HMS Hermes (R12)

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HMS Hermes (R12) (Royal Navy aircraft carrier.jpg
HMS Hermes returning to Portsmouth after action in the South Atlantic
History
United Kingdom
Name: HMS Hermes
Builder: Vickers-Armstrong
Laid down: 21 June 1944
Launched: 16 February 1953
Commissioned: 25 November 1959
Decommissioned: 1984
Struck: 1985
Homeport: HMNB Portsmouth
Identification: pennant number: 61 (1945) R12 (1951) R22 (as Viraat)
Fate: Sold to India in 1986 and renamed INS Viraat
India
Name: INS Viraat
Acquired: May 1987
Decommissioned: 6 March 2017 [1]
Identification: Pennant number: R22
General characteristics
Class and type: Centaur-class aircraft carrier
Displacement: 23,000 tonnes standard 2; 28,000 tonnes full load
Length:
  • 198.12 m (650 ft 0 in) p.p.
  • 225.20 m (738 ft 10 in) f.d. (as built)
  • 226.90 m (744 ft 5 in) o.a. (with ski-jump)
Beam:
  • 27.43 m (90 ft 0 in) w.l.
  • 43.90 m (144 ft 0 in) f.d.
Draught: 8.50 m (27 ft 11 in)
Propulsion:

2 Parsons SR geared turbines, 76,000 shp (57 MW)

4 Admiralty 3-drum boilers
Speed: 28 kn (52 km/h)
Range: 7,000 nmi (13,000 km) at 18 kn (33 km/h)
Complement: 2,100
Armament:
Aircraft carried:
Hermes in 1962

HMS Hermes was a conventional British aircraft carrier and the last of the Centaur class.

Hermes was in service with the Royal Navy from 1959 until 1984, and she served as the flagship of the British forces during the 1982 Falklands War.

After being sold to India in 1986, the vessel was recommissioned and remained in service with the Indian Navy as INS Viraat until 2017. A crowdfunding campaign failed to preserve the ship as a museum piece.

Construction and modifications

The ship was laid down by Vickers-Armstrong at Barrow-in-Furness during World War II as HMS Elephant. Construction was suspended in 1945 but work was resumed in 1952 to clear the slipway and the hull was launched on 16 February 1953. The vessel remained unfinished until 1957, when she entered service on 18 November 1959 as HMS Hermes after extensive modifications which included installation of a massive Type 984 'searchlight' 3D radar, a fully angled deck with a deck-edge elevator, and steam catapults. With these changes she more resembled the reconstructed aircraft carrier Victorious than the other three ships in the class.

Hermes initially operated Supermarine Scimitar, de Havilland Sea Vixen, and Fairey Gannet fixed-wing aircraft, together with Westland Whirlwind helicopters.

Cost

Hermes cost £18 million,[2] with another £1 million for electronic equipment [2] and £10 million for aircraft in 1959.[2]

Operations

F-4B Phantom of the US Navy operating from Hermes in 1963. Although the Admiralty initially indicated that Hermes would be modernised to operate the Phantom, the plan proved unworkable owing to the ship's small size.

Proposed operation of F-4 Phantom

Civil Lord of the Admiralty John Hay said in Parliament on 2 March 1964 that "Phantoms will be operated from "Hermes", "Eagle" and the new carrier when it is built. ... Our present information and advice is that the aircraft should be able to operate from "Hermes" after she has undergone her refit."[3] This seemed optimistic, as most sources believed Victorious was the smallest carrier then in commission that the modified RN F-4K versions of the Phantom could realistically have operated from. While the Phantoms built for the RN were modified in ways similar to F-8 Crusaders for the French Navy - improving deceleration on landing - the modifications were not entirely successful. Hermes's flight deck was too short, her arresting gear as well as her catapults were not powerful enough to recover or launch the F-4K's, even though they were slightly lighter, more economical and higher performing than their US Navy counterparts[citation needed]. The Phantom trials held on Hermes in 1969-70 proved this out, though in the views of Minister of Defence, Denis Healey, the carrier could operate the most modern aircraft, but in too small numbers to be effective. The MOD briefly considered F-8's, and then considered the A-4M Skyhawk around 1969; the French had successfully operated the F-8 from its two Clemenceau-class light fleet carriers (which, at 869 feet (265 m) were much larger than Hermes), while the A-4 had been selected by the Royal Australian Navy to operate from HMAS Melbourne. However, both the Crusader and the Skyhawk were already considered near-obsolete by the end of the 1960s. Nevertheless, the light A-4M Skyhawks would have allowed the Hermes to carry a viable late 1970s airgroup of 20 Skyhawks, 6 Sea Kings and 4 Gannet AEW aircraft.[citation needed].

Proposed transfer to Australia

A 1966 review indicated that Hermes was surplus to operational requirements and she was offered to the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) as a replacement for HMAS Melbourne. In 1968, Hermes took part in a combined exercise with the RAN, during which the carrier was visited by senior RAN officers and Australian government officials, while RAN A-4G Skyhawks and Grumman S-2 Trackers practised landings on the larger carrier.[4] The offer was turned down due to operating and manpower costs.

Proposed international fleet

Hermes served as one of four Royal Navy strike carriers mainly in the Indian Ocean and finally in the Mediterranean Sea until decommissioned in 1970. She could have seen action against the Egyptians when Egypt closed off the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping in May 1967 when the UK and US contemplated forming an international fleet to open the straits with force if necessary,[5] but the idea never materialised.

Final CATOBAR air wing 1968-1970
Squadron Aircraft type Number of
aircraft
Role
809 NAS Buccaneer S2 7 Strike
893 NAS Sea Vixen FAW2 12 Fleet air defence
849A NAS Gannet AEW3 4 Airborne Early Warning
Gannet COD4 1 Carrier On-Board Delivery
814 NAS Wessex HAS3 5 Anti-Submarine Warfare
Ships Flight Wessex HAS1 1 Search and Rescue

Commando/ASW/STOVL carrier

When the decision was made in the mid-1960s to phase out fixed wing carrier operations Hermes was slated to become a "Commando Carrier" for Royal Marine operations (similar in concept to a US Navy LHA). Therefore, Hermes was docked down in number 10 Dock in Devonport Dockyard between 1971 and 1973, undergoing a conversion in which her arresting cables, steam catapults, and 3-D radar were removed. Landing craft and berthing for 800 troops were added and her airwing became approximately 20 Sea King helicopters. By 1976, with the Soviet submarine threat becoming apparent and through NATO pressure, a further mild conversion was performed for Hermes to become an anti-submarine warfare carrier to patrol the North Atlantic. Hermes underwent one more conversion and new capabilities were added when she was refitted at Portsmouth from 1980 to June 1981, during which a 12-degree ski-jump and facilities for operating Sea Harriers were incorporated. After this refit the air wing comprised:

Falklands War

HMS Hermes in 1982

Hermes was due to be decommissioned in 1982 after a 1981 defence review (that would have made the Royal Navy considerably smaller) by the British government, but when the Falklands War broke out, she was made the flagship of the British forces, setting sail for the South Atlantic just three days after the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands. She sailed for the Falklands with an airgroup of 12 Sea Harrier FRS1 attack aircraft of the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm, and 18 Sea King helicopters. A few weeks after sailing, more aircraft were flown or transported via other ships to replace some losses and augment the task force. Hermes's airgroup grew to 16 Sea Harriers, 10 Hawker Siddeley Harrier GR3s of the Royal Air Force, and 10 Sea Kings (after some of the helicopters were dispersed to other ships) as well as a troop of Special Air Service (SAS) and Royal Marines. As she was the RN's largest carrier, she was considered too valuable to risk close into the Falklands, due to the possibility of Argentine air force attacks. Her Harriers therefore operated at the limit of their endurance radius but were very successful in keeping the enemy aircraft at bay.

Air group at the height of the Falklands Conflict:

After the Falklands War

After her return home from the Falklands conflict Hermes entered into a much needed 4-month refit to her propulsion and electrical systems, as well as a thorough cleaning and repainting. When this was completed in November 1982, she embarked stores and performed work-ups exercises. She then took part in NATO exercises in the North Atlantic, and the Mediterranean Sea as a commando carrier. In the autumn of 1983 she took part in her last exercise, Ocean Safari, where she reverted to a strike carrier role, embarking 12 Sea Harriers, 10 RAF Harrier GR.3s and 10 Sea Kings. After this exercise, she called into Devonport for a minor refit and thereafter into maintained reserve in Portsmouth.

In 1983, when the proposed sale of the aircraft carrier Invincible to the Royal Australian Navy was cancelled following the Falklands War, an offer was made to sell Hermes and a squadron of Sea Harriers to Australia. However the new Hawke Government decided against purchasing a replacement for HMAS Melbourne.[6]

Hermes served with the Royal Navy until 12 April 1984. On this day she entered Portsmouth with a reduced crew, under her own steam, flying the White Ensign for the final time as a seagoing ship.

Viraat

In April 1986 Hermes was towed from Portsmouth Dockyard to Devonport Dockyard to be refitted, re activated and sold to India, recommissioning and sailing as INS Viraat in 1987.[7]

This photo was taken from Plymouth Hoe. Hermes is seen here approaching Plymouth Sound
Hermes entered Devonport Dockyard in 1986 to be reactivated and refitted ready for sale and service with the Indian Navy
Hermes, seen here passing Plymouth Hoe on her way into Devonport Dockyard for Refit and reactivation for service with the Indian Navy
Hermes is seen here coming up the River Tamar for Refit and reactivation prior to sale and service with the Indian Navy
Taken from Torpoint in Cornwall, INS Viraat (ex HMS Hermes), is seen here leaving Devonport Dockyard for the last time as she begins the long voyage to India for service with the Indian Navy

Complement

Her typical aircraft complement in the late 1960s consisted of 12 Sea Vixen FAW2s, 7 Buccaneer S2s, 4 Gannet AEW3s, 1 Gannet COD4, 5 Wessex HAS3s and 1 Wessex HAS1. She was recommissioned as a commando carrier in 1973, as an ASW carrier in 1976 (carrying around 20 or so Sea King and Wessex helicopters), and then as a V/STOL carrier in 1981. Hermes initial complement of aircraft as a V/STOL carrier was 5 Harriers and 12 Sea King helicopters, though she had the capacity for up to a total of 37 aircraft.

Attempted preservation

Following her decommissioning from the Indian Navy in 2017, a crowdfunding campaign was launched to preserve Hermes as a museum piece.[8] The campaign aimed to raise £100,000, but was only able to raise £9,303 before being declared unsuccessful.[9]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ After nearly 30 years with Indian Navy, aircraft carrier INS Viraat decommissioned, Z News, 6 March 2017, retrieved 2 June 2017 
  2. ^ a b c Hansard, HC Deb 07 March 1960 vol 619, ccc153–4, debate on Navy Estimates for 1960–61, speech by John Rankin.
  3. ^ Hansard, HC Deb 02 March 1964 vol 690 cc916-1087, debate on Defence (Navy) Estimates, 1964–65, speech by John Hay
  4. ^ Hobbs, Commander David (October 2007). "HMAS Melbourne (II) - 25 Years On". The Navy. 69 (4): 5–9. ISSN 1322-6231. 
  5. ^ FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1964–1968 VOLUME XIX, ARAB-ISRAELI CRISIS AND WAR, 1967, DOCUMENT 72, Memorandum for the Record, dated 26 May 1967
  6. ^ "Sea Harrier Down Under". harrier.org.uk. Retrieved 2008-05-27. 
  7. ^ http://navaltoday.com/2016/03/07/one-sailor-dead-three-injured-after-fire-breaks-out-on-indian-aircraft-carrier/
  8. ^ "Fresh bid made to save former Falklands flagship". 
  9. ^ "HMS Hermes repatriation". 

References

External links

  • Maritimequest HMS Hermes photo gallery
  • "Launch & Recover (1960)" on YouTube - filmed on Hermes.
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