Help:IPA/Bulgarian and Macedonian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Bulgarian and Standard Macedonian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

When two examples are given, the first is in Bulgarian and the second in Macedonian. When a word has the same spelling in both languages or the sound does not occur in one language, only one example is given.

English approximations are, in some cases, very rough and intended to give only a general idea of the pronunciation. See Bulgarian phonology and Macedonian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds.

IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
b баба box
c кьопоолу,[1] ќар cute
d дом dust
dz дзифт, ѕвезда birds
джем, џем jab
f филм fact
ɡ гарван good
ɟ гяур,[1] ѓавол argue
j сойка, пајак yes
k къща, куќа skill
l лимон leap
ɫ лош all
ʎ любов, љубов million
m море mocha
n нос north
ɲ баня, бања canyon
ŋ банка sing
p пет speak
r работа trilled r, like in Spanish
прст US: verb (trilled)
s стол salt, mask
ʃ шума sugar
t тайна, тајна style
ts цар bats
чай, чај cheese
v вода view
x хартия, хартија loch (Scottish English)
z зима zoo
ʒ жълт, жолт pleasure
Marginal consonants
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
ɫ̩ Попокатепетл little
њутн button
ɣ видях го between go and ahold
ç Хюз huge
w уиски water
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
a брат father
ɤ кът plus (General American, Scottish English)
ɛ цена edge
i сив police
ɔ слон off
u хубав, убав pool
Reduced vowels
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
ə щерка, камък sofa
o нещо, уста thought (RP), coat (Scottish English)
Marginal vowels
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
ə ксмет sofa
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ Denotes stress on the following syllable
ˌ Denotes secondary stress on the following syllable
◌ʲ Denotes palatalization of the preceding consonant


  1. ^ a b A reference grammar of modern Bulgarian, Ernest A. Scatton, Slavica Publishers, 1984, p.17


  • Жобов, Владимир (2004), Звуковете в българския език
  • Lunt, Horace G. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Skopje 
  • Sabev, Mitko (2015), Reduction of unstressed central and back vowels in Contemporary Standard Bulgarian (PDF), Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Glasgow, UK 
  • Scatton, Ernest A. (1984), A reference grammar of modern Bulgarian
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