Hajong language

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Hajong

Hajong Bhasa (Latin)

হৃজং ভাশা (Bangla)
Pronunciation [ha.dʒɔŋ]
Native to India and Bangladesh
Region

Meghalaya, Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal in India

Mymensingh, Sherpur and Sunamganj in Bangladesh
Ethnicity Hajong
Native speakers
63,000 (2001)[1]
8,000 in Bangladesh (no date)[2]
Mixed
Early forms
  • Proto-Bodo–Garo
Dialects
  • Doskine'
  • Korebari
  • Susung'ye'
  • Barohajarye'
  • Mespe'rye'

Latin script

Eastern Nagari script
Language codes
ISO 639-3 haj
Glottolog hajo1238[3]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Hajong, originally a Tibeto-Burman language,[4] is now considered an Indo-Aryan language with Tibeto-Burman roots. It is spoken by more than 175,000 ethnic Hajongs in the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal in India and the Mymensingh District in Bangladesh. It is written in the Bangla script and the Latin script. It has many Sanskrit loan words. The Hajongs originally spoke a Tibeto-Burman language, but it was largely mixed with Assamese and other eastern Bengali-Assamese languages.[5]

Old Hajong

The language spoken by the Hajong people now may be considered an Indo-Aryan language, this is due to language shift from a Tibeto-Burman language. Old Hajong or Khati Hajong may have been related to Garo or Bodo languages.

Variations

The Hajong Language varies within the clans because of regional variations. There are five notable clans of the Hajong people.

  • Doskine'
  • Korebari
  • Susung'ye'
  • Barohajarye'
  • Miespe'rye'

Writing system

The Hajong language is written using both the Latin and the Assamese scripts.[6] Although both of these scripts are in use in India, the Hajongs in Bangladesh expect to use the Bengali script since most education is in Bengali medium.[7] Often, for writing Hajong, the Assamese script is used. In each script, there is one added unique symbol for the close, back, unrounded vowel /ɯ/. In Latin script, it is written with "â" or simply e'. In Bengali script with "অৗ" when it is syllable final.[8]

Phonology

Hajong has 23 consonant phonemes, 8 vowel phonemes, and 2 approximants which have some characteristics of consonants namely /w/ and /j/ which act as diphthongs. The vowel phonemes are /a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /ɛ/, /o/, /ɔ/ and /ɯ/ (close, back, unrounded). Unlike other Indo-Aryan languages, Hajong language has only one 'i' and 'u'. It is somewhat t ambiguous whether the final vowel is a phoneme or an allophone of [a] in the environment of other close vowels.[8] The extra vowel /ɯ/ is not present in other Indo-Aryan languages, but is typical for the Tibeto-Burman family.[9] The phonology of Hajong includes some vowel harmony and the devoicing of final consonants.[8]For separating syllables the apostrophe sign (') or hyphen (-) is used.

Consonant Phonemes

Consonants Example Meaning
Velar
k kan ear
kh khawa food
g gang river
gh ghor house
ng gang river
Dental
t tula your
th tho keep
d dang'o big
dh dhor hold
n nak nose
l tel oil
s sor move
r rang'a red
Palatal
ch cha tea
j jor fever
jh jhala spicy
sh shongko conch
Bilabial
p pukhi bird
ph phol fruit
b bak tiger
bh bhou'i field
m mao mother
Glottal
h hilde' yellow

Vowel Phonemes

IPA Latin Assamese Pronunciation
/a/ a a of car
/i/ i i of kill
/u/ u u of put
/ɛ/ e a of thank
/e/ ei ay of say
/o/ ou o of old
/ɔ/ o eo of George
/ɯ/ e' অৗ i of girl

Vowels play an important role in changing the meaning of words and the grammatical structure of sentences. Unlike other Indo-Aryan languages like Assamese and Bengali, there is no distinction between longer and shorter /i/ and /u/. The Assamese script lacks some vowels unique to Hajong phonology, which is gradually leading to a vowel shift. And since vowels play an important role in the grammar of this language, the grammatical structure of the language is also changing.

Diphthongs

Hajong phonology has diphthongs which are iotized vowels with j(y) and w. Diphthongs are usually combinations of i or u with other vowel phonemes. Common examples of diphthongs are ya, as in Dyao which is the combined form of i and a; wa, as in khawa which is the combination of u and a; yuh, as in muh'yuh, combination of i and uh, and wuh, as in tuhwuhi, combination of u and uh.

Grammar

Hajong language primarily has a canonical word order of Subject–object–verb. A subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear or usually appear in that order. Hajong language has a strong tendency to use postpositions rather than prepositions, to place auxiliary verbs after the action verb, to place genitive noun phrases before the possessed noun and to have subordinators appear at the end of subordinate clauses. Hajong is an agglutinative language. Even though it is considered an Eastern Indo-Aryan language, Hajong does not conjugate verbs in the same way Bengali or Asamiya do, but rather has a simplified system. The case endings in Hajong are also unique compared to other Indo-Aryan languages and may represent affinity with Tibeto Burman languages.[10][11] The following table is taken from Phillips:[11]

Hajong (in IPA) English Case
buri-rɯ the old woman unmarked
buri-rɯge to the old woman dative
buri-lɯ of the old woman genitive
buri ni to/at the old woman locative
buri bʰaʲ to the old woman allative
buri t̪ʰiki from the old woman ablative
buri diɯ through/by the help of the old woman instrumental

The genitive and unmarked or accusative cases have two forms; re'/ra and le'/la. For words ending with the vowels /a/, /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ it becomes ra and la and for /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/ and /ɯ/ it becomes re' and le'. The vowels /ɛ/(e) and /ɔ/(o) are used to end interogative sentences, like 'Bhat khase?'(have you taken your food?) and 'Bhat khabo?'(Do you want to eat?); and the vowels /e/(ei) and /o/(ou) are used at the end of declarative sentences, as in 'Bhat khasei.'([I] have taken my food.) and 'Bhat Khabou'([I] will eat.). Adding the suffix be' or ba to interrogative words turn them into indefinite pronouns; for example, kibe' means something, kei'be' means someone, kumaba means somewhere and also ke'ibe', kageba, kunde'be' and kalaba means 'I don't know who/whom/which/who's' respectively in english. Similarly adding the suffix ha and ga to verbs means 'come and (verb)' and 'go and (verd)' respectively; for example, khaha means come and eat, niha means come and take; khaga means go and eat and niga means go and take.

Honorifics

A unique feature of Hajong language is the use of honorifics. When talking about someone superior in status, a speaker usually uses special nouns or verb endings to indicate the subject's superiority. Unlike Bengalee , Asamese and other Indo-Aryan languages, there is no word like आप/আপনে(ap) to substitute you. Instead Hajong has a different way to indicate supremacy of the other person. For elders and other higher ranking people second person and third person pronouns are never used. One always has to refer an elder with their name or their honorary title. Ending words with 'ge' and 'ha' is also a form of showing respect to the other person.

Example short phrases

[12]

Hajong Phrases Hajong Latin Script Meaning
কুমায় জায়? kumai jai? Where are you going?
কিংকৗ আছে? king'ke' ase? How are you?
তই আহিলে? ভিতুৰ ভায় আয়। Toi ahile? Bhiturbai ai. You came? Come inside.
তুলা আহাৰা ভালা হুছে। Tula ahara bhala husei. It was good of you to come.
ভাত খাছে? Bhat khase? Have you eaten?
চা খাবো? Cha khabo? Will you take tea?
তই কুন গাওলা? Toi kun gaola? What village are you from?
মই তাঙাবাৰিশৗ। Moi Tang'abarile'. I am from Tangabari.
ইলা তই কুমায় থাকে? Ila toi kumai thake? Now where do you live?
তুলা ঘৰৰা কুমায়? Tula ghorra kumai? Where is your house?
মুলা ঘৰৰা হাৱাখানানি। Mula ghorra Hawakhanani. My house is in Hawakhana.
ইদৗ অগে বুজিয়ৗ দি। Ide' oge bujye' di. Explain this to him.
ইদৗনি লিখিক। Ide'ni likhik. Write it here.
ময় জাং। Moi jang. I'm going.
আবাৰ লাক পাবো। Abar lak pabou. We will meet again.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hajong at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hajong language at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hajong". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Hajong, B. (2002). The Hajongs and their struggle. Assam, Janata Press. Foreword(2) by Satyendra Narayan Goswami 2001.
  5. ^ Danver (2015) Native Peoples of the World
  6. ^ Script Source
  7. ^ Ahmad, S., A. Kim, S. Kim, and M. Sangma. (2005). The Hajong of Bangladesh: A sociolinguistic survey. http://www.sil.org/resources/publications/entry/42943, p. 13.
  8. ^ a b c Guts, Y. (2007). Phonological description of the Hajong language. Masters Thesis. Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit.
  9. ^ Guts, Y. (2007). Phonological description of the Hajong language. Masters Thesis. Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit; p 59.
  10. ^ Grierson, G. A. (1903–28). Linguistic survey of India. Repr. Delhi 1967. Calcutta, Motilal Banarsidass, p 215.
  11. ^ a b Phillips, V. C. (2011). "Case Marking in Hajong." In G. Hyslop, S. Morey and M. Post, Eds. North East Indian Linguistics: Volume 3. Delhi, Cambridge.
  12. ^ Hajong, Abonis; D. Phillips; V. Phillips. (2008). "Hajong–Ingreji Sobdojor Bôy হাজং–ইংৰেজি শব্দজড় বই Hajong–English Phrase Book" Tura, Meghalaya.
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