Halifax (UK Parliament constituency)

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Halifax
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Halifax in West Yorkshire.
Outline map
Location of West Yorkshire within England.
County 1832–1974: West Riding of Yorkshire
1974–present: West Yorkshire
Electorate 69,126 (December 2010)[1]
Major settlements Halifax, Sowerby Bridge
Current constituency
Created 1832
Member of parliament Holly Lynch (Labour)
Number of members 1832–1918: Two
1918–present: One
Created from Yorkshire
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency Yorkshire and the Humber

Halifax is a constituency[n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2015 by Holly Lynch of the Labour Party.[n 2]

Boundaries

1918-1983: The County Borough of Halifax.

1983-2010: The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale wards of Illingworth, Mixenden, Northowram and Shelf, Ovenden, St John's, Skircoat, Sowerby Bridge, Town, and Warley.

2010-present: The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale wards of Illingworth and Mixenden, Northowram and Shelf, Ovenden, Park, Skircoat, Sowerby Bridge, Town, and Warley.

This constituency covers the large town of Halifax in West Yorkshire and includes the smaller town of Sowerby Bridge which adjoins Halifax but until 1974 was a separate Urban District.

History

The parliamentary borough was granted in the Great Reform Act 1832 and returned from that year until 1918 two members. A county borough recognized the density of the developed area in 1888 which provided most functions for inhabitants, retaining the West Yorkshire ceremonial county. The municipal or county borough was under a mayor, five aldermen and 45 councillors and had an area of 13,967 acres (56.52 km2).[2]

At the time of the Norman Conquest, Halifax formed part of the extensive manor of Wakefield, which belonged to the king, but in the 13th century was in the hands of John Earl de Warrenne aka. Earl of Surrey (1231–1304).[n 3] The prosperity of the town began with the first woollen products workshop established here in 1414, when there are said to have been only thirteen houses, which before the end of the 16th century had increased to 520.[2] Camden, about the end of the 17th century, wrote that "the people are very industrious, so that though the soil about it be barren and improfitable, not fit to live on, they have so flourished ... by the clothing trade that they are very rich and have gained a reputation for it above their neighbours."[3] The manufacturing standards and trade were improved by the arrival of certain merchants and clothworkers driven from the Spanish Netherlands by the persecution by the Duke of Alva.[3]

Halifax was a borough by prescription[n 4] rather than a medieval parliamentary borough, its privileges[n 5] growing up with the increased prosperity brought by the cloth trade, but it was not incorporated until 1848. From 1832 until 1918 the town's property-qualifying residents paying scot and lot returned two members to parliament.[n 6][3]

Constituency profile

As of 2001, the town in the Pennines was relatively affluent, not afflicted by the high levels of unemployment, underemployment and crime seen in a few wards of the Yorkshire and Humber region but most constituents had modest incomes and there was some social housing in certain wards.[4] Since 1987 the MP has been in the Labour Party; before that date for four years it was held by a Conservative MP, but generally since the Second World War it has been a Labour seat.

The Conservative Party launched their election manifesto at Dean Clough Mill, Halifax prior to the 2017 general election and targeted the seat fairly heavily, as the Labour majority in the seat had fallen to just 428 votes, or 1% of the total vote, two years prior; however, Lynch increased her majority by almost 5,000 votes, giving Labour their biggest majority in Halifax since 2001.

Members of Parliament

MPs 1832–1918

Election 1st Member[5] 1st Party 2nd Member[5] 2nd Party
1832 Rawdon Briggs Whig[6] Sir Charles Wood Whig[7][8][9][10][11][6][12]
1835 James Stuart-Wortley Conservative[6]
1837 Edward Davis Protheroe Radical[12][13][14]
1847 Henry Edwards Conservative
1852 Sir Francis Crossley Radical[15][16][17][18]
1859 Sir James Stansfeld Liberal Liberal
1865 Edward Akroyd Liberal
1874 John Crossley Liberal
1877 by-election John Dyson Hutchinson Liberal
1882 by-election Thomas Shaw Liberal
1893 by-election William Rawson Shaw Liberal
1895 Alfred Arnold Conservative
1897 by-election Alfred Billson Liberal
1900 Sir Savile Crossley Liberal Unionist John Henry Whitley Liberal
1906 James Parker Labour

MPs since 1918

Representation reduced to one member, 1918

Election Member[5] Party
1918 John Henry Whitley Liberal
1921 Speaker
1928 by-election Arthur Longbottom Labour
1931 Gilbert Gledhill Conservative
1945 Dryden Brook Labour
1955 Maurice Macmillan Conservative
1964 Shirley Summerskill Labour
1983 Roy Galley Conservative
1987 Alice Mahon Labour
2005 Linda Riordan Labour
2015 Holly Lynch Labour

Elections

1840s1850s1860s1870s1880s1890s1900s1910s1920s1930s1940s1950s1960s1970s1980s1990s2000s2010s

Elections in the 2010s

Holly Lynch
General Election 2017: Halifax[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Holly Lynch 25,507 52.7 +12.7
Conservative Chris Pearson 20,131 41.6 +2.6
UKIP Mark Weedon 1,568 3.2 -9.6
Liberal Democrat James Baker 1,070 2.2 -1.5
Majority 5,376 11.1 +10.1
Turnout 48,375 67.9 +5.8
Labour hold Swing +5.0
General Election 2015: Halifax[20][21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Holly Lynch 17,506 40.0 +2.6
Conservative Philip Allott 17,078 39.0 +5.0
UKIP Liz Phillips 5,621 12.8 +11.3
Liberal Democrat Mohammad Ilyas 1,629 3.7 -15.4
Green Gary Scott 1,142 2.6 N/A
Respect Asama Javed 465 1.1 N/A
Christian Trevor Bendrien 312 0.7 N/A
Majority 428 1.0 -2.4
Turnout 43,753 62.1 +0.2
Labour hold Swing
General Election 2010: Halifax[22][23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op Linda Riordan 16,278 37.4 -4.4
Conservative Philip Allott 14,806 34.0 +0.8
Liberal Democrat Elisabeth Wilson 8,335 19.1 +1.2
BNP Tom Bates 2,760 6.3 -0.3
Independent Voice for Halifax Diane Park 722 1.7 N/A
UKIP Jay Sangha 654 1.5 N/A
Majority 1,472 3.4 -5.4
Turnout 43,555 61.9 +0.9
Labour hold Swing -2.6

Elections in the 2000s

General Election 2005: Halifax[24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Co-op Linda Riordan 16,579 41.8 −7.2
Conservative Kris Hopkins 13,162 33.2 −0.6
Liberal Democrat Michael Taylor 7,100 17.9 +3.3
BNP Geoff Wallace 2,627 6.6 N/A
National Front Tom Holmes 191 0.5 N/A
Majority 3,417 8.6
Turnout 39,659 61.1 +3.3
Labour Co-op hold Swing −3.3
General Election 2001: Halifax[25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Alice Mahon 19,800 49.0 −5.3
Conservative James Walsh 13,671 33.8 +1.7
Liberal Democrat John Durkin 5,878 14.6 +2.6
UKIP Helen Martinek 1,041 2.6 +1.0
Majority 6,129 15.2
Turnout 40,390 57.8 −12.7
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1990s

General Election 1997: Halifax[26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Alice Mahon 27,465 54.3 +10.8
Conservative Robert Light 16,253 32.1 -10.6
Liberal Democrat Edgar Waller 6,059 12.0 -0.7
UKIP Constance Whittaker 779 1.5 N/A
Majority 11,212 22.2 +21.4
Turnout 50,556 70.5
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1992: Halifax[27][28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Alice Mahon 25,115 43.5 +0.1
Conservative TR Martin 24,637 42.7 +1.4
Liberal Democrat Ian R. Howell 7,364 12.7 −2.6
Independent Nationalist Ron Pearson 649 1.1 +1.1
Majority 478 0.8 −1.3
Turnout 57,765 78.7 +1.0
Labour hold Swing −0.6

Elections in the 1980s

General Election 1987: Halifax[29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Alice Mahon 24,741 43.38
Conservative Roy Galley 23,529 41.26
Social Democratic Laurence Cockcroft 8,758 15.36
Majority 1,212 2.13
Turnout 77.70
Labour gain from Conservative Swing
General Election 1983: Halifax[30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Roy Galley 22,321 40.85
Labour Shirley Summerskill 20,452 37.43
Social Democratic F. Cockroft 11,868 21.72
Majority 1,869 3.42
Turnout 75.11
Conservative gain from Labour Swing

Elections in the 1970s

General Election 1979: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Shirley Summerskill 21,416 43.79
Conservative J. Ford 20,182 41.27
Liberal Allen Clegg 6,853 14.01
National Front B. Wadsworth 455 0.93
Majority 1,234 2.52
Turnout 76.69
Labour hold Swing
General Election October 1974: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Shirley Summerskill 20,976 44.27
Conservative S.R. Lyons 16,798 35.45
Liberal Allen Clegg 8,693 18.35
Powellite R.S. Pearson 919 1.94
Majority 4,178 8.82
Turnout 74.55
Labour hold Swing
General Election February 1974: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Shirley Summerskill 20,970 40.93
Conservative S.R. Lyons 17,967 35.07
Liberal Allen Clegg 12,300 24.01
Majority 3,003 5.86
Turnout 81.27
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1970: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Shirley Summerskill 24,026 49.33
Conservative G Anthony Turner 23,828 48.93
Ind. Labour Party Alistair Graham 847 1.74
Majority 198 0.41
Turnout 73.51
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s

General Election 1966: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Shirley Summerskill 25,391 50.28
Conservative G Anthony Turner 19,689 38.99
Liberal Derek Arthur Carlin 5,423 10.74
Majority 5,702 11.29
Turnout 80.48
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1964: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Shirley Summerskill 23,143 43.76
Conservative Maurice Macmillan 22,085 41.75
Liberal James Francis Crossley 7,664 14.49
Majority 1,058 2.00
Turnout 82.06
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1950s

General Election 1959: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Maurice Macmillan 29,212 52.25
Labour Peter Shore 26,697 47.75
Majority 2,515 4.50
Turnout 83.26
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1955: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Maurice Macmillan 28,306 51.39
Labour Dryden Brook 26,771 48.61
Majority 1,535 2.79
Turnout 80.15
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General Election 1951: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dryden Brook 30,433 50.63
Conservative Charles Henry Lucas 29,670 49.37
Majority 763 1.27
Turnout 84.25
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1950: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dryden Brook 28,800 47.70
Conservative Charles Henry Lucas 20,456 33.88
Liberal Arthur Pickles 9,573 15.85
National Liberal and Conservative R.H. Blackburn 1,551 2.57
Majority 8,344 13.82
Turnout 85.09
Labour hold Swing
  • Blackburn was a vice-president of the Bradford Conservative Association. He was nominated after the Conservative and Liberal associations in the division had failed to reach agreement on the proposal for a joint anti-Labour candidate.[31]

Elections in the 1940s

General Election 1945: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Dryden Brook 25,605 46.5 +7.0
Conservative Gilbert Gledhill 14,824 26.9 -17.5
Liberal Arnold Gelder 14,631 26.6 +10.5
Majority 10,781 19.6 +14.7
Turnout 55,060 77.4 +0.5
Labour gain from Conservative Swing +11.3

Elections in the 1930s

General Election 1935: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Gilbert Gledhill 24,103 44.4 −21.3
Labour Arthur Longbottom 21,471 39.5 +9.8
Liberal Ashley Mitchell 8,736 16.1 N/A
Majority 2,632 4.9 −31.1
Turnout 54,310 76.9 −3.6
Conservative hold Swing −15.6
General Election 1931: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Gilbert Gledhill 36,731 65.7 +36.0
Labour Arthur Longbottom 16,601 29.7 −12.5
Independent Liberal Frank Sykes[32] 2,578 4.6 N/A
Majority 20,130 36.0 +23.5
Turnout 80.5 −0.8
Conservative gain from Labour Swing +24.2

Elections in the 1920s

General Election 1929: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Arthur Longbottom 22,776 42.2 N/A
Unionist Gilbert Gledhill 16,713 29.7 N/A
Liberal Elliott Dodds 15,823 28.1 N/A
Majority 7,063 12.5 N/A
Turnout 55,312 81.3 N/A
Registered electors 69,301
Labour gain from Liberal Swing N/A
Harry Barnes
Halifax by-election, 1928
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Arthur Longbottom 17,536 42.8 N/A
Liberal Harry Barnes 12,585 30.8 N/A
Unionist Francis Crossley 10,804 26.4 N/A
Majority 4,951 12.0 N/A
Turnout 40,925 78.7 N/A
Registered electors 52,013
Labour gain from Liberal Swing N/A
General Election 1924: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Speaker John Henry Whitley Unopposed
Speaker hold
General Election 1923: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Speaker John Henry Whitley Unopposed
Speaker hold
General Election 1922: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Speaker John Henry Whitley Unopposed
Speaker hold

Elections in the 1910s

Whitley
General Election 1918: Halifax
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Liberal John Henry Whitley 22,136 84.6 +51.2
Socialist Labour Party Arthur McManus 4,036 15.4 N/A
Majority 18,100 69.2 +53.3
Turnout 26,172 53.4 −33.6
Registered electors 49,017
Liberal hold Swing N/A
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.
General Election December 1910 : Halifax[33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Henry Whitley 8,778 33.4 −7.3
Labour James Parker 8,511 32.3 −6.6
Conservative John Herbert Lacy Baldwin 4,602 17.5 +7.3[n 7]
Conservative James Francis Wallace Galbraith 4,420 16.8 +6.6[n 7]
Turnout 87.0 −5.6
Registered electors 15,528
Majority 4,176 15.9 −4.4
Liberal hold Swing −7.3
Majority 3,909 14.8 −3.7
Labour hold Swing −7.0
General Election January 1910 : Halifax[33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Henry Whitley 9,504 40.7 +0.6
Labour James Parker 9,093 38.9 +0.6
Conservative James Francis Wallace Galbraith 4,754 20.4 −1.2
Turnout 92.6 −0.4
Registered electors 15,528
Majority 4,750 20.3 +1.8
Liberal hold Swing +0.9
Majority 4,339 18.5 +1.8
Labour hold Swing +0.9

Elections in the 1900s

By-election, 1907: Halifax[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Henry Whitley Unopposed
Liberal hold
Crossley, Whitley and Parker
General Election 1906 : Halifax[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Henry Whitley 9,354 40.1 −14.0
Labour Repr. Cmte. James Parker 8,937 38.3 +22.0
Liberal Unionist Savile Crossley 5,041 21.6 −8.0
Turnout 93.0 +6.3
Registered electors 15,316
Majority 4,313 18.5 +7.2
Liberal hold Swing −18.0
Majority 3,896 16.7 N/A
Labour Repr. Cmte. gain from Liberal Unionist Swing +15.0
James Parker
General Election 1900 : Halifax[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Unionist Savile Crossley 5,931 29.6 +0.3
Liberal John Henry Whitley 5,543 27.6 +0.4
Liberal Alfred Billson 5,325 26.5 +3.5
Labour Repr. Cmte. James Parker 3,276 16.3 −4.2
Turnout 86.7 −1.2
Registered electors 14,879
Majority 606 3.1 −3.2
Liberal Unionist hold Swing −0.1
Majority 2,267 11.3 +4.6
Liberal hold Swing −1.9

Elections in the 1890s

By-election, 1897 : Halifax[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Alfred Billson 5,664 43.8 −6.4
Liberal Unionist Savile Crossley 5,252 40.7 +11.4
Ind. Labour Party Tom Mann 2,000 15.5 −5.0
Majority 412 3.1 −3.6
Turnout 12,916 90.4 +2.5
Registered electors 14,290
Liberal hold Swing −8.9
  • Caused by Shaw's resignation.
General Election 1895 : Halifax[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Alfred Arnold 5,475 29.3 +2.7
Liberal William Rawson Shaw 5,085 27.2 −9.9
Liberal J. Booth 4,283 23.0 −13.3
Ind. Labour Party John Lister 3,818 20.5 N/A
Turnout 12,169 (est) 87.9 +4.0
Registered electors 13,844
Majority 1,192 6.3 N/A
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +6.3
Majority 1,267 6.7 −3.0
Liberal hold Swing −6.3
By-election, 1893 : Halifax[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal William Rawson Shaw 4,620 38.9 −34.5
Conservative Alfred Arnold 4,252 35.7 +9.1
Ind. Labour Party John Lister 3,028 25.4 N/A
Turnout 11,900 89.4 +5.5
Registered electors 13,317
Majority 368 3.2 −6.5
Liberal hold Swing −21.8
  • Caused by Shaw's death
General Election 1892 : Halifax[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Shaw 6,481 37.1 −0.6
Liberal James Stansfeld 6,361 36.3 −1.0
Conservative Alfred Arnold 4,663 26.6 +1.6
Turnout 11,056 (est) 83.9 +10.1
Registered electors 13,177
Majority 1,698 9.7 −2.6
Liberal hold Swing −1.1
Liberal hold Swing −1.3

Elections in the 1880s

General Election 1886 : Halifax[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Shaw 5,427 37.7 −0.7
Liberal James Stansfeld 5,381 37.3 +0.2
Conservative Alfred Morris[35] 3,612 25.0 +0.5
Majority 1,769 12.3 −0.3
Turnout 9,055 73.8 −8.9
Registered electors 12,269
Liberal hold Swing −0.5
Liberal hold Swing −0.0
By-election, 3 Apr 1886 : Halifax[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Stansfeld Unopposed
Liberal hold
General Election 1885 : Halifax[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Shaw 6,269 38.4 −0.9
Liberal James Stansfeld 6,053 37.1 −2.3
Conservative Alfred Morris[35] 3,988 24.5 +3.2
Majority 2,065 12.6 −5.4
Turnout 10,144 82.7 −1.2 (est)
Registered electors 12,269
Liberal hold Swing −0.4
Liberal hold Swing −2.0
By-election, 21 Aug 1882 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Shaw Unopposed
Liberal hold
  • Caused by Hutchinson's resignation.
General Election 1880 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Stansfeld 6,392 39.4 +2.8
Liberal John Dyson Hutchinson 6,364 39.3 +2.1
Conservative William Barber[37] 3,452 21.3 −4.9
Majority 2,912 18.0 +7.7
Turnout 9,844 (est) 83.9 (est) +0.2
Registered electors 11,728
Liberal hold Swing +2.6
Liberal hold Swing +2.3

Elections in the 1870s

Halifax by-election, 1877[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Dyson Hutchinson 5,750 61.3 -12.5
Conservative Richard Wilson Gamble[38] 3,624 38.7 +12.5
Majority 2,126 22.7 +12.4
Turnout 9,374 79.9 -3.8
Registered electors 11,737
Liberal hold Swing -12.5
  • Caused by Crossley's resignation.
General Election 1874 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Crossley 5,563 37.2 −1.7
Liberal James Stansfeld 5,473 36.6 −3.3
Conservative Henry Charles McCrea[39] 3,927 26.2 N/A
Majority 1,546 10.3 −7.4
Turnout 9,445 (est) 83.7 (est) −2.2
Registered electors 11,282
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Halifax by-election, 1871[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal John Crossley Unopposed
Liberal hold

Elections in the 1860s

By-election, 21 December 1868 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Stansfeld Unopposed
Liberal hold
General Election 1868 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Stansfeld 5,278 39.9 N/A
Liberal Edward Akroyd 5,141 38.9 N/A
Lib-Lab Edward Owen Greening[40] 2,802 21.2 N/A
Majority 2,339 17.7 N/A
Turnout 8,012 (est) 85.9 (est) N/A
Registered electors 9,328
Liberal hold
Liberal hold
General Election 1865 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Stansfeld Unopposed
Liberal Edward Akroyd Unopposed
Registered electors 1,771
Liberal hold
Liberal hold
By-election, 28 April 1863 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Stansfeld Unopposed
Liberal hold

Elections in the 1850s

By-election, 28 June 1859 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Charles Wood Unopposed
Liberal hold
General Election 1859 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal James Stansfeld Unopposed
Liberal Charles Wood Unopposed
Registered electors 1,521
Liberal hold
Liberal hold
General Election 1857 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical Francis Crossley 830 37.8 +4.6
Whig Charles Wood 714 32.5 −2.0
Conservative Henry Edwards 651 29.7 −0.5
Turnout 1,423 (est) 95.6 (est) +3.5
Registered electors 1,488
Majority 116 5.3 +2.3
Radical hold Swing +2.8
Majority 63 2.9 +1.6
Whig hold Swing −1.7
By-election, 3 March 1855 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Wood Unopposed
Whig hold
By-election, 5 January 1853 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Wood 592 53.0 +18.5
Conservative Henry Edwards 526 47.0 +16.8
Majority 66 5.9 +4.6
Turnout 1,118 91.8 −0.3
Registered electors 1,218
Whig hold Swing +0.9
General Election 1852 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Wood 596 34.5 +3.7
Radical Francis Crossley 573 33.2 +12.0
Conservative Henry Edwards 521 30.2 −0.8
Chartist Ernest Charles Jones[41] 37 2.1 −14.9
Turnout 1,106 (est) 92.1 (est) +11.5
Registered electors 1,200
Majority 23 1.3 −8.3
Whig hold Swing +2.1
Majority 52 3.0 N/A
Radical gain from Conservative Swing +6.2

Elections in the 1840s

General Election 1847 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Henry Edwards 511 31.0 +2.2
Whig Charles Wood 507 30.8 −3.6
Radical Edward Miall 349 21.2 −15.6
Chartist Ernest Charles Jones 280 17.0 N/A
Turnout 824 (est) 80.6 (est) −7.6
Registered electors 1,022
Majority 4 0.2 N/A
Conservative gain from Radical Swing +5.0
Majority 158 9.6 +7.3
Whig hold Swing +2.1
By-election, 9 July 1846 : Halifax[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Charles Wood Unopposed
Whig hold
General Election 1841 : Halifax[36][6]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Radical Edward Protheroe 409 36.8
Whig Charles Wood 383 34.4
Conservative George Sinclair 320 28.8
Turnout 793 88.2
Registered electors 899
Majority 26 2.3 N/A
Radical hold Swing
Majority 63 5.7
Whig hold Swing

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. ^ A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. ^ As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
  3. ^ See Sandal Castle and Wakefield Castle
  4. ^ Legally, the doctrine of prescription (law), as opposed to "by grant", means obtained by long use
  5. ^ Among the curious customs of Halifax was the Gibbet Law, which was probably established by a prescriptive right to protect the wool trade, and gave the inhabitants the power of executing any one taken within their liberty, who, when tried by a jury of sixteen of the frith-burgesses, was found guilty of the theft of any goods of the value of more than 13d. The executions took place on market days on a hill outside the town, the gibbet somewhat resembling a guillotine. The first execution recorded under this law took place in 1541, and the right was exercised in Halifax longer than in any other town, the last execution taking place in 1650.[3] In 1635 the king granted the inhabitants of Halifax licence to found a workhouse in a large house given to them for that purpose by Nathaniel Waterhouse, and incorporated them under the name of the master and governors. Nathaniel Waterhouse was appointed the first master, his successors being elected every year by the twelve governors from among themselves.
  6. ^ In 1607 David Waterhouse, lord of the manor of Halifax, obtained a grant of two markets there every week on Friday and Saturday and two fairs every year, each lasting three days, one beginning on 24 June, the other on 11 November. Later these fairs and markets were confirmed with the addition of an extra market on Thursday to Sir William Ayloffe, baronet, who had succeeded David Waterhouse as lord of the manor. The market rights were sold to the Markets Company in 1810 and purchased from them by the corporation in 1853.
  7. ^ a b Compared to half of Conservative vote at Jan 1910 election

References

  1. ^ "Electorate Figures – Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  2. ^ a b Lewis, Samuel (1848). "Halifax". A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Halifax (England)". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 843–844.
  4. ^ 2001 Census
  5. ^ a b c Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "H" (part 1)
  6. ^ a b c d Stooks Smith, Henry (1845). The Parliaments of England, from 1st George I., to the Present Time. Vol II: Oxfordshire to Wales Inclusive. London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. p. 145–146. Retrieved 5 November 2018 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ Steele, David (21 May 2009). "Wood, Charles, first Viscount Halifax (1800–1885)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29865. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  8. ^ Casey, Martin; Salmon, Philip (2009). "WOOD, Charles (1800–1885), of Hemsworth, nr. Pontefract, Yorks.; Hickleton, nr. Doncaster and 22 Charles Street, Mdx". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  9. ^ "Correspondence of Sir Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax". Archives Hub. Jisc.
  10. ^ Hiscocks, Richard. "Charles Wood". morethannelson. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  11. ^ Hawkins, Angus (2013). "Government Appointment By-elections: 1832–86". In Otte, T. G.; Readman, Paul. By-elections in British Politics: 1832–1914. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-1-84383-780-0. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  12. ^ a b Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. p. 240. Retrieved 5 November 2018 – via Google Books.
  13. ^ "Halifax Election 1835". From Weaver to Web. Calderdale Council. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  14. ^ Iwama, Thoshihiko (June 2003). The Middle Class in Halifax, 1780–1850 (PDF) (PhD). University of Leeds. pp. 153, 155. Retrieved 5 November 2018.
  15. ^ Bull, Malcolm. "MPs for Halifax". Malcolm Bull's Calderdale Companion. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  16. ^ Kirk, Neville (1998). "Politics". Change, continuity and class: Labour in British society, 1850–1920. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 91. ISBN 0-7190-4237-2. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  17. ^ Iwama, Toshihiko (June 2003). "The Middle Class in Halifax, 1780–1850" (PDF). White Rose eTheses Online. University of Southampton. p. 168. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  18. ^ "The Elections". Huddersfield and Holmfirth Examiner. 10 July 1852. p. 4. Retrieved 13 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  19. ^ "Parliamentary General Election 2017 - 08/06/2017". Election results. Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  20. ^ "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  21. ^ "Halifax". BBC News. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  22. ^ "Election Data 2010". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  23. ^ http://www.calderdale.gov.uk/council/democracy/election-information/halifax-constituency/halifax.html
  24. ^ "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  25. ^ "Election Data 2001". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  26. ^ "Election Data 1997". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  27. ^ "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  28. ^ "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
  29. ^ "Election Data 1987". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  30. ^ "Election Data 1983". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  31. ^ The Times House of Commons, 1950
  32. ^ At the 1931 general election, the local Liberal Association chose not to field a candidate against the National Government; Sykes stood as an "Independent Liberal" candidate
  33. ^ a b British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Craig, FWS, ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 9781349022984.
  35. ^ a b "Rattening in Sheffield". Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer. 20 May 1886. p. 5. Retrieved 28 November 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  37. ^ "Local and Other News". Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer. 6 Oct 1880. p. 4. Retrieved 28 November 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  38. ^ "Halifax Election". Morpeth Herald. 24 February 1877. p. 2. Retrieved 31 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  39. ^ "General Election News". Bradford Observer. 28 January 1874. p. 4. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  40. ^ "Halifax". Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer. 17 November 1868. p. 6. Retrieved 15 February 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  41. ^ "Lecture by Mr. Ernest Jones". Huddersfield Chronicle. 3 July 1852. p. 7. Retrieved 13 May 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).

Sources

  • Victoria County History, Yorkshire
  • T. Wright, The Antiquities of the Town of Halifax (Leeds, 1738)
  • John Watson, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Halifax (London, 1775)
  • John Crabtree, A Concise History of the Parish and Vicarage of Halifax (Halifax and London, 1836).
  • Craig, F. W. S. (1983) [1969]. British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3rd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Penrith and Cockermouth
Constituency represented by the Speaker
1921–1928
Succeeded by
Daventry

Coordinates: 53°43′N 1°53′W / 53.717°N 1.883°W / 53.717; -1.883

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