Help:IPA/Neapolitan

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The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Neapolitan language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Neapolitan phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Neapolitan.

Consonants[1]
IPA Examples English approximation
b banca; campagna; abbrile[2][3] bike
d dint’â casa; verde[3] done (with the tongue touching the teeth)
dz pensiero; canzone; cazetta[3][4][5] dads
maggìa; Francia[2][3] jab
f fatto; fernuto fast
ɡ (ɡ)[6] gatto; negro; manco[3] gas
ʝ famiglia; guaglione[2] roughly like yes, but stronger
k puorco; chiesa; quanno scar
l auciello; luglio lip or feel
m maggìa; ammore; infierno[7] mother
n monte; pensiero[7] nest
ŋ songo; cinco[7] singing
ɲ cugnato; ogne[2] roughly like canyon
p primmo; coppia spin
r grotta; sciore; camorra trilled r
s sano; presenza; stato[5] sorry
ʃ rascia; pesce; scarparo[2][5] ship
t tanto; rete; fatto star (with the tongue touching the teeth)
ts zùccaro; miezzo; pazienza[4] cats
auciello; cerasa; faccia somewhat between watch and wash[8]
v vufero; spavetto; vraccio vent
z snodo; sdignata[5] zipper
ʒ sbagliato; sveglia[5] vision
Semivowels[9]
IPA Examples English approximation
j iennaro/jennaro; auciello; cchiù you
w fuoco; guaglione wine
 
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Short vowels
a sciaurato; campagna roughly like manner (Scotland)
e viento; pecché roughly like pay, but shorter
ɛ spavetto; dente[10] bed
ə nùmmero; coppia; pecché[11] again
i primmo; insieme see, but shorter
o compongo; coppia roughly like law (RP), but shorter
ɔ còmmodo; Maronna[10] off
u urdemo; nùmmero; Napule tool, but shorter
Long vowels[12]
ɑː sciaurato; Napule father
insieme; peso roughly like pay
ɛː scena; vero bear (RP)
tipo; zie see
ammore; dint’ô sciore roughly like law (RP)
ɔː soje; cose more
ajute; fernuto tool
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples English approximation
ˈ cozze /ˈkɔttsə/ primary stress, as in bottle
ˌ lievemente /ˌljevəˈmɛndə/ secondary stress, as in intonation

Notes

  1. ^ If a consonant is doubled after a vowel, it is geminated; all consonants can be geminated except for /z/ and /ʒ/. In IPA, gemination can be represented either by doubling the consonant (fatto /ˈfattə/, miezzo /ˈmjettsə/) or by the length marker ‹ ː ›. Neapolitan, like standard Italian, also has a sandhi phenomenon called syntactic gemination, usually represented graphically: e.g. è ssoje /ɛ sˈsɔːjə/.
  2. ^ a b c d e /b/, /dʒ/, /ʝ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated after a vowel.
  3. ^ a b c d e After a nasal, /p/, /t/, /tʃ/, /k/ and /ts/ are replaced by their voiced counterparts [b], [d], [dʒ], [ɡ], [dz].
  4. ^ a b When not preceded by ⟨n⟩, ⟨z⟩ can represent either /dz/ or /ts/, according to the cases.
  5. ^ a b c d e ⟨s⟩ is pronounced:
    • /s/ when geminated or when not preceded by ⟨n⟩ and followed by ⟨t⟩, a vowel or a semivowel;
    • /ʃ/ when followed by any voiceless consonant except ⟨t⟩;
    • /z/ when followed by ⟨n⟩, ⟨d⟩, ⟨r⟩ or ⟨l⟩;
    • /ʒ/ when followed by any voiced consonant except ⟨n⟩, ⟨d⟩, ⟨r⟩ or ⟨l⟩;
    • /dz/ when preceded by ⟨n⟩.
  6. ^ If the two characters ⟨ɡ⟩ and ⟨Opentail g.svg⟩ do not match and if the first looks like a ⟨γ⟩, then you have an issue with your default font. See Help:IPA § Rendering issues.
  7. ^ a b c The nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/ is a velar [ŋ], and the one in /nf/~/nv/ is a labiodental [ɱ] (though for simplicity ⟨m⟩ takes its place in this list). A nasal before /b/ is always the labial [m].
  8. ^ When not geminated nor following another consonant, /tʃ/ tends to be pronounced [ʃ].
  9. ^ Two diphthongs, uo /wo(ː)/ and ie /je(ː)/, are always stressed, unless they are at the very end of a word.
  10. ^ a b Open-mid vowels /ɛ ɔ/ can only appear when the syllable is stressed.
  11. ^ After the stressed syllable, /a e o/ change to [ə]. This sound is sometimes also found before the stressed syllable and spelled ⟨e⟩, as is fernì /fərˈni/.
  12. ^ Vowels are long when stressed in a non-final open syllable: casa /ˈkɑːsə/ ~ cassa /ˈkassə/, or when compounds of preposition a and an article: a +’o = ô.
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