Harishchandrapur I

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Harishchandrapur I
Community development block
Harishchandrapur I is located in West Bengal
Harishchandrapur I
Harishchandrapur I
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 25°25′N 87°53′E / 25.42°N 87.88°E / 25.42; 87.88Coordinates: 25°25′N 87°53′E / 25.42°N 87.88°E / 25.42; 87.88
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Malda
Government
 • Type Representative democracy
Area
 • Total 171.40 km2 (66.18 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 199,493
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN 732122
STD/telephone code 03513
Lok Sabha constituency Maldaha Uttar
Vidhan Sabha constituency Harishchandrapur, Chanchal
Website malda.nic.in

Harishchandrapur I is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Chanchal subdivision of Malda district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Geography

Harishchandrapur is located at 25°25′N 87°53′E / 25.42°N 87.88°E / 25.42; 87.88.

Harishchandrapur I CD Block, occupying the north-west corner of the district, is part of the Tal, one of the three physiographic sub-regions of the district. “It lies to the west of Mahananda River and to the north of the river Kalindri. The Tal region gradually slopes down towards the south-west and merges with the Diara sub-region… (it) is strewn with innumerable marshes, bils and oxbow lakes.” The sub-region largely remains submerged during the monsoons and during the dry season large sections of it turn into mud banks with many shallow marshes scattered around. With hardly any gradient, the rivers crawl through the region. The Baramasia River forms the eastern boundary of the CD Block with Chanchal I CD Block.[1][2]

Harishchandrapur I CD Block is bounded by Azamnagar CD Block of Katihar district in Bihar on the north, Chanchal I CD Block on the east, Harishchandrapur II CD Block on the south and on the west.[2][3]

Harishchandrapur I CD Block has an area of 171.40 km2.[4]It has 1 panchayat samity, 7 gram panchayats, 121 gram sansads (village councils), 105 mouzas and 104 inhabited villages. Harishchandrapur police station serves this block.[5] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Harishchandrapur.[6][7]

Gram panchayats of Harischandrapur I block/ panchayat samiti are: Kushida, Boroi, Rashidabad, Tulshihata, Bhingole, Mahendrapur and Harishchandrapur.[8]

Demographics

Population

As per 2011 Census of India, Harishchandrapur I CD Block had a total population of 199,493, all of which were rural. There were 103,183 (52%) males and 96,310 (48%) females. Population below 6 years was 30, 662. Scheduled Castes numbered 49,069 (24.60%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 4,142 (2.08%).[9]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Harishchandrapur I CD Block were (2011 population in brackets): Gochia (4,211), Kusidha (4,560), Uttar Rampur (5,575), Srichandrapur (4,250), Kamarta (4,118), Bairat (4,412), Rangaipur (6,002), Dakshin Harishchandrapur (5,365), Uttar Harishchandrapur (15,445), Dakshin Mahendrapur (5,571) and Gangnadia (4,316).[9]

Other villages in Harishchandrapur I CD Block included (2011 population in brackets): Tulsihata (3,939), Rashidabad (3,050), Barui (1,419) and Bhingol (2,720).[9]

Decadal Population Growth Rate (%)

Note: The CD Block data for 1971-1981, 1981-1991 and 1991-2001 is for both Harishcahndrapur I & II taken together

The decadal growth of population in Harishchandrapur I CD Block in 2001-2011 was 22.84%.[10] The decadal growth of population in Harishchandrapur I &II CD Blocks taken together in 1991-2001 was 25.63%. The decadal growth of population in Harishchandrapur I &II CD Blocks taken together (or Harishchndrapur PS) in 1981-91 was 29.30% and in 1971-81 was 25.13%.[11]The decadal growth rate of population in Malda district was as follows: 30.33% in 1951-61, 31.98% in 1961-71, 26.00% in 1971-81, 29.78% in 1981-91, 24.78% in 1991-2001 and 21.22% in 2001-11.[12]The decadal growth rate for West Bengal in 2001-11 was 13.93%.[13] The decadal growth rate for West Bengal was 13.93 in 2001-2011, 17.77% in 1991-2001.[14]24.73% in 1981-1991 and 23.17% in 1971-1981.[15]

Malda district has the second highest decadal population growth rate, for the decade 2001-2011, in West Bengal with a figure of 21.2% which is much higher than the state average (13.8%).[16]Uttar Dinajpur district has the highest decadal growth rate in the state with 23.2%.[17]Decadal growth rate of population is higher than that of neighbouring Murshidabad district, which has the next highest growth rate.[18]

Population density in the district has intensified from 162 persons per km2 in 1901 to 881 in 2001 (i.e., around five times), which is highest amongst the districts of North Bengal. However, unlike the densely populated southern regions of West Bengal, urbanisation remains low in Malda district. North Bengal in general, and Malda in particular, has been witness to large scale population movement from other states in India and other districts of West Bengal, as well as from outside the country. The District Human Development Report for Malda notes, “Malda district has been a principal recipient of the human migration waves of the 20th century.”[11]

There are reports of Bangladeshi infiltrators coming through the international border. Only a small portion of the border with Bangladesh has been fenced and it is popularly referred to as a porous border.[19][20][21][22]

Literacy

As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Harishchandrapur I CD Block was 88,591 (52.47% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 50,196 (57.37% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 38,195 (46.96% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 10.41%.[9]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion

Information about mother-tongue is available only at the district level and above. In 2001, Bengali was the mother tongue of 88.1% of the population of Malda district followed by Santali (4.5%) Khortha/Khotta (4.4%), Hindi (1.2%), Bhojpuri (0.4%), Telugu (0.3%), Kurukh/ Oraon (0.2%) and Koda/ Kora (0.1%). While the percentage of population reporting Bengali as a mother tongue has increased from 83.6 in 1961 Census to 88.1 in 2001 Census, the percentage of population reporting Santali as mother tongue has decreased from 7.2 in 1961 Census to 4.5 in 2001 Census.[23]

There is a discrepancy in the data for religion in Malda district. According to Table C1: Population by religious community in 2011, Malda district was a Muslim-majority district in 2011, but it did not present any progressive picture from earlier years.[24]The 2011 District Census Handbook: Maldah presents a different progressive picture, which we are presenting below. Incidentally, both are part of the official census operations.

Religion in Harishchandrapur I CD Block
Muslim
57.81%
Hindu
42.10%
Christian
0.06%
Others
0.03%

According to the 2011 District Census Handbook: Maldah, during 2011 census, majority of the population of the district were Hindus constituting 51.3% of the population and up from 49.3% in 2001, followed by Muslims with 48.0%, down from 49.7% in 2001. The proportion of the Hindu population of the district had a decreasing trend from 56.7% in 1971 to 49.3% in 2001 then the trend took a reverse turn and increased in 2011. On the other hand, the Muslim population has increased from 46.2% in 1961 to 49.7% in 2001 but in 2011 census it shrunk to 48.0%. Only 0.3% population were Christians.[25]

As per 2014 District Statistical Handbook: Malda (quoting census figures), in the 2001 census, Muslims numbered 93,885 and formed 57.81% of the population in Harishchandrapur I CD Block. Hindus numbered 63,376 and formed 42.10% of the population. Christians numbered 92 and formed 0.06% of the population. Others numbered 53 and formed 0.03% of the population.[26]

The Census Commission published another set of data for 2011 census with basic fundamental differences. Those who are interested may view the reference.[24]We are not sure which one is right. It is up to the Census Commission to clarify.

Rural poverty

As per the Human Development Report for Malda district, published in 2006, the percentage of rural families in BPL category in Harishchandrapur I CD Block was 47.6%. Official surveys have found households living in absolute poverty in Malda district to be around 39%.[27]

According to the report, “An overwhelmingly large segment of the rural workforce depends on agriculture as its main source of livelihood, the extent of landlessness in Malda has traditionally been high because of the high densities of human settlement in the district… Although land reforms were implemented in Malda district from the time they were launched in other parts of West Bengal, their progress has been uneven across the Malda blocks… because of the overall paucity of land, the extent of ceiling-surplus land available for redistribution has never been large… The high levels of rural poverty that exist in nearly all blocks in Malda district closely reflect the livelihood crisis… “[27]

Economy

Livelihood

Livelihood
in Harishchandrapur I CD Block

  Cultivators (20.94%)
  Agricultural labourers (54.41%)
  Household industries (2.88%)
  Other Workers (21.78%)

In Harishchandrapur I CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators numbered14,687 and formed 20.94%, agricultural labourers numbered 38,171 and formed 54.41%, household industry workers numbered 2,019 and formed 2.88% and other workers numbered 15,276 and formed 21.78%.[28] Total workers numbered 70,153 and formed 35.17% of the total population, and non-workers numbered 129,340 and formed 64.83% of the population.[29]

Note: In the census records a person is considered a cultivator, if the person is engaged in cultivation/ supervision of land owned by self/government/institution. When a person who works on another person’s land for wages in cash or kind or share, is regarded as an agricultural labourer. Household industry is defined as an industry conducted by one or more members of the family within the household or village, and one that does not qualify for registration as a factory under the Factories Act. Other workers are persons engaged in some economic activity other than cultivators, agricultural labourers and household workers. It includes factory, mining, plantation, transport and office workers, those engaged in business and commerce, teachers, entertainment artistes and so on.[30]

Infrastructure

There are 104 inhabited villages in Harishchandrapur I CD Block. All 104 villages (100%) have power supply. 102 villages (98.08%) have drinking water supply. 16 villages (15.38%) have post offices. 100 villages (96.15%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 25 villages (24.04%) have a pucca (paved) approach road and 35 villages (33.65%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 6 villages (5.77%) have agricultural credit societies and 4 villages (3.85%) have banks.[31]

Agriculture

“Because of its alluvial soils and the abundance of rivers, large and small, Malda has been an important agricultural region since antiquity, leading to dense human settlement within the boundaries of the district. Rice yields have traditionally been high, making it the breadbasket of North Bengal. But the shifting of rivers and overall ecological change have left an inevitable stamp on the present patterns of human settlement, as a consequence of which settlement densities vary c/onsiderably across the district… Agricultural land in the Tal and Diara is mostly irrigated and intensively cropped and cultivated… Rainfall in the district is moderate…” [32]

Harishchandrapur I CD Block had 93 fertiliser depots, 17 seed stores and 35 fair price shops in 2013-14.[33]

In 2013-14, Harishchandrapur I CD Block produced 29,636 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 9,848 hectares, 22,406 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 4,843 hectares, 181 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from 93 hectares, 5,197 tonnes of wheat from 2,080 hectares, 1,155 tonnes of maize from 303 hectares, 55,607 tonnes of jute from 3,727 hectares, 7,899 tonnes of potatoes from 245 hectares and 1,535 tonnes of sugar cane from 15 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds .[33]

In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Harishchandrapur I CD Block was 11,549 hectares, out of which 378 hectares were irrigated by river lift irrigation, 395 hectares by deep tube wells, 9,294 hectares by shallow tube well and 1,482 hectares by other means.[33]

Backward Regions Grant Fund

Malda district is listed as a backward region and receives financial support from the Backward Regions Grant Fund. The fund, created by the Government of India, is designed to redress regional imbalances in development. As of 2012, 272 districts across the country were listed under this scheme. The list includes 11 districts of West Bengal.[34][35]

Transport

In 2013-14, Harishchandrapur I CD Block had 3 originating/ terminating bus routes.[33]

Harishchandrapur is a station on the Howrah–New Jalpaiguri line.[37]

Education

In 2013-14, Harishchandrapur I CD Block had 105 primary schools with 20,206 students, 16 middle school with 2,009 students, 7 high schools with 12,641 students and 7 higher secondary schools with 12,941 students. Harishchandrapur I CD Block had 1 general degree college with 1,635 students and 286 institutions for special and non-formal education with 16,904 students.[33]

As per the 2011 census, in Harishchandrapur I CD Block, amongst the 104 inhabited villages, 10 villages did not have a school, 57 villages had more than 1 primary school, 37 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 15 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[38]

Healthcare

In 2014, Harishchandrapur I CD Block had 1 rural hospital and 3 primary health centres, with total 70 beds and 8 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 25 family welfare subcentres. 7,445 patients were treated indoor and 173,094 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[33]

References

  1. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Pages 13-14: Physiography. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Page 117: Map of Harishchndrapur I CD Block. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  3. ^ "Katihar CD Block/ Tehsil Map". Maps of India. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Harishchandrapur I at a Glance". Maldah District. District administration. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  5. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Malda". Tables 2.1, 17.1. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  6. ^ "District Census Handbook: Maldah, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Map of Maldah with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fourth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2018.
  7. ^ "BDO Offices under Malda District". Deoartment of Mass Education Extension & Library Services, Government of West Bengal. West Bengal Public Library Network. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  8. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Malda district - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  10. ^ "District Census Handbook: Maldah, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Brief Analysis of Inset Tables based on Primary Census Abstract 2011 (Inset Tables 1-35), Table I: Decadal change in population of Tahsils (Sub-district) by Residence, 2001-2011, Page 50. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  11. ^ a b "District Human Development Report, Malda". pages 11-14. Department of Planning, Statistics and Programme Monitoring, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  12. ^ "District Statistical Handbook". Malda - Table 2.3 Growth of Population by sex on different census years in the district of Malda. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  13. ^ "Census of India 2011: Provisional Totals for West Bengal". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Provisional population totals Paper I: West Bengal". Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  15. ^ "District Human Development Report: North 24 Parganas" (PDF). Page 40, Table 3.2.1. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2010. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  16. ^ "Census of India 2011: District Census Handbook Maldah" (PDF). Series 20, Part XII B, Page 15. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  17. ^ "Census of India 2011: District Census Handbook Uttar Dinajpur" (PDF). Series 20, Part XII B, Page 14. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  18. ^ "Census of India 2011 District Census Handbook Murshidabad" (PDF). Series 20, Part XII B, Page 14. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  19. ^ "Bangladeshi Govt warns India of increased infiltration by jihadis". the quint. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  20. ^ "Infiltration decreasing through India Bangla border". Sunday Guardian. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  21. ^ "Why BSF wants 81.7 km of Indo-Bangla border fenced urgently". Rediff.com. 21 August 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  22. ^ "Bangladeshi Infiltrators – the Reality Check". The Pioneer, 27 June 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  23. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Pages 47-48: Mother tongue. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  24. ^ a b "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  25. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census of India 2011, Page 47: Religion. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  26. ^ "District Statistical Handbook Malda 2014". Table 2.10 (a). Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  27. ^ a b "District Human Development Report, Malda". pages 102-104. Department of Planning, Statistics and Programme Monitoring, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  28. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 33: Distribution of Workers by Sex in Four Categories ofEconomic Activity in Sub-district 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  29. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Table 30: Number and percentage of Main workers, Marginal workers and Non workers by Sex, in Sub-districts, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  30. ^ "District Census Handbook Maldah, Census of India 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Census Concepts and Definitions, Page 31. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 30 October 2018.
  31. ^ "District Census Handbook, Maldah, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 80-81 Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities,2011. Directorate of Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
  32. ^ "District Human Development Report, Malda". pages 91-100. Department of Planning, Statistics and Programme Monitoring, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  33. ^ a b c d e f "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Malda". Tables 16.1, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  34. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Funds: Programme Guidelines" (PDF). Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  35. ^ "Backward Regions Grant Fund". Press Release, 14 June 2012. Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
  36. ^ "Old Malda Singhabad Passenger 55710". India Rail Info.
  37. ^ "55711/ Malda Town-New Jalpaiguri Passenger". indiarailinfo. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
  38. ^ "District Census Handbook, Malda, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 720-21, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 3 November 2018.
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