Help:IPA/Luxembourgish

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Luxembourgish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Luxembourgish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Luxembourgish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Native
b Been [beːn][1] ball
d Iddi [ˈidi][1] done
dz spadséieren [ʃpɑˈdzɜɪ̯əʀən][1][2][3] heads
f Fësch [fəʃ][1] fuss
ɡ Gitt [ɡit][1] guest
h hei [hɑɪ̯] hut
k Kiischt [kiːʃt][1] cold
l liesen [ˈliə̯zən] last
m Maul [ˈmæːʊ̯l] must
n Nues [nuə̯s] not
ŋ eng [eŋ] long
p Paart [paːt][1] puck
ʀ Rou [ʀəʊ̯], Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ][4] No English equivalent
ʁ Kugel [ˈkuːʁəl],[1][5] Parmesan [ˈpɑʁməzaːn][6] Scottish loch (voiced)
s Taass [taːs][1] fast
ɕ liicht [liːɕt], Bieg [biə̯ɕ][1][5] Somewhat like she
ʃ Schnéi [ʃnɜɪ̯][1][5] shall
t Taart [taːt], Jugend [ˈjuːʁənt][1] tall
ts Zuch [tsuχ][1][2] cats
Brëtsch [bʀətʃ][1][2] match
v wëschen [ˈvəʃən][1] vanish
χ Sprooch [ʃpʀoːχ],[1][5] Force [foχs][6] Scottish loch
z Summer [ˈzumɐ][1] hose
ʑ héijen [ˈhɜɪ̯ʑən][1][5] Somewhat like gilet
ʒ Juli [ˈʒuːliː][1][5] pleasure
Non-native[7]
bv Kampf opginn [ˈkɑmbv‿ˈopɡin][2][8] obvious
Jeans [dʒiːns][1][2] jeans
pf Pflicht [pfliɕt][9][2] cupful
Semivowels
IPA Examples English approximation
ə̯ Stär [ʃtɛːə̯], Joer [joːə̯], wier [viːə̯], kuerz [kuːə̯ts][6] roughly like ear
j Jong [joŋ] yard
w zwee [tsweː], Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ][10] we
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs (native)
ɑ Kapp [kɑp] art
ɐ Mauer [ˈmɑʊ̯ɐ][6]
Kap [kaːp], waarm [vaːm][6] Australian bad
æ Käpp [kæp] back
ə Fësch [fəʃ][11] comma (when pronounced without stress)
e drécken [ˈdʀekən][11] Scottish pace
Been [beːn] Scottish pays
ɛː Stär [ʃtɛːə̯][12] bed
i Gitt [ɡit] teach
siwen [ˈziːvən], Kiischt [kiːʃt] tea
o So [zo], Sonn [zon] force (RP and Australian)
Sprooch [ʃpʀoːχ] law (RP and Australian)
u Hutt [hut] truth
Tut [tuːt], Luucht [luːχt] true
Monophthongs (non-native)[7]
ɑ̃ː Chance [ʃɑ̃ːs] No English equivalent, long nasalized [ɑ]
ɛ̃ː Dinde [dɛ̃ːt] No English equivalent, long nasalized [ɛ]
õː Comptoir [ˈkõːtwaːʀ] No English equivalent, long nasalized [o]
œ ëffentlech [ˈœfəntleɕ] roughly like hurt
œː Interieur [ˈɛ̃ːtəʀiœːʀ] roughly like herd
øː Blöd [bløːt]
y Hüll [hyl] roughly like shoe, but shorter
Süden [ˈzyːdən] roughly like shoe
Diphthongs (native)
ɑɪ̯ Gebai [ɡəˈbɑɪ̯], deier [ˈdɑɪ̯ɐ] Australian price
ɑʊ̯ Mauer [ˈmɑʊ̯ɐ] RP mouth
æːɪ̯ räich [ʀæːɪ̯ɕ] Australian day
æːʊ̯ Maul [ˈmæːʊ̯l] Australian now
əʊ̯ Schoul [ʃəʊ̯l] RP goat
ɜɪ̯ Schnéi [ʃnɜɪ̯] Somewhat like Scottish price
iə̯ liesen [ˈliə̯zən] RP near
uə̯ Buedem [ˈbuə̯dəm] Traditional RP cure
Diphthongs (non-native)[7]
oɪ̯ Euro [ˈoɪ̯ʀoː] boy
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ Kugel [ˈkuːʁəl] Primary stress, as in deer /ˈdɪər/
ˌ Méckebaatsch [ˈmekəˌbaːtʃ] Secondary stress, as in as in commandeer
/ˌkɒmənˈdɪər/
sech eens [zəʑ‿ˈeːns] Resyllabification and voicing of the
final voiceless obstruent[8]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Word-finally, the voiceless-voiced distinction in the obstruent pairs [p–b, t–d, k–ɡ, ts–dz, tʃ–dʒ, f–v, s–z, ɕ–ʑ, ʃ–ʒ, χ–ʁ] is neutralized, mostly in favour of the voiceless obstruents (but see the table titled Suprasegmentals) (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68)).
  2. ^ a b c d e f Phonemic /dz/ occurs only in a few words (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:72)).
  3. ^ The affricates [dz, ts, tʃ, bv, dʒ, pf]) are correctly written with ligature ties: [d͡z, t͡s, t͡ʃ, b͡v, d͡ʒ, p͡f]. The ties are omitted in transcriptions on Wikipedia (except in phonology articles), as they do not display correctly in all browsers.
  4. ^ The /ʀ/ phoneme is realized as a trill [ʀ] when pre-vocalic within the same word, as well as often when non-prevocalic in French loanwords (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 71)).
  5. ^ a b c d e f Both [ɕ, ʑ] and [χ, ʁ] are allophones of /χ, ʁ/. [χ, ʁ] occur after back vowels, whereas [ɕ, ʑ] occur in all other environments, although the voiced [ʑ] occurs only in a few words. Speakers increasingly do not distinguish between [ɕ, ʑ] and [ʃ, ʒ] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68–69)).
  6. ^ a b c d e When non-prevocalic within the same word, the /ʀ/ phoneme has quite a long list of allophones:
    • After short vowels, the non-prevocalic /ʀ/ is realized as a fricative, either voiced [ʁ] or voiceless [χ], depending whether the following consonant is voiced or voiceless;
    • The unstressed, non-prevocalic sequence /eʀ/ is realized as an open vowel [ɐ] (the transcription is somewhat misleading, as the quality of that vowel is very similar to the main allophone of /ɑ/);
    • /ʀ/ is fully absorbed into the preceding /aː/ in the non-prevocalic sequence /aːʀ/, so that e.g. Paart, Taart and waarm are pronounced [paːt], [taːt] and [vaːm], i.e. as if they were spelled Paat, Taat and waam;
    • After long vowels (excluding /aː/), non-prevocalic /ʀ/ is vocalized to [ə̯] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 70)).
  7. ^ a b c Although these sounds do not occur in native Luxembourgish vocabulary, almost all speakers pronounce them correctly.
  8. ^ a b Apart from being the main realization of the phonemes /b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, dʒ/, [b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, ] occur as word-final allophones of both /p, t, ts, k, f, s, ʃ, tʃ/ and /b, d, dz, ɡ, v, z, ʒ, dʒ/ (in this position, some scholars may analyse both of these sets as /p, t, ts, k, f, s, ʃ, tʃ/) if the next word begins with a vowel and is pronounced without a pause. [ʁ, ʑ, bv] also occur as allophones of /χ, χ, pf/ in the same environment, but note that [bv] does not occur in other circumstances, and that /h/ is always voiceless [h], as it cannot even appear in the syllable coda, and thus is not subjected to the resyllabification and voicing. In this context, the final voiceless obstruents are not only voiced, but also resyllabified, i.e. moved to the onset of the first syllable of the following word. Therefore, a more phonetically accurate transcription of sech eens would be [zə‿ˈʑeːns] or simply [zəˈʑeːns] (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68, 72)), although we transcribe it [zəʑ‿ˈeːns] so that it corresponds more closely to the spelling.
  9. ^ Word-initial /pf/ tends to merge with /f/, although that is not how we transcribe it here. In other positions, /pf/ is retained as a true affricate.
  10. ^ [w] is an allophone of /v/ occurring after /k, ʃ, ts/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:69)). It also occurs in loanwords.
  11. ^ a b [ə] and [e] are allophones of a single phoneme /e/. [e] appears before velar consonants, and [ə] elsewhere. Note that unlike Standard German, [ə] appears in both stressed and unstressed syllables, and that unstressed sequences of [ə] and a sonorant (excluding the unstressed, non-prevocalic sequence /eʀ/, which is realized as [ɐ]) do not form syllabic sonorants (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:68 and 70)).
  12. ^ [ɛː] is an allophone of /eː/ before /ʀ/ (Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)).

Bibliography

  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013). "Luxembourgish" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 43 (1): 67–74. doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278. 
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