Halloween (1978 film)

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Halloween
Halloween (1978) theatrical poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by John Carpenter
Produced by Debra Hill
Screenplay by
  • John Carpenter
  • Debra Hill
Starring
Music by John Carpenter
Cinematography Dean Cundey
Edited by
Production
companies
Distributed by
  • Compass International Pictures[1][2]
  • Aquarius Releasing[4]
Release date
  • October 25, 1978 (1978-10-25)
Running time
91 minutes[5]
Country United States
Language English
Budget $300,000–325,000[6][7][8]
Box office $60–70 million[6][7]

Halloween is a 1978 American slasher film directed and scored by John Carpenter, co-written with producer Debra Hill, and starring Donald Pleasence and Jamie Lee Curtis in her film debut. The film tells the story of serial killer Michael Myers as he stalks and kills teenage babysitters on Halloween night. The film predominately focuses on Michael who was committed to a sanitarium as a child for the murder of his older sister Judith Myers. Fifteen years later, he escapes to stalk and kill the people of the fictional town of Haddonfield, Illinois while being chased by his former psychiatrist, Samuel Loomis. Michael stalks Laurie Strode and her friends as they babysit.

The film was shot in the spring of 1978 in Southern California, and was released on October 25 by Compass International Pictures. It grossed $47 million at the box office in the United States and $23 million internationally for a total of $70 million worldwide, equivalent with roughly over $277 million as of 2018, selling almost 30 million tickets in 1978 and becoming one of the most profitable independent films. Primarily praised for its direction and musical score, many credit the film as the first in a long line of slasher films inspired by Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho (1960). Some critics have suggested that Halloween may encourage sadism and misogyny by audiences identifying with its villain. Others have suggested the film is a social critique of the immorality of youth and teenagers in 1970s America, with many of Myers' victims being sexually promiscuous substance abusers, while the lone heroine is depicted as innocent and pure, hence her survival. Nonetheless, Carpenter dismisses such analyses.

Halloween spawned a film franchise comprising seven successful films which helped construct an extensive backstory for its antagonist Michael Myers, sometimes narratively diverging entirely from previous installments. A remake was released in 2007, which itself was followed by a sequel in 2009. An eleventh installment, which serves as a direct sequel to the original film that ignores the existing sequels, was released in October 2018 with Curtis reprising her role for the fifth time in the series. Additionally, a novelization, video game, and comic book series have been based on the film. In 2006, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."

Plot

On Halloween night 1963, in the Midwestern town of Haddonfield, Illinois, six-year-old Michael Myers, dressed in a clown costume and mask, stabs his older sister Judith to death with a kitchen knife in their home. Fifteen years later, on October 30, 1978, Michael's child psychiatrist, Dr. Sam Loomis, and his colleague, Marion Chambers, arrive at Smith's Grove Sanitarium to escort Michael to court. Noticing that the patients are wandering about, Loomis exits the car to investigate, allowing Michael, who has escaped from the sanitarium, to steal Loomis's car. Returning home to Haddonfield, Michael kills a mechanic for his uniform and steals a white mask, knives, and rope from a local hardware store.

The next day, on Halloween, Michael stalks high school student Laurie Strode. Throughout the day, Laurie notices Michael following her, but her friends Annie Brackett and Lynda Van der Klok dismiss her concerns. Meanwhile, Loomis arrives in Haddonfield in search of Michael. After discovering that Judith Myers' headstone has been stolen from the local cemetery, he meets with Annie's father, Sheriff Leigh Brackett. The two begin their search at the former Myers house, where Loomis tries to warn the skeptical sheriff about the danger Michael possesses, explaining that Michael is pure evil and capable of further violence, despite years of catatonia. Sheriff Brackett patrols the streets while Loomis waits and watches the house, hoping Michael will return there.

Later that night, Laurie babysits Tommy Doyle, while Annie babysits Lindsey Wallace just across the street, unaware that Michael has followed them. When Annie's boyfriend, Paul, calls her to come and pick him up, she takes Lindsey over to the Doyle house to spend the night with Laurie and Tommy. Annie is just about to leave in her car when Michael, who was hiding in the back seat, strangles her before slitting her throat, killing her.

Soon after, Lynda and her boyfriend Bob Simms arrive at the Wallace house. After having sex, Bob goes downstairs to get a beer for Lynda, but Michael stabs him and pins him to a wall. Michael then poses as Bob in a ghost costume and confronts Lynda, who teases him, having no effect. Annoyed, Lynda calls Laurie, but Michael strangles Lynda to death with the telephone cord just as Laurie picks up. Meanwhile, Loomis discovers the stolen car and begins combing the streets.

After putting Tommy and Lindsey to bed, a suspicious Laurie goes over to the Wallace house. There, she finds the dead bodies of Annie, Bob, and Lynda in an upstairs bedroom, as well as Judith Myers' headstone. Horrified, Laurie cowers in the hallway where Michael suddenly appears and attacks her, slashing her arm. Barely escaping, Laurie races back to the Doyle house. Michael gets in and attacks her again, but Laurie manages to fend him off long enough for Tommy and Lindsey to escape. Loomis sees the two children fleeing the house, and goes to investigate, finding Michael and Laurie fighting upstairs. Loomis shoots Michael six times, knocking him off the balcony; when Loomis goes to check Michael's body, he finds it missing. Loomis stares off into the night, while Laurie begins sobbing in terror.

Cast

Analysis

Themes

Some feminist critics, according to historian Nicholas Rogers, "have seen the slasher movies since Halloween as debasing women in as decisive a manner as hard-core pornography."[9] Critics such as John Kenneth Muir state that female characters such as Laurie Strode survive not because of "any good planning" or their own resourcefulness, but sheer luck. Although she manages to repel the killer several times, in the end, Strode is rescued in Halloween and Halloween II only when Dr. Loomis arrives to shoot Myers.[10]

Other feminist scholars such as Carol J. Clover argue that despite the violence against women, Halloween and other slasher films turned women into heroines.[11] In many pre-Halloween horror films, women are depicted as helpless victims and are not safe until they are rescued by a strong masculine hero. Despite the fact that Loomis saves Strode, Clover asserts that Halloween initiates the role of the "final girl" who ultimately triumphs in the end. Strode fights back against Myers and severely wounds him.[12] Had Myers been a normal man, Strode's attacks would have killed him; even Loomis, the male hero of the story, who shoots Michael repeatedly at near point blank range with a large caliber handgun, cannot kill him.[13] Aviva Briefel argued that moments such as when Michael's face was temporarily revealed are meant to give pleasure to the male viewer. Briefel further argues that these moments are masochistic in nature and give pleasure to men because they are willingly submitting themselves to the women of the film; they submit themselves temporarily because it will make their return to authority even more powerful.[14] Critics, such as Pat Gill, see Halloween as a critique of American social values. She remarks that parental figures are almost entirely absent throughout the film, noting that when Laurie is attacked by Michael while babysitting, "No parents, either of the teenagers or of the children left in their charge, call to check on their children or arrive to keen over them."[15]

Another major theme found in the film is the dangers of premarital sex. Clover believes that killers in slasher films are fueled by a "psychosexual fury"[16] and that all the killings are sexual in nature. She reinforces this idea by saying that "guns have no place in slasher films" and when examining the film I Spit on Your Grave she notes that "a hands-on killing answers a hands-on rape in a way that a shooting, even a shooting preceded by a humiliation, does not."[17] Equating sex with violence is important in Halloween and the slasher genre according to Pat Gill, who made a note of this in her essay "The Monstrous Years: Teens, Slasher Films, and the Family". She remarks that Laurie's friends "think of their babysitting jobs as opportunities to share drinks and beds with their boyfriends. One by one they are killed ... by Michael Myers an asylum escapee who years ago at the age of six murdered his sister for preferring sex to taking care of him."[15]

The dangers of suburbia is another major theme that runs throughout the film and the slasher genre at large: Pat Gill states that slasher films "seem to mock white flight to gated communities, in particular the attempts of parents to shield their children from the dangerous influences represented by the city."[18] Halloween and slasher films, generally, represent the underside of suburbia.[19] Myers was raised in a suburban household and after he escapes the mental hospital he returns to his hometown to kill again; Myers is a product of the suburban environment.[18]

Michael is thought by some to represent evil in the film. This is based on the common belief that evil never dies, nor evil shows any remorse. This idea is demonstrated in the film when Dr. Loomis discusses Michael's history with the sheriff. Loomis states, "I spent eight years trying to reach him [Michael Myers], and then another seven trying to keep him locked up because I realized that what was living behind that boy's eyes was purely and simply ... evil." Loomis also refers to Michael as "evil" when he hijacks his car at the sanitarium.[20]

Carpenter himself dismisses the notion that Halloween is a morality play, regarding it as merely a horror film.[21] According to Carpenter, critics "completely missed the point there". He explains, "The one girl who is the most sexually uptight just keeps stabbing this guy with a long knife. She's the most sexually frustrated. She's the one that's killed him. Not because she's a virgin but because all that sexually repressed energy starts coming out. She uses all those phallic symbols on the guy."[21]

Aesthetic elements

A man and woman embracing on a couch
Judith Myers and her boyfriend, as viewed from the point-of-view of young Michael Myers; this voyeuristic perspective is a distinguishing feature of the film's opening scene

Historian Nicholas Rogers notes that film critics contend that Carpenter's direction and camera work made Halloween a "resounding success."[22] Roger Ebert remarks, "It's easy to create violence on the screen, but it's hard to do it well. Carpenter is uncannily skilled, for example, at the use of foregrounds in his compositions, and everyone who likes thrillers knows that foregrounds are crucial . ... "[23] The opening title, featuring a jack-o'-lantern placed against a black backdrop, sets the mood for the entire film. The camera slowly moves toward the jack-o'-lantern's left eye as the main title theme plays. After the camera fully closes in, the jack-o'-lantern's light dims and goes out. Film historian J.P. Telotte says that this scene "clearly announces that [the film's] primary concern will be with the way in which we see ourselves and others and the consequences that often attend our usual manner of perception."[24] Carpenter's first-person point-of-view compositions were employed with steadicam; Telotte argues, "As a result of this shift in perspective from a disembodied, narrative camera to an actual character's eye ... we are forced into a deeper sense of participation in the ensuing action."[25] Along with the 1974 Canadian horror film Black Christmas, Halloween made use of seeing events through the killer's eyes.[26]

The first scene of the young Michael's voyeurism is followed by the murder of Judith seen through the eye holes of Michael's clown costume mask. According to scholar Nicholas Rogers, Carpenter's "frequent use of the unmounted first-person camera to represent the killer's point of view ... invited [viewers] to adopt the murderer's assaultive gaze and to hear his heavy breathing and plodding footsteps as he stalked his prey."[22] Film analysts have also noted its delayed or withheld representations of violence, characterized as the "false startle" or "the old tap-on-the-shoulder routine" in which the stalkers, murderers, or monsters "lunge into our field of vision or creep up on a person."[27] Critic Susan Stark described the film's opening sequence in her 1978 review:

In a single, wonderfully fluid tracking shot, the camera establishes the quiet character of a suburban street, the sexual hanky-panky going on between a teenage couple in one of the staid-looking homes, the departure of the boyfriend, a hand in the kitchen drawer removing a butcher's knife, the view on the way upstairs from behind the eye-slits of a Halloween mask, the murder of a half-nude young girl seated at her dressing table, the descent downstairs and whammo! The killer stands speechless on the lawn, holding the bloody knife, a small boy in a satin clown suit with a newly-returned parent on each side shrieking in an attempt to find out what the spectacle means.[28]

Production

Concept

After viewing Carpenter's film Assault on Precinct 13 (1976) at the Milan Film Festival, independent film producer Irwin Yablans and financier Moustapha Akkad sought out Carpenter to direct a film for them about a psychotic killer that stalked babysitters.[29][30] In an interview with Fangoria magazine, Yablans stated: "I was thinking what would make sense in the horror genre, and what I wanted to do was make a picture that had the same impact as The Exorcist."[29] Carpenter agreed to direct the film contingent on his having full creative control,[31] and was paid a $10,000 for his work, which included writing, directing, and scoring the film.[32] He and his then-girlfriend Debra Hill began drafting a story originally titled The Babysitter Murders.[33] Yablans subsequently suggested setting the movie on Halloween night and naming it Halloween instead, to which Carpenter agreed.[33][34]

Screenplay

It took approximately 10 days to write the screenplay.[33] Yablans and Akkad ceded most of the creative control to writers Carpenter and Hill (whom Carpenter wanted as producer), but Yablans did offer several suggestions. According to a Fangoria interview with Hill, "Yablans wanted the script written like a radio show, with 'boos' every 10 minutes."[29] By Hill's recollection, the script took three weeks to write,[35] and much of the inspiration behind the plot came from Celtic traditions of Halloween such as the festival of Samhain. Although Samhain is not mentioned in the plot of the first film, Hill asserts that:

... the idea was that you couldn't kill evil, and that was how we came about the story. We went back to the old idea of Samhain, that Halloween was the night where all the souls are let out to wreak havoc on the living, and then came up with the story about the most evil kid who ever lived. And when John came up with this fable of a town with a dark secret of someone who once lived there, and now that evil has come back, that's what made Halloween work.[36]

I met this six year old child with this blank, pale, emotionless face, and the blackest eyes; the devil's eyes ... I realized what was living behind that boy's eyes was purely and simply ... evil.

—Loomis' description of a young Michael was inspired by John Carpenter's experience with a real life mental patient[37]

Hill, who had worked as a babysitter during her teenage years, wrote most of the female characters' dialogue,[38] while Carpenter drafted Loomis' speeches on the soullessness of Michael Myers. Many script details were drawn from Carpenter's and Hill's own backgrounds and early careers: The fictional town of Haddonfield, Illinois was derived from Haddonfield, New Jersey, where Hill was raised,[39] while several of the street names were taken from Carpenter's hometown of Bowling Green, Kentucky.[39] Laurie Strode was allegedly the name of one of Carpenter's old girlfriends,[40] while Michael Myers was the name of an English producer who had previously entered, with Yablans, Assault on Precinct 13 in various European film festivals.[29] Homage is also paid to Alfred Hitchcock with two characters' names: Tommy Doyle is named after Lt. Det. Thomas J. Doyle (Wendell Corey) from Rear Window (1954),[41] and Dr. Loomis' name was derived from Sam Loomis (John Gavin) from Psycho, the boyfriend of Marion Crane (Janet Leigh, who is the real-life mother of Jamie Lee Curtis).[33] Sheriff Leigh Brackett shared the name of a Hollywood screenwriter and frequent collaborator of Howard Hawks.[42]

In devising the backstory for the film's villain, Michael Myers, Carpenter drew on "haunted house" folklore that exists in many small American communities: "Most small towns have a kind of haunted house story of one kind or another," he stated. "At least that's what teenagers believe. There's always a house down the lane that somebody was killed in, or that somebody went crazy in."[43] Carpenter's inspiration for the "evil" that Michael would embody came from a visit he had taken during college to a psychiatric institution in Kentucky.[44] There, he visited a ward with his psychology classmates where "the most serious, mentally ill patients" were held.[44] Among those patients was an adolescent boy, who possessed a blank, "schizophrenic stare."[37] Carpenter's experience would inspire the characterization that Loomis would give of Michael to Sheriff Brackett in the film.[37]

Casting

Donald Pleasence plays Dr. Sam Loomis, the hero of the film.
Jamie Lee Curtis, in her feature film debut, plays Laurie Strode, the heroine of the film.

The cast of Halloween included veteran actor Donald Pleasence and then-unknown actress Jamie Lee Curtis.[39] The low budget limited the number of big names that Carpenter could attract, and most of the actors received very little compensation for their roles. Pleasence was paid the highest amount at $20,000, Curtis received $8,000, and Nick Castle earned $25 a day.[29] The role of Dr. Loomis was originally intended for Peter Cushing, who had recently appeared as Grand Moff Tarkin in Star Wars (1977); Cushing's agent rejected Carpenter's offer due to the low salary.[45] Christopher Lee was also approached for the role; he too turned it down, although the actor would later tell Carpenter and Hill that declining the role was the biggest mistake he made during his career.[46] Yablans then suggested Pleasence, who agreed to star because his daughter Lucy, a guitarist, had enjoyed Assault on Precinct 13 for Carpenter's score.[47]

In an interview, Carpenter admits that "Jamie Lee wasn't the first choice for Laurie. I had no idea who she was. She was 19 and in a TV show at the time, but I didn't watch TV." He originally wanted to cast Anne Lockhart, the daughter of June Lockhart from Lassie, as Laurie Strode. However, Lockhart had commitments to several other film and television projects.[39] Hill says of learning that Jamie Lee was the daughter of Psycho actress Janet Leigh: "I knew casting Jamie Lee would be great publicity for the film because her mother was in Psycho."[48] Curtis was cast in the part, though she initially had reservations as she felt she identified more with the other female characters: "I was very much a smart alec, and was a cheerleader in high school, so [I] felt very concerned that I was being considered for the quiet, repressed young woman when in fact I was very much like the other two girls."[49]

Another relatively unknown actress, Nancy Kyes (credited in the film as Nancy Loomis), was cast as Laurie's outspoken friend Annie Brackett, daughter of Haddonfield sheriff Leigh Brackett (Charles Cyphers).[50] Kyes had previously starred in Assault on Precinct 13 (as had Cyphers) and happened to be dating Halloween's art director Tommy Lee Wallace when filming began.[51] Carpenter chose P. J. Soles to play Lynda Van Der Klok, another loquacious friend of Laurie's, best remembered in the film for dialogue peppered with the word "totally."[52] Soles was an actress known for her supporting role in Carrie (1976) and her minor part in The Boy in the Plastic Bubble (1976).[53] According to Soles, she was told after being cast that Carpenter had written the role with her in mind.[54] Soles's then-husband, actor Dennis Quaid, was considered for the role of Bob Simms, Lynda's boyfriend, but was unable to perform the role due to prior work commitments.[55]

The role of "The Shape" — as the masked Michael Myers character was billed in the end credits — was played by Nick Castle, who befriended Carpenter while they attended the University of Southern California.[56] After Halloween, Castle became a director, taking the helm of films such as The Last Starfighter (1984), The Boy Who Could Fly (1986), Dennis the Menace (1993), and Major Payne (1995).[57]

Filming

Akkad agreed to put up $300,000 for the film's budget, which was considered low at the time[29] (Carpenter's previous film, Assault on Precinct 13, had an estimated budget of $100,000). Akkad worried over the tight, four-week schedule, low budget, and Carpenter's limited experience as a filmmaker, but told Fangoria: "Two things made me decide. One, Carpenter told me the story verbally and in a suspenseful way, almost frame for frame. Second, he told me he didn't want to take any fees, and that showed he had confidence in the project". Carpenter received $10,000 for directing, writing, and composing the music, retaining rights to 10 percent of the film's profits.[58]

Man with slicked hair, staring into camera
Production designer Tommy Lee Wallace used a mask modeled after Captain Kirk from the Star Trek series (pictured), making various modifications such as painting it white, widening its eyes, and altering its hair

Because of the low budget, wardrobe and props were often crafted from items on hand or that could be purchased inexpensively. Carpenter hired Tommy Lee Wallace as production designer, art director, location scout and co-editor.[59] Wallace created the trademark mask worn by Michael Myers throughout the film from a Captain Kirk mask[60] purchased for $1.98 from a costume shop on Hollywood Boulevard.[29][61] Carpenter recalled how Wallace "widened the eye holes and spray-painted the flesh a bluish white. In the script it said Michael Myers's mask had 'the pale features of a human face' and it truly was spooky looking. I can only imagine the result if they hadn't painted the mask white. Children would be checking their closet for William Shatner after Tommy got through with it."[29] Hill adds that the "idea was to make him almost humorless, faceless—this sort of pale visage that could resemble a human or not."[29] Many of the actors wore their own clothes, and Curtis' wardrobe was purchased at J. C. Penney for around a hundred dollars.[29] Wallace described the filming process as uniquely collaborative, with cast members often helping move equipment, cameras, and helping facilitate set-ups.[62]

Halloween was filmed in 20 days over a four-week period in May 1978.[63][64] Much of the filming was completed using a Steadicam, a then-new camera that allowed the filmmakers to move around spaces smoothly.[65] Filming locations included South Pasadena, California; Garfield Elementary School in Alhambra; and the cemetery at Sierra Madre, California. An abandoned house owned by a church stood in as the Myers house. Two homes on Orange Grove Avenue (near Sunset Boulevard) in Hollywood were used for the film's climax, as the street had few palm trees, and thus more closely resembled a Midwestern street.[66] Some palm trees, however, are visible in the film's earlier establishing scenes.[67] The crew had difficulty finding pumpkins in the spring, and artificial fall leaves had to be reused for multiple scenes.[68] Local families dressed their children in Halloween costumes for trick-or-treat scenes.[29]

Carpenter worked with the cast to create the desired effect of terror and suspense. According to Curtis, Carpenter created a "fear meter" because the film was shot out-of-sequence and she was not sure what her character's level of terror should be in certain scenes. "Here's about a 7, here's about a 6, and the scene we're going to shoot tonight is about a 9½", remembered Curtis. She had different facial expressions and scream volumes for each level on the meter.[29] Carpenter's direction for Castle in his role as Myers was minimal.[69] For example, when Castle asked what Myers' motivation was for a particular scene, Carpenter replied that his motivation was to walk from one set marker to another and "not act."[70] By Carpenter's account the only direction he gave Castle was during the murder sequence of Bob, in which he told Castle to tilt his head and examine the corpse as if it "were a butterfly collection."[71]

Musical score

Lacking a symphonic soundtrack, the film's score consists of a piano melody played in a 10/8 or "complex 5/4" time signature composed and performed by director Carpenter.[72] It took Carpenter three days to compose the entire score for the film. Critic James Berardinelli calls the score "relatively simple and unsophisticated", but admits that "Halloween's music is one of its strongest assets".[73] Carpenter stated in an interview, "I can play just about any keyboard, but I can't read or write a note."[74] In the end credits, Carpenter bills himself as the "Bowling Green Philharmonic Orchestra" for performing the film's score, but he did receive assistance from composer Dan Wyman, a music professor at San José State University.[29][75]

Some songs can be heard in the film, one being an untitled song performed by Carpenter and a group of his friends who formed a band called The Coupe De Villes. The song is heard as Laurie steps into Annie's car on her way to babysit Tommy Doyle.[29] Another song, "(Don't Fear) The Reaper" by classic rock band Blue Öyster Cult, appears in the film.[76]

The soundtrack was first released in the United States in October 1983, by Varèse Sarabande/MCA.[citation needed] It was subsequently released on Compact Disc in 1985, re-released in 1990, and again in 2000.[citation needed] On the film's 40th anniversary, coinciding with the release of Anthology: Movie Themes 1974–1998, a cover of the theme by Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross was released.[77]

Release

Ad, The Village Voice, November 6, 1978: only known, published window for date of film's New York City premiere ("Held over ... 2nd week")[a]

Theatrical distribution

Halloween premiered on October 25, 1978 in downtown Kansas City, Missouri at the AMC Empire theatre. Regional distribution in the Philadelphia and New York City metropolitan areas was acquired by Aquarius Releasing.[4] The film had its Los Angeles debut on October 27, 1978,[79] playing on 232 screens for a total of four weeks.[4] It opened in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the following month on November 22, 1978.[80] The film grossed $47 million in the United States[8] and an additional $23 million internationally, making the theatrical total $70 million.[7]

On September 7, 2012, the official Halloween Movies Facebook page announced that the original Halloween would be theatrically re-released starting October 25, 2013 in celebration of the film's 35th anniversary in 2013. A new documentary was screened before the film at all locations, entitled, You Can't Kill the Boogeyman: 35 Years of Halloween, written and directed by HalloweenMovies.com webmaster Justin Beahm.[81][82]

Television rights

In 1980, the television rights to Halloween were sold to the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) for approximately $3 million.[83] After a debate among Carpenter, Hill and NBC's Standards and Practices over censoring of certain scenes, Halloween appeared on television for the first time in October 1981.[84] To fill the two-hour time slot, Carpenter filmed twelve minutes of additional material during the production of Halloween II. The newly filmed scenes include Dr. Loomis at a hospital board review of Michael Myers and Dr. Loomis talking to a then-6-year-old Michael at Smith's Grove, telling him, "You've fooled them, haven't you, Michael? But not me." Another extra scene features Dr. Loomis at Smith's Grove examining Michael's abandoned cell after his escape and seeing the word "Sister" scratched into the door.[83] Finally, a scene was added in which Lynda comes over to Laurie's house to borrow a silk blouse before Laurie leaves to babysit, just as Annie telephones asking to borrow the same blouse. The new scene had Laurie's hair hidden by a towel, since Curtis was by then wearing a much shorter hairstyle than she had worn in 1978.[85]

In August 2006, Fangoria reported that Synapse Films had discovered boxes of negatives containing footage cut from the film. One was labeled "1981" suggesting that it was additional footage for the television version of the film. Synapse owner Don May, Jr. said, "What we've got is pretty much all the unused original camera negative from Carpenter's original Halloween. Luckily, Billy [Kirkus] was able to find this material before it was destroyed. The story on how we got the negative is a long one, but we'll save it for when we're able to showcase the materials in some way. Kirkus should be commended for pretty much saving the Holy Grail of horror films."[86] It was later reported, "We just learned from Sean Clark, long time Halloween genius, that the footage found is just that: footage. There is no sound in any of the reels so far, since none of it was used in the final edit."[87]

Critical response

Contemporaneous

Upon its initial release, Halloween performed well with little advertising—relying mostly on word-of-mouth, but many critics seemed uninterested or dismissive of the film. Pauline Kael wrote a scathing review in The New Yorker suggesting that "Carpenter doesn't seem to have had any life outside the movies: one can trace almost every idea on the screen to directors such as Hitchcock and Brian De Palma and to the Val Lewton productions" and claiming that "Maybe when a horror film is stripped of everything but dumb scariness—when it isn't ashamed to revive the stalest device of the genre (the escaped lunatic)—it satisfies part of the audience in a more basic, childish way than sophisticated horror pictures do."[88]

Roger Ebert, an often vocal critic of slasher films,[89] praised Halloween upon its release

The Los Angeles Times deemed the film a "well-made but empty and morbid thriller,"[90] while Bill von Maurer of The Miami Times felt it was "surprisingly good," noting: "Taken on its own level, Halloween is a terrifying movie–if you are the right age and the right mood."[91] Susan Stark of the Detroit Free Press branded Halloween a bourgeoning cult film at the time of its release, describing it as "moody in the extreme" and praising its direction and music.[28] Some critics were less praising of the film, however, such as Lou Cedrone of The Baltimore Evening Sun who referred to it as "tediously familiar" and whose only notable element is "Jamie Lee Curtis, whose performance as the intended fourth victim, is well above the rest of the film."[92] Tom Allen of The Village Voice praised the film in his November 1978 review, noting it as sociologically irrelevant but ceding its Hitchcock-like technique as effective and "the most honest way to make a good schlock film". Allen pointed out the stylistic similarities to Psycho and George A. Romero's Night of the Living Dead (1968).[78]

The following month, Voice lead critic Andrew Sarris wrote a follow-up feature on cult films, citing Allen's appraisal of Halloween and saying in the lead sentence that the film "bids fair to become the cult discovery of 1978. Audiences have been heard screaming at its horrifying climaxes".[93] Roger Ebert gave the film similar praise in his 1979 review in the Chicago Sun-Times, referring to it as "a visceral experience–we aren't seeing the movie, we're having it happen to us. It's frightening. Maybe you don't like movies that are really scary: Then don't see this one."[23] Ebert also selected it as one of his top ten films of 1978.[94] Once-dismissive critics were impressed by Carpenter's choice of camera angles and simple music, and surprised by the lack of blood and graphic violence.[73] On review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 93% based on 59 reviews, with an average rating of 8.6/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Scary, suspenseful, and viscerally thrilling, Halloween set the standard for modern horror films."[95] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 80 out of 100 based on 12 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[96]

Retrospective

Many compared the film with the work of Alfred Hitchcock, although TV Guide calls comparisons made to Psycho "silly and groundless"[97] and some critics in the late 1980s and early 1990s blamed the film for spawning the slasher subgenre, which they felt had rapidly descended into sadism and misogyny.[9][98] Scholars such as Adam Rockoff dispute the recurring descriptions of Halloween as overtly violent or gory, commenting that the film is in fact "one of the most restrained horror films," showing very little onscreen violence.[99] Almost a decade after its premiere, Mick Martin and Marsha Porter critiqued the first-person camera shots that earlier film reviewers had praised and later slasher-film directors utilized for their own films (for example, 1980's Friday the 13th). Claiming it encouraged audience identification with the killer, Martin and Porter pointed to the way "the camera moves in on the screaming, pleading, victim, 'looks down' at the knife, and then plunges it into chest, ear, or eyeball. Now that's sick."[98]

Years after its debut, Halloween enjoys a reputation as a classic[95] and is considered by many as one of the best films of 1978.[94][100][101][102][103]

Home media

Since Halloween's premiere, it has been released in several home video formats. Early VHS versions were released by Media Home Entertainment.[104] This release subsequently became a collectors' item, with one copy from 1979 selling on eBay for $13,000 in 2013.[104] On August 3, 1995, Blockbuster Video issued a commemorative edition of the film on VHS.[105]

The film was released for the first time on DVD in the United States by Anchor Bay Entertainment on October 28, 1997.[106] Over the ensuing years, Anchor Bay re-released the film on DVD in various editions; among these were an "extended edition," released in 1999, which features the original theatrical release with the scenes that were shot for the broadcast TV version edited in at their proper places.[107] The same year, Anchor Bay issued a two-disc limited edition, which featured both the theatrical and "extended editions," as well as lenticular cover art and lobby cards.[108] In 2003, Anchor Bay released a two-disc "25th Anniversary edition" with improved DiviMax picture and audio, along with an audio commentary by Carpenter, Curtis and Hill, among other features.[109]

On October 2, 2007, the film was released for the first time on Blu-ray by Anchor Bay.[110] The following year, a "30th Anniversary Commemorative Set" was issued, containing DVD and Blu-ray versions of the film, the sequels Halloween 4: The Return of Michael Myers and Halloween 5: The Revenge of Michael Myers, and a replica Michael Myers mask.[111] A 35th-anniversary Blu-ray was released in October 2013, featuring a new transfer supervised by cinematographer Dean Cundey.[112] This release earned a Saturn Award for Best Classic Film Release.[113] In September 2014, Scream Factory teamed with Anchor Bay Entertainment to release the film as part of a Blu-ray boxed set featuring every film in the series (up to 2009's Halloween II), made available as in a standard and limited edition.[114]

The film was released by Lionsgate Home Entertainment in a Ultra HD Blu-ray and Blu-ray edition for the film's 40th anniversary.

Accolades

Halloween was nominated for the Saturn Award for Best Horror Film by the Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films in 1979, but lost to The Wicker Man (1973).[115] In 2001, Halloween ranked #68 on the American Film Institute TV program 100 Years ... 100 Thrills.[116] The film was #14 on Bravo's The 100 Scariest Movie Moments (2004).[117] Similarly, the Chicago Film Critics Association named it the 3rd scariest film ever made.[118] In 2006, Halloween was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."[119] In 2008, the film was selected by Empire magazine as one of The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time.[120] In 2010, Total Film selected the film as one of The 100 Greatest Movies of All Time.[121]

American Film Institute lists

Influence

Halloween is a widely influential film within the horror genre; it was largely responsible for the popularization of slasher films in the 1980s. Halloween popularized many tropes that have become completely synonymous with the slasher genre. Halloween helped to popularize the final girl trope, the killing off of characters who are substance abusers or sexually promiscuous,[122] and the use of a theme song for the killer. Carpenter also shot many scenes from the perspective of the killer in order to build tension. These elements have become so established that many historians argue that Halloween is responsible for the new wave of horror that emerged during the 1980s.[123][124] Due to its popularity, Halloween became a blueprint for success that many other horror films, such as Friday the 13th and A Nightmare on Elm Street, would follow, and that others like Scream would satirise.[citation needed]

The major themes present in Halloween would also become common in the slasher films it inspired. Film scholar Pat Gill notes that in Halloween, there is a theme of absentee parents[15] but films such as A Nightmare on Elm Street and Friday the 13th feature the parents becoming directly responsible for the creation of the killer.[125]

There are slasher films that predated Halloween, such as Silent Night, Bloody Night (1972), The Texas Chain Saw Massacre (1974) and Black Christmas (1974) which contained prominent elements of the slasher genre; both involving a group of teenagers being murdered by a stranger as well having the final girl trope. Halloween, however, is considered by historians as being responsible for the new wave of horror films, because it not only used these tropes but also pioneered many others.[123][124] Rockoff notes that it is "difficult to overestimate the importance of Halloween," noting its pioneering use of the final girl character, subjective point-of-view shots, and holiday setting.[126] Rockoff considers the film "the blueprint for all slashers and the model against which all subsequent films are judged."[126]

Related works

Novelization and video game

A mass market paperback novelization of the same name, written by Curtis Richards (a pseudonym that was used by author Richard Curtis), was published by Bantam Books in 1979. It was reissued in 1982.[127] it later went out of print. The novelization adds aspects not featured in the film, such as the origins of the curse of Samhain and Michael Myers' life in Smith's Grove Sanatorium, which contradict its source material. For example, the novel's version of Michael speaks during his time at the sanitarium;[128] in the film, Dr. Loomis states, "He hasn't spoken a word in fifteen years."

In 1983, Halloween was adapted as a video game for the Atari 2600 by Wizard Video.[129] None of the main characters in the game were named. Players take on the role of a teenage babysitter who tries to save as many children from an unnamed, knife-wielding killer as possible.[130] In another effort to save money, most versions of the game did not even have a label on the cartridge. It was simply a piece of tape with "Halloween" written in marker.[131] The game contained more gore than the film, however. When the babysitter is killed, her head disappears and is replaced by blood pulsating from the neck as she runs around exaggeratedly. The game's primary similarity to the film is the theme music that plays when the killer appears onscreen.[132]

Sequels and remake

Halloween spawned seven sequels, a 2007 remake directed by Rob Zombie, and a 2009 sequel to the remake, which is unrelated to the sequel of the original.[133][134] Of these films, only the first sequel was written by Carpenter and Hill. It begins exactly where Halloween ends and was intended to finish the story of Michael Myers and Laurie Strode. Halloween II was a box office success, becoming the second-highest grossing horror film of 1981 behind An American Werewolf in London.[135] Carpenter did not direct any of the subsequent films in the Halloween series, although he did produce Halloween III: Season of the Witch (1982), the plot of which is unrelated to the other films in the series due to the absence of Michael Myers.[136] He, along with Alan Howarth, also composed the music for the second and third films. After the negative critical and commercial reception for Season of the Witch, the filmmakers brought back Michael Myers in Halloween 4: The Return of Michael Myers (1988), which was successful enough to warrant its own direct sequel with Halloween 5: The Revenge of Michael Myers (1989), as well as Halloween: The Curse of Michael Myers (1995).[137] Financier Moustapha Akkad continued to work closely with the Halloween franchise, acting as executive producer of every sequel until his death in the 2005 Amman bombings.[138]

With the exception of Halloween III, the sequels further develop the character of Michael Myers and the Samhain theme. Even without considering the third film, the Halloween series contains continuity issues, which some sources attribute to the different writers and directors involved in each film.[139]

A new sequel to the 1978 original was released in the United States in October 2018. The 2018 sequel, directed by David Gordon Green, is set 40 years after the original film. The plot follows Laurie Strode as she prepares to face Michael Myers in a final confrontation when he returns to Haddonfield, Illinois to finish her off for escaping his killing spree on Halloween night in 1978. Jamie Lee Curtis and Nick Castle reprise their roles as Strode and Myers, respectively, with stuntman James Jude Courtney also portraying Myers. The film also stars Judy Greer, Andi Matichak, Will Patton, and Virginia Gardner.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the review gives no New York City premiere date or specific theater, a display advertisement on page 72 reads: "Held over! 2nd week of horror! At a Flagship Theatre near you". Per the movie listings on pages 82, 84 and 85, respectively, it played at four since-defunct theaters: the Essex, located at 375 Grand Street in Chinatown, per Cinema Treasures: Essex Theatre; the RKO 86th Street Twin, on East 86th Street near Lexington Avenue; the Rivoli, located at 1620 Broadway, in the Times Square area, per Cinema Treasures: Rivoli Theatre; and the Times Square Theater, located at 217 West 42nd Street, per Treasures:Times Square Theater[78]

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External links

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