Listen to this article

Hammer and sickle

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A red hammer and sickle, in the shape it appeared (in gold) on the Soviet Union's flag from 1955 to 1991

The hammer and sickle is a symbol of proletarian solidarity that was first adopted – as Russian: серп и мо́лот, translit. serp i mólot: "sickle and hammer" – during the Russian Revolution. At the time of its creation, the hammer stood for the industrial working class and the sickle for the peasantry—combined they stood for the worker-peasant alliance for socialism. The sickle symbol resembles a sickle used to harvest grain crops and the hammer is one that would be used to make a razor sharp edge on a sickle or scythe.

After World War I (from which Russia withdrew in the year 1917) and the Russian Civil War, the hammer and sickle became more widely used as a symbol for peaceful labor within the Soviet Union and for international proletarian unity. It was taken up by many communist movements around the world, some with local variations. Today, even after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the hammer and sickle remains commonplace in Russia and other former union republics, but its display is prohibited in some other former Communist countries as well as in countries where Communism is banned by law.

The display of the hammer and sickle symbol is banned in some parts of the world like Indonesia since it is known to be the symbol of communism which is a banned ideology in Indonesia following the 1965‒1966 killings of communists.

History

The chilean peso used the hammer and sickle symbol between 1895 and 1940

Worker symbolism

Farm and worker instruments and tools have long been used as symbols for proletarian struggle.

The combination of hammer and sickle symbolised the combination of farmers and construction workers. One example of use prior to its political instrumentalisation by the Soviet Union is found in Chilean currency circulating since 1895.[1]

An alternative example is the combination of a hammer and a plough, with the same meaning (unity of peasants and workers). In Ireland, the symbol of the plough remains in use. The Starry Plough banner was originally used by the Irish Citizen Army, a socialist republican workers' militia. James Connolly, co-founder of the Irish Citizen Army with Jack White, said the significance of the banner was that a free Ireland would control its own destiny from the plough to the stars. A sword is forged into the plough to symbolise the end of war with the establishment of a Socialist International. This was unveiled in 1914 and flown by the Irish Citizen Army during the 1916 Easter Rising.

The Plough flag from 1914 and flown during the Easter Rising

Inception

In 1917, Vladimir Lenin and Anatoly Lunacharsky held a competition to create a Soviet emblem. The winning design was a hammer and sickle on top of a globe in rays of the sun, surrounded by a wreath of grain and under a five-pointed star, with the inscription "proletariats of the world, unite!" in six languages (Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani). It originally featured a sword, but Lenin strongly objected, disliking the violent connotations.[2] The winning designer was Yevgeny Ivanovich Kamzolkin (1885–1957).[3][4]

On 6 July 1923, the 2nd session of the Central Executive Committee (CIK) adopted this emblem.[2]

Usage in the Soviet Union

The first State Emblem of the Soviet Union (1923–1936)

Meaning

At the time of creation, the hammer and sickle stood for worker-peasant alliance, with the hammer a traditional symbol of the industrial proletariat (who dominated the proletariat of Russia) and the sickle a traditional symbol for the peasantry, but the meaning has since broadened to a globally recognizable symbol for Marxism, Marxist parties, or socialist states.[2]

In the Soviet Union, the hammer and sickle came to take on a gendered meaning, with the sickle coming to be associated with women and the hammer men.[2]

Current usage

Post-Soviet states

The flag of Transnistria is based on the flag formerly used by the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
The flag of Oryol incorporates the flag formerly used by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Two federal subjects of the post-Soviet Russian Federation use the hammer and sickle in their symbols: the Vladimir Oblast has them on its flag and the Bryansk Oblast has them on its flag and coat of arms, which is also the central element of its flag. In addition, the Russian city of Oryol also uses the hammer and sickle on its flag.

The former Soviet (now Russian) national airline, Aeroflot, continues to use the hammer and sickle in its symbol.

The hammer and sickle can be found as a logo on most ushanka hats, usually the Soviet-styled ones

The de facto government of Transnistria uses (with minor modifications) the flag and the emblem of the former Moldavian SSR, which includes the hammer and sickle. The flag can also appear without the hammer and sickle in some circumstances, for example on Transnistrian-issued license plates.

Communist parties

Three out of the five currently ruling Communist parties use a hammer and sickle as the party symbol: the Communist Party of China, the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Lao People's Revolutionary Party. All of these use the yellow-on-red colour scheme. In Laos and Vietnam, the hammer and sickle party flags can often be seen flying side-by-side with their respective national flags.

Many communist parties around the world also use it, including the Communist Party of Greece[5] Communist Party of Chile, the Communist Party of Brazil, the Egyptian Communist Party, the Communist Party of Pakistan, the Communist Party of Spain, the Communist Party of Denmark, the Communist Party of Norway, the Romanian Communist Party, the Lebanese Communist Party, the Communist Party of the Philippines and the Shining Path. The Communist Party of Sweden, the Portuguese Communist Party[6] and the Mexican Communist Party use the hammer and sickle imposed on the red star. The hammer and sickle accompanied by the yellow star is used by the Communist Refoundation Party, the main communist party in Italy.

Variations

Many symbols having similar structures and messages to the original have been designed. For example, the Angolan flag shows a segment of a cog, crossed by a machete and crowned with a socialist star while the flag of Mozambique features an AK-47 crossed by a hoe. In the logo of the Communist Party USA, a circle is formed by a half cog and a semicircular sickle-blade. A hammer is laid directly over the sickle's handle with the hammer's head at the logo's center. The logo of the Communist Party of Turkey consists of half a cog wheel crossed by a hammer, with a star on the top.

Tools represented in other designs include: the brush, sickle and hammer of the Workers' Party of Korea; the spade, flaming torch and quill used prior to 1984 by the British Labour Party (which was a socialist and not a communist party); the pickaxe and rifle used in communist Albania; and the hammer and compasses of the East German emblem and flag. The Far Eastern Republic of Russia used an anchor crossed over a spade or pickaxe, symbolising the union of the fishermen and miners. The Fourth International, founded by Leon Trotsky, uses a hammer and sickle symbol on which the number 4 is superimposed. The hammer and sickle in the Fourth International symbol are the opposite of other hammer and sickle symbols in that the head of the hammer is on the right side and the sickle end tip on the left. The Trotskyist League for the Fifth International merges a hammer with the number 5, using the number's lower arch to form the sickle.

The Communist Party of Britain (CGB) uses the hammer and dove symbol. Designed in 1988 by Michal Boncza, it is intended to highlight the party's connection to the peace movement. It is usually used in conjunction with the hammer and sickle and it appears on all of the CPB's publications. Some members of the CPB prefer one symbol over the other, although the party's 1994 congress reaffirmed the hammer and dove's position as the official emblem of the party. Similarly, the Communist Party of Israel uses a dove over the hammer and sickle as its symbol. The flag of the Guadeloupe Communist Party uses a sickle, turned to look like a majuscule G, to represent Guadeloupe.[7]

The flag of the Black Front, a Strasserist group founded by early Nazi Party members and expelled around the time of the Night of the Long Knives purge, along with his supporters and the Sturmabteilung and originator of the ideology and the Black Front himself Otto Strasser, featured a crossed hammer and sword, symbolizing the unity of the workers and military.

The flag of Burma (from 1974–2010) featured a bushel of rice superimposed on a cogwheel.

The flag of Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM, Party of the Revolution in Swahili), currently the ruling political party of Tanzania, has a slightly different symbol with a hammer and a hoe (jembe) instead of a sickle to represent the most common farm tool in Africa.

The National Bolshevik Party used the hammer and sickle in their flag, but colored black instead of gold and in a design similar to the Nazi flag, a brighter red flag than the USSR, with a black hammer and sickle on a white disk in the center.

Art

The hammer and sickle has long been a common theme in socialist realism, but it has also seen some depiction in non-Marxist popular culture. Andy Warhol who created many drawings and photographs of the hammer and sickle is the most famous example of this.

Legal status

In several countries in the former Eastern Bloc, there are laws that define the hammer and sickle as the symbol of a "totalitarian and criminal ideology" and the public display of the hammer and sickle and other Communist symbols such as the red star is considered a criminal offence. Georgia,[8] Hungary,[9] Latvia,[10] Lithuania,[11] Moldova (1 October 2012 – 4 June 2013)[12] and Ukraine[13][14][15] have banned communist symbols including this one. A similar law was considered in Estonia, but it eventually failed in a parliamentary committee.

The foreign ministers of Lithuania, Latvia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and the Czech Republic called for a European Union-wide ban on communist symbols in 2010, urging the European Union "to criminalize the approval, denial or belittling of communist crimes" and stating that "the denial of such crimes should be treated the same way as the denial of the Holocaust and must be banned by law".[16]

In February 2013, the Constitutional Court of Hungary annulled the ban on the use of symbols of fascist and communist dictatorships, including the hammer and sickle, the red star and the swastika, saying the ban was too broad and imprecise. The court also pointed to a judgement of the European Court of Human Rights in which Hungary was found guilty of violation of article 10, the right to freedom of expression.[17] In June 2013, the Constitutional Court of Moldova ruled that the Moldovan Communist Party’s symbols—the hammer and sickle—are legal and can be used.[18]

In Indonesia, the public display of communist symbols like the hammer and sickle is banned by decree following the 1965–1966 killings of communists.[19] In addition to being banned, the symbols are also highly stigmatized, similar to Nazi symbolism in the West.

In Poland, dissemination of items which are "mediums of fascist, communist or other totalitarian symbolism" was criminalized in 1997. However, the Constitutional Tribunal found this sanction to be unconstitutional in 2011.[20] In contrast to this treatment of the symbolism, promotion of fascist, communist and other ideology deemed totalitarian remains illegal.

A ban on the Hammer and sickle and other Communist symbols is currently also being considered in Brazil, the bill was introduced in 2016 but it has yet to be voted in Congress.

Usage

Flags

State emblems

Soviet Union (in the constitutional order)

Other

Logos

Unicode

In Unicode, the "hammer and sickle" symbol is U+262D (☭). It is part of the Miscellaneous Symbols (2600–26FF) code block. On systems where Compose key is available, it could be written as [Compose]+CCCP.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Chilean peso design, 1894". Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d "The Hammer and Sickle: The Role of Symbolism and Rituals in the Russian Revolution". Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  3. ^ International People's Tribunal 1965, "The Spectre of Hammer and Sickle". Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  4. ^ International Gallery of Contemporary Artists Archived 16 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  5. ^ "KKE - Αρχική". kke.gr.
  6. ^ "Estatutos do PCP, art. 72". pcp.pt/estatutos-do-pcp.
  7. ^ "Parti Communiste Guadeloupéen". flagspot.net.
  8. ^ Communist symbols to be banned in Georgia, BBC News, 4 May 2014, retrieved 13 May 2014
  9. ^ "Act C of 2012 on the Criminal Code, Section 335: Use of Symbols of Totalitarianism" (PDF). Ministry of Interior of Hungary. p. 97. Retrieved 21 February 2017. Any person who: a) distributes, b) uses before the public at large, or c) publicly exhibits, the swastika, the insignia of the SS, the arrow cross, the sickle and hammer, the five-pointed red star or any symbol depicting the above so as to breach public peace – specifically in a way to offend the dignity of victims of totalitarian regimes and their right to sanctity – is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by custodial arrest, insofar as the did not result in a more serious criminal offense.
  10. ^ Latvia Bans Soviet, Nazi Symbols, RIA Novosti, 21 June 2013, retrieved 14 September 2014
  11. ^ "Lithuanian ban on Soviet symbols". BBC News. 17 June 2008.
  12. ^ "Moldovan Parliament Bans Communist Symbols". Radio Free Europe. 12 July 2012.
  13. ^ Ukraine Bans Soviet-Era Symbols
  14. ^ LAW OF UKRAINE. On the condemnation of the communist and national socialist (Nazi) regimes, and prohibition of propaganda of their symbols
  15. ^ "Про засудження комуністичного та націонал-соціалістичного ... - від 09.04.2015 № 317-VIII". rada.gov.ua.
  16. ^ "EU refuses to ban denial of communist crimes". RT English.
  17. ^ "Hungary, hammer and sickle ban declared illegal". ANSA. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
  18. ^ "Constitutional Court rules that 'hammer and sickle' can be used". allmoldova.com. 5 June 2013. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
  19. ^ Dickie Christanto (20 October 2008). "Artists summoned over communist symbol exhibition". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 26 October 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
  20. ^ "Nowelizacja kodeksu karnego" (in Polish). 19 July 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2015.

External links

  • Media related to Hammer and sickle at Wikimedia Commons
  • Media related to Hammer and sickle in heraldry at Wikimedia Commons
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hammer_and_sickle&oldid=868221520"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammer_and_sickle
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Hammer and sickle"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA