Help:IPA/Danish

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Danish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

This guide follows the way reputable sources transcribe Danish.[1] In some cases, it radically differs from the prototypical values of IPA symbols. For instance, the plosives [b, d, ɡ] differ from [p, t, k] not by voicing (as in French or Russian) but purely by aspiration or affrication and all of them are voiceless (strict IPA: [p, t, k], [pʰ, tˢ, kʰ]), much like the plosives of Icelandic. Therefore, words like bog and pol are actually pronounced [ˈpɔwˀ] and [ˈpʰoːˀl], even though we transcribe them [ˈbɔwˀ] and [ˈpoːˀl].

See Danish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of the language.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
b bog [ˈbɔwˀ] spare
d dåb [ˈdɔːˀb] start
ð øde [ˈøːðə] bathe
ð̩ skinnede [ˈsɡenð̩ðə] the book (pronounced quickly)
f fod [ˈfoðˀ] foot
ɡ god [ˈɡoðˀ] scan
h hat [ˈhad] hat
j jord [ˈjoɐ̯ˀ] you
k kone [ˈkoːnə] cone
l lov [ˈlɒw] louver
solen [ˈsoːˀl̩n] bottle
m mod [ˈmoðˀ] mood
København [købm̩ˈhɑwˀn] rhythm
n node [ˈnoːðə] noon
vinden [ˈvenˀn̩] suddenly
ŋ lang [ˈlɑŋˀ] long
ŋ̍ ryggen [ˈʁœɡŋ̍] take an interest
p pol [ˈpoːˀl] pole
ʁ rød [ˈʁœðˀ] French parler
s sod [ˈsoðˀ] soon
ɕ Sjælland [ˈɕɛˌlanˀ][2] sheep
t tak [ˈtɑɡ] too
tjener [ˈtɕeːnɐ][2] cheer
v våd [ˈvɔðˀ] vote
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
monophthongs
a kat [ˈkad] hat
ɑ tak [ˈtɑɡ] art
ɑː barn [ˈbɑːˀn] father
ʌ ånd [ˈʌnˀ] RP/Australian hot
ɒ og [ˈɒw]
ɒː i går [iˈɡɒːˀ] RP/Australian nod
æ frisk [ˈfʁæsɡ] bet
æː gade [ˈɡæːðə] bed
e fed [ˈfeðˀ] "fat" kit
hel [ˈheːˀl] kid
ɛ ven [ˈvɛn] Scottish late
ɛː hæl [ˈhɛːˀl] Scottish day
i tisse [ˈtisə] leaf
si [ˈsiːˀ] leave
o flod [ˈfloðˀ] Scottish oak
kone [ˈkoːnə] Scottish stove
ɔ ost [ˈɔsd] RP thought
ɔː måle [ˈmɔːlə] RP law
ø nød [ˈnøðˀ] Somewhat like nurse
œ bønne [ˈbœnə]
øː løber [ˈløːbɐ] "runner" Somewhat like fur
œː afgrøde [ˈawɡʁœːðə]
ɶ tør [ˈtɶɐ̯ˀ] cat (rounded)
ɶː røre [ˈʁɶːɐ] lad (rounded)
u ud [ˈuðˀ] boot
hule [ˈhuːlə] food
y tyk [ˈtyɡ] Somewhat like cute

Same as french u as cure

synlig [ˈsyːnli] Somewhat like feud
diphthongs[3]
æɐ̯ er [ˈæɐ̯] Traditional RP there
eɐ̯ Per [ˈpeɐ̯] Somewhat like near in traditional RP
iɐ̯ birk [ˈbiɐ̯ɡ]
yɐ̯ styrke [ˈsdyɐ̯ɡə]
oɐ̯ gjort [ˈɡjoɐ̯ˀd] Somewhat like cure in traditional RP
uɐ̯ ur [ˈuɐ̯ˀ]
øɐ̯ mørne [ˈmøɐ̯nə] Somewhat like fur
ɶɐ̯ mørk [ˈmɶɐ̯ɡ]
ɑj mig [ˈmɑj] price
æj lag [ˈlæjˀ] face
ɛj hæg! [ˈhɛjˀ]
ej sneg [ˈsnejˀ]
uj huje [ˈhujə] Somewhat like to eat
øj søg [ˈsøjˀ] Somewhat like choice
ʌj møg [ˈmʌj]
ɑw hav [ˈhɑw] "ocean" mouth
æw lav [ˈlæwˀ] "low" Australian/New Zealand mouth
ɛw evne [ˈɛwnə] Somewhat like new
ew lev [ˈlewˀ]
iw ivrig [ˈiwʁi]
yw tyv [ˈtywˀ]
ow slog [ˈslowˀ] go
ɔw låg [ˈlɔwˀ]
ɒw lov [ˈlɒw]
øw øvrig [ˈøwʁi] Somewhat like go
œw støvle [ˈsdœwlə]
secondary stress
ˌ husmor [ˈhusˌmoɐ̯]
stød
ˀ ti [ˈtiːˀ] button
unstressed only
ɐ løber [ˈløːbɐ] "runner" but
ə hoppe [ˈhʌbə] about
ɪ kage [ˈkæːɪ][4] hit
ʊ mave [ˈmæːʊ][4] foot

References

  1. ^ The set of symbols used in this guide follows most closely the one used by Den Danske Ordbog, but it is also close to how Grønnum (2005) transcribes Danish.
  2. ^ a b [tɕ] is phonemically /tj/, and [ɕ] is phonemically /sj/.
  3. ^ Diphthongs with an underlying long vowel always have stød, but the ones with an underlying short vowel do not. [ej, ɛj, æj, øj, æw, ow, ɔw] all have an underlying long vowel and so always have stød. Conversely, [ɑj, ʌj, uj, ɑw, ɒw] have an underlying short vowel and so never have stød. The other diphthongs (including all diphthongs ending with [ɐ̯]) appear both with and without stød (Grønnum (2005:294)).
  4. ^ a b [ɪ] and [ʊ] are assimilatory variants of [jə] and [wə], respectively.

Bibliography

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