, dʒ].
  3. ^ a b c d The phones transcribed [f, v, ʋ, w] are allophones of a single /v/ phoneme (but note that [f, v] are also allophones of the /f/ phoneme):
    [f] occurs word-initially before the voiceless obstruents /p, t, c, k, tʃ, s, ʃ, x/;
    [v] occurs word-initially before the voiced obstruents /b, d, ɟ, ɡ, dʒ, z, ʒ, ɦ/;
    [w] or [ʋ] (in our transcriptions always represented as [w]) occur in the syllable coda;
    [ʋ] occurs in all other cases (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)).
  4. ^ a b The /l–ʎ/ contrast is neutralized before front vowels, when only /l/ occurs. The neutralization is taken further in western dialects in which /ʎ/ merges with /l/ in all environments (Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)).
  5. ^ The vowel spelled ⟨ä⟩ used to be pronounced with the /æ/ phoneme, which has become rare and/or dialectal.

References

  • Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (3): 373–378, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000162 
  • Kráľ, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo 
  • Pavlík, Radoslav (2004), "Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda" (PDF), Jazykovedný časopis, 55: 87–109 
  • Short, David (2002), "Slovak", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G., The Slavonic Languages, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 533–592, ISBN 9780415280785 
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