Help:IPA/Saterland Frisian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Saterland Frisian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

IPA Consonants
CONT TRAD Examples English approximation
b b Babe [ˈbabə] (BOTH)
[example needed] (CONT)[1]
[example needed] (TRAD)[1]
Approximation for [b]: bait
Approximation for [p]: sport
d d Dai [daːi] (BOTH)
Bloud [bloːut] (CONT)[1]
Bloud [bloːud] (TRAD)[1]
Approximation for [d]: duck
Approximation for [t]: stop
f Fjúur [fjuːɐ̯] (BOTH) feats
ɡ ɣ Gäize [ˈɡɛɪzə] (CONT)
Gäize [ˈɣɛɪzə] (TRAD)
goal (CONT);
roughly like go, but without completely
blocking air flow on the g (TRAD)
h hoopje [ˈhoːpjə] (BOTH) heal
k Kiuwe [ˈkɪuwə] (BOTH) school
l lait [laːit] (BOTH) land
m Múus [muːs] (BOTH) man
n näi [nɛɪ] (BOTH) neck
ŋ sjunge [ˈsjʊŋə] (BOTH) long
p Pik [pɪk] (BOTH) sport
ʀ r roowje [ˈʀoːvjə] (CONT)[2]
roowje [ˈroːvjə] (TRAD)[2]
no English equivalent (CONT);
trilled R; similar to water in American English (TRAD)
s s säike [ˈsɛɪkə] (BOTH)
fräisk [fʀɛɪʃk] (CONT)[3]
fräisk [frɛɪsk] (TRAD)[3]
Approximation for [s]: sock
Approximation for [ʃ]: ship
t Toom [toːm] (BOTH) stop
v Woater [ˈvɔːtɐ] (BOTH) very
x noch [nɔx] (BOTH) loch (Scottish English)
z zuuzje [ˈzuˑzjə] (BOTH) zip
IPA Examples English approximation
ɐ̯ Fjúur [fjuːɐ̯] (BOTH)[2] roughly like ear
j Jader [ˈjadɐ] (BOTH) yard
w Kiuwe [ˈkɪuwə] (BOTH)[4] wine
ˈ Böije [ˈbœːijə] (BOTH) Primary stress, as in deer /ˈdɪər/
ˌ [example needed] Secondary stress, as in commandeer
IPA Vowels
CONT TRAD Examples English approximation
a fat [fat] (BOTH) art
aast [aːst] (BOTH) father
Dee [deː] (BOTH) Scottish day
ɛ Sät [sɛt] (BOTH) bet
ɛː tään [tɛːn] (BOTH) bed
ɪ Wille [ˈvɪlə] (BOTH) bit
Piene [ˈpiˑnə] (BOTH) leaf
Wíek [viːk] (BOTH) leave
Dook [doːk] (BOTH) Scottish stove
ɔ Dot [dɔt] (BOTH) off
ɔː doalje [ˈdɔːljə] (BOTH) dog
øː Hööchte [ˈhøːxtə] (BOTH) Somewhat like fur
œː Göäte [ˈɡœːtə] (BOTH)
œ bölkje [ˈbœlkjə] (BOTH) Somewhat like nurse
ʊ Buk [bʊk] (BOTH) foot
kuut [kuˑt] (BOTH) boot
Múus [muːs] (BOTH) food
ʏ Djüpte [ˈdjʏptə] (BOTH) Somewhat like cute
ʏˑ wüül [vʏˑl] (BOTH) Somewhat like feud
Düwel [ˈdyːvəl] (BOTH)
aːi Bail [baːil] (BOTH) prize
aːu Dau [daːu] (BOTH) now
eu häuw [heuw] (BOTH) somewhat like say oo
eːu skeeuw [skeːuw] (BOTH)
ɛːu sääuwen [ˈsɛːuwən] (BOTH)
ɛɪ wäit [vɛɪt] (BOTH) face
iˑu Lieuw [liˑuw] (BOTH) somewhat like free will
iːu íeuwen [ˈiːuwən] (BOTH)
ɪu Kiuwe [ˈkɪuwə] (BOTH)
oːɪ swooije [ˈsvoːɪjə] (BOTH) boy
ɔːɪ toai [tɔːɪ] (BOTH)
oːu Douk [doːuk] (BOTH) go
ɔy floitje [ˈflɔytjə] (BOTH) choice
œːi Böije [ˈbœːijə] (BOTH) somewhat like boy
unstressed only
ɐ Woater [ˈvɔːtɐ] (BOTH)[2] nut or sofa (but not balance)[5]
ə ze [zə] (BOTH)[6] balance (but not sofa)[5]


  1. ^ a b c d In the contemporary dialect, the voiced plosives /b/ and /d/ are devoiced to [p] and [t] in the syllable coda. In the traditional dialect however, they tend to stay voiced [b, d].
  2. ^ a b c d The phoneme /r/ has the following allophones:
    • Pre-vocalic /r/ is realized as either a uvular trill [ʀ] (in the contemporary dialect) or an alveolar trill [r] (in the traditional dialect);
    • After vowels, the non-prevocalic /r/ is realized as a non-syllabic low vowel [ɐ̯];
    • The sequence /ər/ is realized a syllabic low vowel [ɐ].
  3. ^ a b In the contemporary dialect /s/ before a consonant tends to be retracted to [ʃ]. In the traditional dialect however, a preconsonantal /s/ is realized simply as [s].
  4. ^ After [u] and diphthongs ending in [u], /v/ is realized as [w].
  5. ^ a b As several other Germanic languages, Saterland Frisian has mid [ə] and open [ɐ] schwas. Care must be taken to clearly distinguish between the two. In English, the former appears in words such as balance, cannon and chairman and the latter variably in sofa, China (especially at the very end of utterance) and, in some dialects, also in ago and again, but one needs to remember that Saterland Frisian [ɐ] has no such free variation and is always open, just as [ə] is always mid. In some English dialects, /ʌ/ in words such as nut and strut is a perfect replacement for Saterland Frisian [ɐ], but the latter is an unstressed-only vowel that can also appear in open syllables, which generally cannot be said about English /ʌ/.
  6. ^ /ə/ occurs only in unstressed syllables.
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