Help:IPA/Burmese

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Burmese language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Burmese phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Burmese.

Consonants
IPA Burmese example English approximation
b ဘဲ [bɛ́] bat
d ဓာတ် [daʔ] dye
ဂျင် [ɪ̀ɴ] Jew
ð အညာသား [ʔəɲàðá] this
ɡ ဂုဏ် [ɡòʊ̯ɴ] gate
h ဟုတ် [hoʊ̯ʔ] hone
j ယား [já] yield
k ကုန် [kòʊ̯ɴ] skate[1]
ခုန် [òʊ̯ɴ] Kate[2]
l လုပ် [loʊ̯ʔ] lay
လှုပ် [oʊ̯ʔ] play; like /l/ but voiceless
m မတ် [maʔ] much
မှတ် [aʔ] None; like /m/ but voiceless
n နမ်း [náɴ] not
နှမ်း [áɴ] None; like /n/ but voiceless
ɴ ခံ [kʰàɴ] somewhat like long[3]
ɲ ညစ် [ɲɪʔ] canyon
ɲ̥ ညှစ် [ɲ̥ɪʔ] None; like /ɲ/, but voiceless
ŋ ငါး [ŋá] sing
ŋ̊ ငှါး [ŋ̊á] None; like /ŋ/, but voiceless
p ပဲ [pɛ́] spat[1]
ဖဲ [ɛ́] pat[2]
ɹ တိရစ္ဆာန် [təɹeɪ̯ʔsʰàɴ][4] rock
s စာ [sà] gas
ဆာ [à] grass hut[2]
ʃ ရှာ [ʃà] shoe
t တတ် [taʔ] sty[1]
ထပ် [aʔ] tie[2]
ကြဉ် [ɪ̀ɴ] itch[1]
tɕʰ ချင် [tɕʰɪ̀ɴ] chew[2]
θ သတ် [θaʔ] thin
w ဝါး [wá] wield
z ဇာ [zà] zoo
ʔ အုတ် [ʔoʊ̯ʔ] uh-oh, Cockney bottle
Vowels
IPA Burmese example English approximation
a နား [ná] father
aɪ̯ နိုင် [nàɪ̯ɴ] might
aʊ̯ နောက် [naʊ̯ʔ] mouth[5]
e နေ [nè] Scottish English mate
နိပ် [nʔ] may[5]
ɛ နယ် [nɛ̀] met
ə ခလုတ် [kʰəloʊ̯ʔ] comma
i နီး [ní] meet
ɪ နင်း [nɪ́ɴ] mit[5]
o နို့ [n] Scottish English note
oʊ̯ နုန်း [nóʊ̯ɴ] mow[5]
ɔ နော် [nɔ̀] bought
u နှူး [n̥ú] moot
ʊ နွမ်း [nʊ́ɴ] foot[5]
Tones
IPA Burmese examples Explanation
` ငါ [ŋà] Normal phonation, medium duration, low intensity, low (often slightly rising) pitch
´ ငါး [ŋá] Sometimes slightly breathy, relatively long, high intensity, high pitch; often with a fall before a pause
˷ ငါ့ [ŋa̰] Tense or creaky phonation (sometimes with lax glottal stop), medium duration, high intensity, high (often slightly falling) pitch

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Unaspirated, like /p t k/ etc. in Romance or Slavic languages.
  2. ^ a b c d e Heavily aspirated.
  3. ^ The vowel before the /ɴ/ is always nasalized, and if a consonant follows /ɴ/, then the /ɴ/ becomes homorganic with the following consonant. It is never uvular, more functioning as a nasal approximant, either alveolar or velar. See here for more details.
  4. ^ A marginal consonant in Burmese, /ɹ/ occurs only in foreign words, and even there is often replaced by /j/ or /l/.
  5. ^ a b c d e The sounds [aʊ̯], [eɪ̯], [ɪ], [oʊ̯], and [ʊ] are allophones of /ɔ/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ respectively, occurring in closed syllables, i.e. before /ɴ/ and /ʔ/.
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