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Official seal of the Government of Haryana
Location of Haryana in India
Location of Haryana in India
Coordinates (Chandigarh): 30°44′N 76°47′E / 30.73°N 76.78°E / 30.73; 76.78Coordinates: 30°44′N 76°47′E / 30.73°N 76.78°E / 30.73; 76.78
Country  India
Statehood 1 November 1966
Capital Chandigarh
Largest city Faridabad
Districts 22
 • Governor Kaptan Singh Solanki
 • Chief Minister Manohar Lal Khattar (BJP)
 • Legislature Unicameral (90 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency Rajya Sabha 5
Lok Sabha 10
 • High Court Punjab and Haryana High Court††
 • Total 44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi)
Area rank 21st
Population (2011)
 • Total 25,353,081
 • Rank 18th
 • Density 573/km2 (1,480/sq mi)
 • Density rank 11
Demonym(s) Haryanvi
 • Official Hindi[2]
 • Additional official Punjabi[3]
 • Spoken Haryanvi,[4] Hindi and Punjabi
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-HR
Vehicle registration HR-xx
HDI Increase 0.644 (medium)
HDI rank 17th (2011)
Sex ratio 877 /[5]
Website haryana.gov.in

^† Joint Capital with Punjab
†† Common for Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh.

Symbols of Haryana
Antilope cervicapra from velavadar.JPG
Black buck
Black Francolin.jpg
Black francolin
Sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera.jpg
Ficus religiosa Bo.jpg

Haryana (IPA: [ɦərɪˈjaːɳaː]), is one of the 29 states in India, situated in North India. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on a linguistic basis. It stands 21st in terms of its area, which is spread about 44,212 km2 (17,070 sq mi).[1] The city of Chandigarh is its capital while the National Capital Region city of Faridabad is the most populous city of the state and the city of Gurugram is financial hub of NCR with major Fortune 500 companies located in it.[6]

Haryana is one of the wealthiest states of India and has the third highest per capita income in the country at 119,158 (US$1,900) in the year 2012–13 and 132,089 (US$2,100) in the year 2013–14,[7][8] The state is one of the most economically developed regions in South Asia, and its agricultural and manufacturing industries have experienced sustained growth since the 1970s.[9] Since 2000, the state has emerged as the largest recipient of investment per capita in India.[10]

It is bordered by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north, and by Rajasthan to the west and south. The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh. Haryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi. Consequently, a large area of south Haryana is included in the National Capital Region for purposes of planning and development.


The name Haryana is found in the works of the 12th-century AD Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar (VS 1189–1230).[11]

The name Haryana has been derived from the Sanskrit words Hari (the Hindu god Vishnu) and ayana (home), meaning "the Abode of God".[12] However, scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name comes from a compound of the words Hari (Sanskrit Harit, "green") and Aranya (forest).[13]



Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra

The Vedic state of Brahmavarta is claimed to be located in south Haryana, where the initial Vedic scriptures were composed after the great floods some 10,000 years ago.[14] Manusmriti, a flood time document composed by Manu and Bhrigu is now dated at 10,000 years old.[15][Unreliable fringe source?] Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district is home to the largest and one of the oldest ancient Indus Valley Civilization sites, dated at over 5,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, and skilled metal working (in both bronze and precious metals) have been uncovered. According to archaeologists, Rakhigarhi may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, which arose in the Ghaggar basin in Haryana and gradually and slowly moved to the Indus valley.[16]


Ancient bronze and stone idols of Jain Tirthankara were found in archaeological expeditions in Badli, Bhiwani (Ranila, Charkhi Dadri, Badhara village), Dadri, Gurgaon (Ferozpur Jhirka), Hansi, Hisar (Agroha), Kasan, Nahad, Narnaul, Pehowa, Rewari, Rohad, Rohtak (Asthal-Abohar) and Sonepat in Haryana.[17]

After the sack of Bhatner fort during the Timurid conquests of India in 1398, Timur attacked and sacked the cities of Sirsa, Fatehabad, Sunam, Kaithal and Panipat. When he reached the town of Sarsuti, the residents, who were mostly non-Muslims, fled and were chased by a detachment of Timur's troops, with thousands of them being killed and looted by the troops. From there he travelled to Fatehabad, whose residents fled and a large number of those remaining in the town were massacred. The Ahirs resisted him at Ahruni but were defeated, with thousands being killed and many being taken prisoners while the town was burnt to ashes. From there he travelled to Tohana, whose Jat inhabitants were stated to be robbers according to Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi. They tried to resist but were defeated and fled. Timur's army pursued and killed 200 Jats, while taking many more as prisoners. He then sent a detachment to chase the fleeing Jats and killed 2,000 of them while their wives and children were enslaved and their property plundered. From there he proceeded to Kaithal whose residents were massacred and plundered, destroying all villages along the way. On the next day, he came to Assandh whose residents were "fire-worshippers" according to Yazdi, and had fled to Delhi. Next he travelled to and subdued Tughlaqpur fort and Salwan before reaching Panipat whose residents had already fled. He then marched on to Loni fort.[18][19]

Portrait of Hem Chandra Vikramaditya

The area that is now Haryana has been ruled by some of the major empires of India. Panipat is known for three seminal battles in the history of India. In the First Battle of Panipat (1526), Babur defeated the Lodis. In the Second Battle of Panipat (1556), Akbar defeated the local Haryanvi Hindu Emperor of Delhi, who belonged to Rewari. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya had earlier won 22 battles across India from Punjab to Bengal, defeating Mughals and Afghans. Hemu had defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and the Battle of Delhi in 1556 to become the last Hindu Emperor of India with a formal coronation at Purana Quila in Delhi on 7th October 1556. In the Third Battle of Panipat (1761), the Afghan king Ahmad Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas.[20]


Haryana state was formed on 1 November 1966. The Indian government set up the Shah Commission under the chairmanship of Justice JC Shah on 23 April 1966 to divide the existing state of Punjab and determine the boundaries of the new state of Haryana after consideration of the languages spoken by the people. The commission delivered its report on 31 May 1966 whereby the then-districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Karnal were to be a part of the new state of Haryana. Further, the tehsils of Jind and Narwana in the Sangrur district — along with Naraingarh, Ambala and Jagadhri — were to be included.[21]

The commission recommended that the tehsil of Kharad, which includes Chandigarh, the state capital of Punjab, should be a part of Haryana. However, only a small portion of Kharad was given to Haryana.[22] The city of Chandigarh was made a union territory, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana.[23]

Bhagwat Dayal Sharma became the first Chief Minister of Haryana.[24]


Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India. It is between 27°39' to 30°35' N latitude and between 74°28' and 77°36' E longitude.[25] The total geographical area of the state is 4.42 m ha, which is 1.4% of the geographical area of the country.[26] The altitude of Haryana varies between 700 and 3600 ft (200 metres to 1200 metres) above sea level.[27] As per India State of Forest Report, FSI, 2013, the Forest Cover in the state is 1586 km2 which is 3.59% of the state's geographical area and the Tree Cover in the state is 1282 km2 which is 2.90% of the geographical area. Thus the Forest and Tree Cover of the Haryana state is 6.49% of its geographical area.[28]

Haryana has four main geographical features.[29]


Yamuna River near the Haryana Border

The Yamuna flows along the state's eastern boundary while the ancient Sarasvati River is said to have flowed from Yamuna Nagar, but has now disappeared.[30]

Haryana's main seasonal river, the Ghaggar rises in the outer Himalayas, between the Yamuna and the Satluj and enters the state near Pinjore in the Panchkula district. Passing through Ambala and Sirsa, it reaches Bikaner in Rajasthan and runs for 460 km (290 mi) before disappearing into the deserts of Rajasthan. Important tributaries include the Chautang and Tangri.[31]

The seasonal Markanda River is a stream, which in ancient times was known as the Aruna. It originates from the lower Shivalik Hills and enters Haryana west of Ambala. During monsoons, this stream swells into a raging torrent notorious for its devastating power. The surplus water is carried on to the Sanisa Lake where the Markanda joins the Saraswati and later the Ghaggar.[31]

Three other rivulets in and around the Mewat hills, the Indori, Dohan and Kasavati all flow from East to West and once were tributaries of the Drishadwati/Saraswati rivers.[32][33][34]


Haryana is extremely hot in summer at around 45 °C (113 °F) and mild in winter. The hottest months are May and June and the coldest December and January.[32] The climate is arid to semi-arid with average rainfall of 354.5 mm. Around 29% of rainfall is received during the months from July to September, and the remaining rainfall is received during the period from December to February.[26]

Flora and fauna

State symbols of Haryana
Formation day 1 November (Day of
separation from Punjab)
State mammal Black buck[35]
State bird Black francolin
State tree Peepal[35]
State flower Lotus[35]

Thorny, dry, deciduous forest and thorny shrubs can be found all over the state. During the monsoon, a carpet of grass covers the hills. Mulberry, eucalyptus, pine, kikar, shisham and babul are some of the trees found here. The species of fauna found in the state of Haryana include black buck, nilgai, panther, fox, mongoose, jackal and wild dog. More than 450 species of birds are found here.[36][37][38]

Protected wildlife areas

Haryana has two national parks, eight wildlife sanctuaries, two wildlife conservation areas, four animal and bird breeding centers, one deer park and three zoos, all of which are managed by the Haryana Forest Department of the Government of Haryana.[39][40]

Administrative divisions

Ten Lok Sabha constituencies in Haryana

The state is divided into six divisions for administrative purposes: Ambala, Rohtak, Gurugram, Hisar, Karnal, Faridabad Within these there are 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils and 140 blocks. Haryana has a total of 154 cities and towns and 6,841 villages, villages panchayats 6212 .[41]


Divisions Districts
Ambala Ambala, Kurukshetra, Panchkula, Yamuna Nagar
Faridabad Faridabad, Palwal, Nuh
Gurugram Gurugram, Mahendragarh, Rewari,
Hisar Fatehabad, Jind, Hisar, Sirsa,
Rohtak Jhajjar, Charkhi Dadri, Rohtak, Sonipat, bhiwani[29]
Karnal Karnal, Panipat, Kaithal


On 28 December 2015, the Panchkula district of Haryana was awarded for being the top-performing district in the state under the Digital India campaign.[42] The Common Service Centres (CSCs) have been upgraded in all districts and the number of e-services has now reached 105, which includes application of new water connection, sewer connection, electricity bill collection, ration card member registration, result of HBSE, admit cards for board examinations, online admission form for government colleges, long route booking of buses, admission forms for Kurukshetra University and HUDA plots status inquiry.[42] Haryana has become the first state to implement Aadhaar-enabled birth registration in all the districts.[42]

Law and order

Haryana Police force is the law enforcement agency of Haryana. It has a cybercrime investigation cell, in Gurgaon's Sector 51. High level of initiative is being taken by the government to ensure absolute safety.[43]

The judicial authority is the Punjab and Haryana High Court. It has an e-filing facility.[44]


The economy of Haryana relies on manufacturing, business process outsourcing, agriculture and retail.


The headquarters of DLF Limited, India's largest real estate company, in Gurgaon, Haryana.


Admin map of Haryana with RTO codes


Delhi Metro connects the national capital Delhi with parts of Haryana state within NCR, including Bahadurgarh, Faridabad and with Rapid MetroRail Gurgaon. Faridabad has the longest metro network in the NCR Region consisting of 9 stations and track length being 14 km.[48]

Roads and Highways

Haryana has a total road length of 23,684 kilometres (14,717 mi). There are 29 national highways with a total length of 1,461 kilometres (908 mi) and many state highways, which have a total length of 2,494 kilometres (1,550 mi). The most remote parts of the state are linked with metaled roads. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million km per day, and it was the first state in the country to introduce luxury video coaches.[49]

The Grand Trunk Road, commonly abbreviated to GT Road, is one of South Asia's oldest and longest major roads. It passes through the districts of Sonipat, Panipat, Karnal, Kurukshetra and Ambala in north Haryana where it enters Delhi and subsequently the industrial town of Faridabad on its way. The state government proposes to construct Express highways and freeways for speedier vehicular traffic. The 135.6 kilometres (84.3 mi) Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway(KMP) will provide a high-speed link to northern Haryana with its southern districts such as Sonepat, Gurgaon, Jhajjar and Faridabad. The work on the project has already started and was scheduled to be completed by July 2013.[50]

The Delhi-Agra Expressway (NH-2) that passes through Faridabad is being widened to six lanes from current four lanes.[51] It will further boost Faridabad's connectivity with Delhi.

Sky Way

The Haryana and Delhi governments have constructed the 4.5-kilometre (2.8 mi) international standard Delhi Faridabad Skyway, the first of its kind in North India, to connect Delhi and Faridabad.[52]


Religion in Haryana (2011)[53]
Religion Percent

According to the 2011 census, Hindus (87.46%) constitute the majority of the state's population with Sikhs (4.91%), Muslims (7.03%) (mainly Meos) being the largest minorities.[54]Muslims are mainly found in the Mewat and Yamuna Nagar districts, while Sikhs live mostly in the districts adjoining Punjab - Hisar, Sirsa, Jind, Fatehabad, Kaithal, Kurukshetra, Ambala, Narnaul and Panchkula karnal. Haryana has the second largest Sikh population in India after the state of Punjab. In May 2014, the Haryana Government published the Haryana Anand Marriages Registration Rules, 2014, allowing Sikhs to register their marriages under these rules.[55]

Languages of Haryana
Language Percent

Hindi is the sole official language of Haryana and is spoken by the majority of the population (87.31%).[2] Punjabi is given the status of additional official language. Haryana comprises second largest Punjabi speaking population in India.[3][56]

Agriculture and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy. Since 2001, the state has witnessed a massive influx of immigrants from across the nation, primarily from Bihar, Bengal, Uttrakhand, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and from the country, Nepal.[needs update]Scheduled Castes form 19.3% of the population.[57]


Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak

Literacy rate in Haryana has seen an upward trend and is 76.64 percent as per 2011 population census. Male literacy stands at 85.38 percent, while female literacy is at 66.67 percent. In 2001, the literacy rate in Haryana stood at 67.91 percent of which male and female were 78.49 percent and 55.73 percent literate respectively.[58] As of 2013, Gurgaon city had the highest literacy rate in Haryana at 86.30% followed by Panchkula at 81.9 per cent and Ambala at 81.7 percent.[59] In terms of districts, as of 2012 Rewari had the highest literacy rate in Haryana at 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy was 79%, and female 67%.[60]

Hisar has three universities: Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University - Asia's largest agricultural university,[61] Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences); several national agricultural and veterinary research centres (National Research Centre on Equines),[62] Central Sheep Breeding Farm,[63] National Institute on Pig Breeding and Research,[64] Northern Region Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institute[65] and Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes (CIRB);[66] and more than 20 colleges including Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha.[67]

In 2001–02, there were 11,013 primary schools, 1,918 middle schools, 3,023 high schools and 1,301 senior secondary schools in the state.[citation needed][68] Haryana Board of School Education, established in September 1969 and shifted to Bhiwani in 1981, conducts public examinations at middle, matriculation, and senior secondary levels twice a year. Over seven lac candidates attend annual examinations in February and March; 150,000 attend supplementary examinations each November. The Board also conducts examinations for Haryana Open School at senior and senior secondary levels twice a year.[69] The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the bachelor's degree level.

Union Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad announced on 27 February 2016 that National Institute of Electronics and Information Technology (NIELIT) would be set up in Kurukshetra to provide computer training to youth and a Software Technology Park of India (STPI) would be set up in Panchkula’s existing HSIIDC IT Park in Sector 23.[70] Hindi and English are compulsory languages in schools whereas Punjabi, Sanskrit and Urdu are chosen as optional languages.[71]


The Total Fertility Rate of Haryana is 2.3. The Infant Mortality Rate is 41 (SRS 2013) and Maternal Mortality Ratio is 146 (SRS 2010–2012).[72]

Communication and media

Haryana has a statewide network of telecommunication facilities. Haryana Government has its own statewide area network by which all government offices of 22 districts and 126 blocks across the state are connected with each other thus making it the first SWAN of the country.[74][75][76] Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited and most of the leading private sector players (such as Reliance Infocom, Tata Teleservices, Bharti Telecom, Idea Vodafone Essar, Aircel, Uninor and Videocon) have operations in the state. Important areas around Delhi are an integral part of the local Delhi Mobile Telecommunication System. This network system would easily cover major towns like Faridabad and Gurgaon.

Electronic media channels include, MTV, 9XM, Star Group, SET Max, News Time, NDTV 24x7 and Zee Group. The radio stations include All India Radio and other FM stations.

The major newspapers of Haryana include Dainik Bhaskar, Punjab Kesari, Jag Bani, Dainik Jagran, The Tribune, Amar Ujala, Hindustan Times, Dainik Tribune, The Times of India and Hari-Bhumi.


Haryana State has always given high priority to the expansion of electricity infrastructure, as it is one of the most important inputs for the development of the state. Haryana was the first state in the country to achieve 100% rural electrification in 1970 as well as the first in the country to link all villages with all-weather roads and provide safe drinking water facilities throughout the state.[77][better source needed]

Power in the state are:


Former volleyball player Balwant Sagwal

In the 2010 Commonwealth Games at Delhi, 22 out of 38 gold medals that India won came from Haryana.[79] During the 33rd National Games held in Assam in 2007, Haryana stood first in the nation[80] with a medal tally of 80, including 30 gold, 22 silver and 28 bronze medals.

The 1983 World-Cup-winning captain Kapil Dev is from Haryana. Nahar Singh Stadium was built in Faridabad in the year 1981 for international cricket. This ground has the capacity to hold around 25,000 people as spectators.[81] Tejli Sports Complex is an Ultra-Modern sports complex in Yamuna Nagar. Tau Devi Lal Stadium in Gurgaon is a multi-sport complex.[82]

Chief Minister of Haryana Manohar Lal Khattar announced the "Haryana Sports and Physical Fitness Policy", a policy to support 26 Olympic sports, on 12 January 2015 with the words "We will develop Haryana as the sports hub of the country."[83][84]

Haryana is home to Haryana Gold, one of India's eight professional basketball teams which compete in the country's UBA Pro Basketball League.

See also


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    हरियाणए देसे असंखगाम, गामियण जणि अणवरथ काम|
    परचक्क विहट्टणु सिरिसंघट्टणु, जो सुरव इणा परिगणियं|
    रिउ रुहिरावट्टणु बिउलु पवट्टणु, ढिल्ली नामेण जि भणियं|
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  80. ^ Official site for the 33rd National Games 2007, Guwahati
  81. ^ "Nahar Singh Stadium - India - Cricket Grounds - ESPN Cricinfo". Cricinfo. 
  82. ^ "Tau Devi Lal Cricket Stadium - India - Cricket Grounds - ESPN Cricinfo". Cricinfo. 
  83. ^ News Details, Office of Chief Minister of Haryana 
  84. ^ GoH 2015, p. 27.


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  • Atul Kumar Sinha; Abhay Kumar Singh, eds. (2007), Udayana New Horizons in History, Classics and Inter-Cultural studies, Anamika Publishers, ISBN 81-7975-168-6 
  • NIDM, National Disaster Risk Reduction Portal - Haryana (PDF), National Institute of Disaster Management (MHA, GOI) 
  • Sharma, Suresh K (2006). Haryana: Past and Present. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 763. ISBN 81-8324-046-1. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  • Khanna, C. L. (2008). Haryana General Knowledge. Agra: Upkar Prakashan. p. 75. ISBN 81-7482-383-2. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
  • Yadav, Ram B. (2008). Folk Tales & Legends of Haryana. Gurgaon: Pinnacle Technology. p. 305. ISBN 81-7871-162-1. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
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  • Singh, Mandeep; Kaur, Harvinder (2004). Economic Development Of Haryana. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications. p. 234. ISBN 81-7629-558-2. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 
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  • Harvey, Bill; Harvey, William; Devasar, Nikhil; Grewal, Bikram; Oriental Bird Club (2006). Atlas of the birds of Delhi and Haryana. Rupa & Co. p. 352. ISBN 81-291-0954-9. Retrieved July 11, 2012. 

External links

  • The Official Site of the Government of Haryana
  • Official Tourism Site of Haryana, India
General information
  • Haryana Encyclopædia Britannica entry
  • Haryana at DMOZ
  • Geographic data related to Haryana at OpenStreetMap
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