Hefei

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Hefei
合肥市
Prefecture-level city
Clockwise from top: Hefei skyline, Xiaoyaojin Park, Mingjiao Temple, Temple of Lord Bao, Statue of Hua Tuo
Clockwise from top: Hefei skyline, Xiaoyaojin Park, Mingjiao Temple, Temple of Lord Bao, Statue of Hua Tuo
Location of Hefei City jurisdiction in Anhui
Location of Hefei City jurisdiction in Anhui
Hefei is located in China
Hefei
Hefei
Location in China
Coordinates: 31°52′N 117°17′E / 31.867°N 117.283°E / 31.867; 117.283Coordinates: 31°52′N 117°17′E / 31.867°N 117.283°E / 31.867; 117.283
Country China
Province Anhui
County-level divisions 7
Government
 • CPC Committee Secretary Song Guoquan (宋国权)
 • Mayor Ling Yun (凌云)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 11,434.25 km2 (4,414.79 sq mi)
 • Urban 838.5 km2 (323.7 sq mi)
 • Metro 438.2 km2 (169.2 sq mi)
Elevation 37 m (123 ft)
Population (2016 Sampling)
 • Prefecture-level city 7,869,000
 • Density 690/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
 • Urban 5,670,000
 • Urban density 6,800/km2 (18,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 3,718,000
 • Metro density 8,500/km2 (22,000/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 230000
Area code(s) 551
Licence plate prefixes A
GDP (2016) CNY 627.43 billion
 - per capita CNY 73,548
Website hefei.gov.cn
City trees
Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora L.)
City flowers
Sweet Osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans Lour.)
Blossom of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)
Hefei
Hefei (Chinese characters).svg
"Hefei" in Chinese characters
Chinese 合肥
Postal Hofei
Literal meaning "Junction of the Fei [Rivers]"

Hefei (/ˈhəˈf/, Chinese: 合肥) is the capital and largest city of Anhui Province in China.[1] A prefecture-level city, it is the political, economic, and cultural center of Anhui. Located in the central portion of the province, it borders Huainan to the north, Chuzhou to the northeast, Wuhu to the southeast, Tongling to the south, Anqing to the southwest and Lu'an to the west.

Hefei has an area of 11,434.25 km2 (4,414.79 sq mi) and, at the 2016 sampling survey, a population of 7,869,000 inhabitants, 5,670,000 of whom are urban.

History

Old Hefei Map with wall

From the 8th to the 6th century BC, Hefei was the site of many small states, later a part of the Chu kingdom. Many archaeological finds dating from this period have been made. The name 'Hefei' was first given to the county set up in the area under the Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC.

In the 3rd century AD, the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford was fought at Xiaoyao Ford (逍遙津) in Hefei. Zhang Liao, a general of the Wei state, led 800 picked cavalry to defeat the 200,000-strong army from Wei’s rival state Wu. Several decades of warring in Hefei between Wu and Wei followed this battle.

During the 4th to the 6th century AD, this crucial border region between northern and southern states was much fought over; its name and administrative status were consequently often changed. During the Sui (581–618) and Tang (618–907) periods, it became the seat of Lu prefecture—a title it kept until the 15th century, when it became a superior prefecture named Luzhou.

The present city dates from the Song dynasty (960–1126), the earlier Hefei having been some distance farther north. In the 10th year of Xining (熙宁十年,1077 AD), the taxes collected from the Luchow Prefecture were 50315 Guan, approximately 25 million today's Chinese Yuan, with a ranking of the amount of taxes was the 11th(following Kaifeng, Hangzhou, Qinzhou, Chuzhou, Chengdu, Zizhou, Xingyuan, Mianzhou, Zhenzhou, Suzhou) among all the prefectures of Song Dynasty. During the 10th century, it was for a while the capital of the independent Wu kingdom (902–938) and was an important center of the Southern Tang state (937–975).

After 1127 it became a center of the defenses of the Southern Song dynasty (1126–1279) against the Jin (Jurchen) invaders in the Jin–Song wars, as well as a flourishing center of trade between the two states. When the Chinese Republic was founded in 1911, the superior prefecture was abolished, and the city took the name of Hefei. The city was known as Luchow or Liu-tcheou[2] (庐州, p Luzhou) during the Ming and Qing dynasties (after the 14th century to the 19th century). Hefei was the temporary capital for Anhui from 1853 to 1862. It was renamed as Hefei County in 1912. Following the Chinese victory in the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945, Hefei was made the capital of Anhui.

Before World War II, Hefei remained essentially an administrative center and the regional market for the fertile plain to the south. It was a collecting center for grain, beans, cotton, and hemp, as well as a center for handicraft industries manufacturing cloth, leather, bamboo goods, and ironware.

The construction in 1912 of the TianjinPukou railway, farther east, for a while made Hefei a provincial backwater, and much of its importance passed to Bengbu. In 1932–36, however, a Chinese company built a railway linking Hefei with Yuxikou (on the Yangtze opposite Wuhu) to the southeast and with the Huai River at Huainan to the north. While this railway was built primarily to exploit the rich coalfield in northern Anhui, it also did much to revive the economy of the Hefei area by taking much of its produce to Wuhu and Nanjing.

Although Hefei was a quiet market town of only about 30,000 in the mid-1930s, its population grew more than tenfold in the following 20 years. The city's administrative role was strengthened by the transfer of the provincial government from Anqing in 1949, but much of its new growth derived from its development as an industrial city. A cotton mill was opened in 1958, and a thermal generating plant, using coal from Huainan, was established in the early 1950s. It also became the seat of an industry producing industrial chemicals and chemical fertilizers. In the late 1950s an iron and steel complex was built. In addition to a machine-tool works and engineering and agricultural machinery factories, the city has developed an aluminum industry and a variety of light industries. There are several universities based in the city.

Geography

Hefei
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
36
 
 
7
−1
 
 
50
 
 
9
1
 
 
78
 
 
14
6
 
 
79
 
 
21
12
 
 
95
 
 
26
17
 
 
155
 
 
29
21
 
 
162
 
 
32
25
 
 
120
 
 
32
24
 
 
75
 
 
27
19
 
 
69
 
 
22
13
 
 
53
 
 
16
7
 
 
24
 
 
10
1
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: CMA [3]

Hefei is located 130 kilometres (81 mi) west of Nanjing,380 kilometres (236 mi)west of Shanghai in south-central Anhui. Hefei is one of 3 regional central cities of Yangtze delta economic area.

Climate

Hefei features a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinct seasons. Hefei's annual average temperature is 16.18 °C (61.1 °F). Its annual precipitation is just slightly over 1,000 millimetres (39 in), being heavier from May through August. Winters are damp and cold, with January lows dipping just below freezing and January averaging 2.8 °C (37.0 °F). The city sees irregular snowfalls that rarely turn significant. Springs are generally relatively pleasant if somewhat erratic. Summers here are oppressively hot and humid, with a July average of 28.3 °C (82.9 °F). In the months of June, July, August, and often September, daily temperatures can reach or surpass 37 °C (99 °F) with high humidity levels being the norm. Autumn in Hefei sees a gradual cooling and drying. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 35 percent in March to 50 percent in August, the city receives 1,868 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −20.6 °C (−5 °F) on 6 January 1955 to 41.1 °C (106 °F) on 27 July 2017.[4]

Climate data for Hefei (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.2
(68.4)
27.5
(81.5)
30.4
(86.7)
34.7
(94.5)
36.4
(97.5)
37.8
(100)
41.1
(106)
41.0
(105.8)
38.6
(101.5)
34.7
(94.5)
30.1
(86.2)
22.5
(72.5)
41.1
(106)
Average high °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
9.4
(48.9)
14.4
(57.9)
21.1
(70)
26.6
(79.9)
29.3
(84.7)
32.2
(90)
31.8
(89.2)
27.8
(82)
22.5
(72.5)
16.0
(60.8)
9.6
(49.3)
20.6
(69.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.8
(37)
5.2
(41.4)
9.8
(49.6)
16.3
(61.3)
21.8
(71.2)
25.3
(77.5)
28.3
(82.9)
27.6
(81.7)
23.3
(73.9)
17.7
(63.9)
11.0
(51.8)
5.1
(41.2)
16.2
(61.2)
Average low °C (°F) −0.3
(31.5)
1.9
(35.4)
6.1
(43)
12.2
(54)
17.6
(63.7)
21.7
(71.1)
25.2
(77.4)
24.3
(75.7)
19.8
(67.6)
13.8
(56.8)
7.1
(44.8)
1.6
(34.9)
12.6
(54.7)
Record low °C (°F) −20.6
(−5.1)
−14.1
(6.6)
−7.3
(18.9)
−0.4
(31.3)
6.2
(43.2)
12.2
(54)
17.9
(64.2)
15.8
(60.4)
10.8
(51.4)
1.5
(34.7)
−5.1
(22.8)
−13.5
(7.7)
−20.6
(−5.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 42.9
(1.689)
53.4
(2.102)
75.4
(2.969)
81.5
(3.209)
91.1
(3.587)
145.6
(5.732)
172.4
(6.787)
125.8
(4.953)
65.4
(2.575)
59.1
(2.327)
58.7
(2.311)
30.8
(1.213)
1,002.1
(39.454)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.2 8.9 11.6 10.3 10.2 10.6 12.1 11.0 7.8 8.5 7.6 6.0 112.8
Average relative humidity (%) 75 74 72 71 71 76 80 81 77 74 74 73 74.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 118.7 113.5 138.6 168.0 190.9 165.5 189.2 190.9 153.8 154.4 148.7 135.8 1,868
Percent possible sunshine 38 37 35 42 44 41 46 50 43 46 48 46 43
Source: China Meteorological Administration [3]

Administrative divisions and demographics

Demographics

The majority of the population in Hefei is Han Chinese. There are a small number of Hui Chinese living in the city, which is why there are few mosques in the city. There are over five million people in the city, of which some are migrant workers from other parts of Anhui.

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Hefei administers 9 county-level divisions, including 4 districts, 1 County-city and 4 counties.

Hefei subdivisions area (km²), population (According to 2010 Census) and population density (per km²).[5]

Map
Division code[6] English Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[7] Seat Postal code Subdivisions[8]
Subdistricts Towns Townships Ethnic townships Residential communities Villages
340100 Hefei 合肥市 Héféi Shì 11434.25 Shushan District 230000 45 65 19 1 736 1102
340102 Yaohai District 瑶海区 Yáohǎi Qū 142.90 Mingguang Road Subdistrict (明光路街道) 230000 13 2 1 118 18
340103 Luyang District 庐阳区 Lúyáng Qū 139.32 Bozhou Road Subdistrict (亳州路街道) 230000 11 1 84 14
340104 Shushan District 蜀山区 Shǔshān Qū 261.36 Sanli'an Subdistrict (三里庵街道) 230000 8 2 92 17
340111 Baohe District 包河区 Bāohé Qū 294.94 Luogang Subdistrict (骆岗街道) 230000 7 2 77 38
340121 Changfeng County 长丰县 Chángfēng Xiàn 1928.45 Shuihu (水湖镇) 231100 8 6 80 193
340122 Feidong County 肥东县 Féidōng Xiàn 2205.92 Dianbu (店埠镇) 231200 10 4 95 249
340123 Feixi County 肥西县 Féixī Xiàn 2082.66 Shangpai (上派镇) 231600 12 6 1 90 241
340124 Lujiang County 庐江县 Lújiāng Xiàn 2347.48 Lucheng (庐城镇) 231500 17 38 194
340181 Chaohu 巢湖市 Cháohú Shì 2031.22 Woniushan Subdistrict (卧牛山街道) 238000 6 11 1 62 138

Economy

The GDP of Hefei was ¥627.43 billion (ca. US$91.12 billion) in 2016.

Before the Chinese civil war Hefei's main industry was agriculture. After World War II, the capital of Anhui was moved from Anqing to Hefei. To assist the development of the city, many talented people were sent in from other parts of the country. Modern-day Hefei has machinery, electronics, chemistry, steel, textile, and cigarette industries, among others.

The city annual growth rate of GDP reached 20% from the year of 2010 and has become China largest manufacturing center of household electrical appliances, automobile and robotic products and artificial intelligence. Aside from quick development in manufacturing industry, the city is developing many hi-tech industries as well as healthcare industries. In the year of 2017, Hefei annual economic growth rate(GDP) reached 21.39% listed as the No.1 of China top 50 cities.

Transportation

Hefei South Railway Station

Since 2015 year, Hefei has become one of China Top 10 Train Hubs and tourist can take High-Speed train to most China provincial capitals within 10 hours.Tourist could only spend 2 hours to Shanghai, and 4 hours to Beijing by Hi-speed train from Hefei. Hefei also has an international airport, Xinqiao Internationa Airport, with hundreds of domestic and international flights each day.

Hefei has international cargo train system which could transport cargos from Hefei to middle asia, Eastern EU , Russia and Germany.There are international cargo trains from Hefei to EU each day.

Land

Hefei is the "crossroad" of China highway system. The important highways include:

1. G3 Beijing-Taipei Expressway

2. G40 Shanghai-Xi'an Expressway

3. G42 Shanghai-Chengdu Expressway

4. G4212 Hefei-Anqing Expressway

5. G5011 Wuhu-Hefei Expressway

6. China National Highway 206

7. China National Highway 312

8. China National Highway 346

9. S24 Changshu-Hefei Expressway

10.S17 Bengbu-Hefei Expressway

11. G3W Dezhou-Shangrao Expressway

This is the important reason why so many express companies set their hubs in Hefei.


Train system:

There are two main train stations in Hefei. The newest one is Hefeinan Railway Station (Hefei South Railway Station 合肥火车南站) where most high-speed trains pass through. Many city buses serve this station, for instance the 108 from the East gate of the University of Science and Technology's East campus on Susong road. It has a very comprehensive taxi rank with multiple queues to avoid a long wait. There are many fast food restaurants in the departure hall with seating. There are not so many options for arrivals, a small cafe and a takeaway kfc booth. There is an ATM in the ticket sales area next to the security gates for the departure hall.

The alternative station is Hefei Railway Station (合肥火车站) which is smaller and older. This has only one taxi queue, directly opposite the main exit. There is fast food, a post office and a China mobile store in the same courtyard next to the arrival gates.

There are some small stations such as Feidong Station (肥东火车站), Feixi Station (肥西火车站), Shuijiahu Station (水家湖火车站), Chaohu Station (巢湖火车站), Chaohudong Station (Chaohu East Station 巢湖火车东站), Hefeibeicheng Station (Hefei Northtown Station 合肥北城火车站), Lujiang Station (庐江火车站) and so on. These stations are mostly located in small towns or played commuting roles.

Since Hefei is the hub of China high-speed train system. There are many super important railway lines connect this city, including:

1. Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu High-Speed Railway (沪汉蓉高速铁路)

2. Hefei-Fuzhou High-Speed Railway (合福高速铁路 Play as part of Beijing-Taipei High-Speed Railway)

3. Hefei-Bengbu High-Speed Railway (合蚌高速铁路 A spur of Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway)

4. Shangqiu-Hefei-Hanzhou High-Speed Railway (商合杭高速铁路 The northern part, Shangqiu-Hefei High-Speed Railway will play as a part of Beijing-Hong Kong High-Speed Railway. Under Construction)

5. Hefei-Anqing-Jiujiang High-Speed Railway (合安九高速铁路 Play as a part of Beijing-Hong Kong High-Speed Railway. Under Construction)

6. Hefei-Qingdao High-Speed Railway (合青高速铁路 Proposed)

7. Nanjing-Xi'an High-Speed Railway (宁西高速铁路 Proposed)

8. Huainan Raiway (淮南铁路 From Huainan-Wuhu)

9. Hefei-Jiujiang Railway (合九铁路)

10. Nanjing-Xi'an Railway (宁西铁路)

11. Lujiang-Tongling Raiway (庐铜铁路 Under Construction)

Air

Hefei Xinqiao International Airport replaced the old Hefei Luogang International Airport and started its operation on May 30, 2013 00:00. This new domestic aviation hub is located in Gaoliu Village situated in the northwestern part of Hefei City. The first arriving flight was China Eastern Airlines flight MU5172 from Beijing Capital International Airport. The first departing flight was China Eastern Airlines MU5468 to Shanghai Pudong International Airport. Hefei Xinqiao International Airport provides scheduled passenger service to major airports in China and other international cities. Destinations include Hong Kong, Macao, Singapore, Taipei (Taoyuan, Songshan), Kaohsiung, Taichung, Seoul, Cheongju, Yangyang, Jeju, Osaka, Nagoya, Shizuoka, Okayama, Boracay Island, Bali Island, Frankfurt, Siem Reap, Bangkok, Phuket Island and Krabi Island.

Subway

Hefei Metro is a rapid transit rail network under construction that will eventually serve both urban and rural areas of Hefei. As planned, Line 1 covers a total distance of 24 kilometres (15 miles) starting from Hefei Railway Station. It was inaugurated in December 2016.

In February 2013, Metro Line 2 also began its construction. It is being built alongside the Changjiang Dong Road, Changjiang Zhong Road and Changjiang Xi Road, which is a major passenger corridor in the east-west direction. It will pass through the city center area and connect to a transit point where passengers will be able to take the shuttle bus to Hefei Xinqiao International Airport. The project of Line 2 is planning to be finished in 2017.

In November 2015, Metro Line 3 construction began. Line 3 is expected to open in 2020. Line 3 will connect the New Station Exploitative-experimental Zone and the Economic Technology Development District, from the vocational education town to the university town.

Alongside Line 1, Line 2 and Line 3, Hefei is also planning to build other 12 metro lines, 4 lines of intra-metropolitan rail transit (to Lu'an, Huainan, Lujiang and Chaohu) and 3 lines of tram and hopefully accomplish the project by 2030.

Bus

Hefei has more than 300 bus lines including 4 major lines of Bus Rapid Transit in Hefei:

Bus Rapid Transit Line 1 (B1): from the downtown to the Binhu New Area. (Chinese: 滨湖新区; pinyin: Bīnhú Xīn Qū)

Bus Rapid Transit Line 3 (K3): from downtown to the Beicheng New Area (Northtown New Area 北城新区)

Bus Rapid Transit Line 4 (BRT4 or 快4): from downtown to the Shuxi Newtown (West of Dashu Hill Newtown 蜀西新城)

Bus Rapid Transit Line 5 (BRT5 or 快5): from downtown to Longgang Development Zone (龙岗开发区)

Research

Hefei plays an important role in China scientific research system. The city has one of the most important operations of China Academy of Science(CAS).

It has seven national laboratories(China basic research platforms), second only after Beijing: The National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (Chinese: 国家同步辐射实验室; pinyin: Guójiā tóngbù fúshè shíyàn shì), the Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale (Chinese: 微尺度物质科学国家实验室; pinyin: Wēi chǐdù wùzhí kēxué guójiā shíyàn shì), both of which are under the University of Science and Technology of China. It also has the Institute of Solid State Physics, Institute of Plasma Physics, Institute of Intelligent Machines, High Magnetic Field Laboratory (founded in 2008), Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, all of which are under the Hefei Institutes of Physical Science which belongs to the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Hefei is the location of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, an experimental superconducting tokamak magnetic fusion energy reactor.

Universities

Hefei is one of the most important education central cities of China with about 65 universities and colleges.Some of them are first class universities of China such as University of Science and Technology of China. And this city has more 300 than research institutes including many top-top research centers. China Academy of Science(CAS) heavily deploys many important operations in this city.

An overview of USTC, including the Teaching Building II and the library

Sites of interest

Baohe Village (simplified Chinese: 包河浮庄; traditional Chinese: 包河浮莊; pinyin: Bāo hé fú zhuāng)
Fuzhuang in winter
  • Sanhe Town, ancient town which has a history of more than 2,500 years.
  • Xiaoyaojin Park, a public park sitting on the ancient site of the Battle of Xiaoyao Ford.
  • Temple of Lord Bao, built in 1066 near the tomb of Lord Bao.
  • Li Hongzhang's Former Residence (Chinese: 李鸿章故居; pinyin: Lǐhóngzhāng gùjū), built in the late 19th century and fully restored by the 1990s.
  • Hui Garden (Chinese: 徽园; pinyin: Huī yuán) (Opened to the public in September 2001)
  • Children's Welfare Institute (a.k.a. "Social Welfare Institute"), children's orphanage
  • Anhui Laomingguang Stadium, the home ground of Anhui Jiufang, but also used for other public sporting events.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  2. ^ Inter alia: Mitchell Sr., S.A. A New Universal Atlas Containing Maps of the various Empires, Kingdoms, States and Republics Of The World. "China." Entered 1850, Published 1853.
  3. ^ a b 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2010-05-24. 
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-18. Retrieved 2014-01-01. 
  5. ^ (in Chinese) Compilation by LianXin website. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China Archived 2012-03-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ 国家统计局统计用区划代码 Archived 2013-04-05 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ 《合肥统计年鉴2011》
  8. ^ 《中国民政统计年鉴2011》

External links

  • Hefei travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Hefei Online Government
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