Help:IPA/Hejazi Arabic

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The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hejazi Arabic language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Hejazi Arabic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Urban Hejazi Arabic.

The romanization of the examples is based on the romanization system used on Wiktionary.

IPA Arabic letter Example Romanization English approximation
ʔ ء, أ, إ, ؤ, ئ سأل saʼal uh-(ʔ)oh
ʕ ع عين ʿēn no equivalent
b ب بنت bint bike
d (د (ذ دب dubb done
(ض (ظ ضب abb emphatic /d/
ج جريدة jarīda job
ð[1] ذ ذكر akar this
[2] ظ ظرف arf emphatic /z/
ðˤ[3] ظاهرة āhra emphatic /ð/
f ف فيل fīl fast
ɡ ق قمر gamar gas
q[4] استقلال istiglāl (istiqlāl) no equivalent
h هـ هادي hādi hat
ħ ح حر arr no equivalent
j ي يد yadd yes
k ك كلب kalb cat
l ل لون lōn lip (Irish English)
ɫ[5] الله allāh peel (American English)
m م موية mōya mother
n ن نوم nōm nest
θ[1] ث ثقافة agāfa think
r ر راس rās Trilled r, Spanish: pe;rro
s (س (ث سرير sarīr sorry
ص صبّار abbār emphatic /s/
ʃ ش شمس šams ship
t (ت (ث تمر tamur star
ط طير ēr emphatic /t/
w و وردة warda water
x خ خس ass loch (Scottish English)
ɣ غ غريب arīb French r, French: parler
z (ز (ذ زمان zamān zebra
Non-native Consonants[6]
p پ پيتزا ~ بيتزا pītza ~ bītza put
v ڤ ڤيروس ~ فيروس vayrūs ~ fayrūs view
تش تشيك īk china
IPA Example Romanization English approximation
a فَم famm father but shorter
u[7] قَبُو gabu to
ʊ ~ o[7] حُب ubb put or like law but shorter (General American)
i[8] مَدْرِي madri happy
ɪ ~ e[8] سِر sirr sit or set
نار nār father
نور nūr food
صوت ōt for
مين mīn need
بيت bēt hair
aw دوْري dawri how
aj ليْمون laymūn tie
IPA examples Explanation
ˈ يوم /ˈjoːm/ ("day") Indicates that the following syllable is stressed.
ː سَكِّينَة /sakˈkiːna/ ("knife") Indicates a long vowel or a geminate consonant.


  1. ^ a b The phonemes /θ/ and /ð/ are used fully or partially and mostly by younger speakers due to the influence of Modern Standard Arabic and other dialects in the Arabian Peninsula, for older speakers they mainly occur in Classical Arabic borrowings and foreign loanwords.
  2. ^ /zˤ/ is spelled ⟨ض⟩ only in words derived from the two trilateral root ⟨ض ب ط⟩ and ⟨ض ر ط⟩.
  3. ^ [ðˤ] is an optional allophone of the grapheme ⟨ظ⟩. In general, most urban Hejazi speakers pronounce it as /zˤ/ or merge it with /dˤ/ depending on the word.
  4. ^ The classicized [q] is an allophone of /ɡ/ ⟨ق⟩ and it only occurs in few phrases and proper nouns.
  5. ^ The marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only occurs in the word الله /aɫːaːh/ ('god') and words derived from it, such as يلا /jaɫːa/ "come on".
  6. ^ The phonemes /p/ and /v/ are only found in loanwords and they are pronounced as /b/ and /f/ respectively by a number of speakers.
  7. ^ a b Word initial and medial /u/ is typically pronounced [ʊ] or [o̞] depending on the word and speaker, but strictly pronounced [u] at the end of words, and before /w/.
  8. ^ a b Word initial and medial /i/ is typically pronounced [ɪ] or [e̞] depending on the word and speaker, but strictly pronounced [i] at the end of words, and before /j/
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