Gujari language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Gujari
Gojri, Gurjari
Native to Afghanistan, Pakistan, India
Region Kashmir, southeastern Afghanistan
Native speakers
(9,200,000 cited 1992–2000)[1]
Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.
Language codes
ISO 639-3 gju
Glottolog guja1253[2]

Gujari, also known as Gojri (ગુજરી, गुजरी, گوجری‬) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes of India , Pakistan, and Afghanistan.[3][4]

The language is mainly spoken in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Gujarat,Punjab, Delhi and many other parts of India. The language is also spoken by Gujjars of Pakistan in all the provinces of Pakistan including Azad Kashmir and the Hazara region. In Pakistan there are a number of organisations and institutions working for the development of Gujari, including a Gujari-language news channel. Many Gujari words originate from Rajasthan, where many Gurjars live. The Government of Jammu and Kashmir has recognized Gujari by including it in the sixth schedule of the state constitution.[5]

History

Gujari is an offshoot of Indo-Aryan Group of languages, and during the dawn of Sanskrit and Persian poetry and prose in the Indian sub-continent several noted poets and Sufi saints used Gujari to spread their message. Noted poet-musician Hazrat Amir Khusro formally made mention of the Gujari language in the list of eighteen Indian languages of his time. Researchers and historians believe that Gujri language is the mother of Rajasthani languages.[6]

Gujari is widely spoken and is the mother tongue of over 20 million people residing in various parts of India particularly in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Uttarakhand.[7]

Literary traditions

Gujari has a tradition of folklore including songs, ballads, and folktales known as Dastans. Hundreds of folksongs have been recorded and published, including Nooro, Tajo, Nura Beguma, Shupiya, Kunjhdi, Mariyan.

There is also a modern tradition of creative writing. Poets Sain Qadar Baksh, Noon Poonchi, and others have contributed in Gujari. Mian Nizam ud Din, Khuda Baksh Zar, Zabai Rajourvi, Shams ud Din Mehjoor Poonchi, Mian Bashir Ahmed, Javaid Rahi, Rafiq Anjum Milki Ram Kushan, Sarwari Kassana, Naseem Poonchi have made remarkable contributions to Gujari through poetry, prose and criticism.

Institutions working for Gujari

The All India Radio and Doordarshan Kendra are already running various Gujari programmes. The Radio Kashmir Jammu, Srinagar, Poonch in India and Seven Radio Stations of Pakistan and PTV have since long been airing Gojri programmes and news bulletins which has wide acceptance across the state of Jammu and Kashmir. A large number of Gujari books have been published in various subjects which include encyclopedias, dictionaries, grammar, poetry, prose, flora and fauna, folklore, art and architecture, agriculture, sociology and research documents.

The National Academy of Letters, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi has also recognized Gujari as one of the major Indian languages for its prestigious National Award, Bhasha Samman, and other programmes. The Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Arts, Culture and Languages have a well established Gujari Department in its Central Office which is in operation for the last 40 years. Hundreds of books in Gujari, dictionaries and other research works have been published by this institution and organized hundreds of Seminar, conference etc. for the development of Gujari Language. Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School Education made curriculum in Gujari up to Middle Standard for Teaching Gujari in Schools. The University of Jammu Council has also approved the opening of Gojri Research Centre in Jammu and University of Kashmir have awarded several Doctorate Degrees on completing research projects on Gujari. In Pakistan-administered Kashmir, the GoGujari ri Academy has been established and Post Graduate Studies Department has been set up in various Universities, Regional Research Centers.

Organizations working for Gujari:

  • Jammu & Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture & Languages, Jammu
  • University of Jammu, Jammu
  • Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education Jammu
  • Central University Himachal Pradesh
  • Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation Poonch
  • Gurjar Desh Charitable Trust Jammu
  • Anjmun Gujjran Srinagar
  • Jammu and Kashmir Anjuman Taraqi Gojri Adab Rajouri
  • Bhartya Gurjar Pareshad Uatter Pradesh.
  • Anjuman Gojri Zuban-o-Adab Tral Kashmir
  • Organisation of Himalyan Gujjars Poonch
  • Adbi Sangat Wangat Kashmir
  • Adbi Majlis Gojri Jammu
  • Sarwari Memorial Gojri Society Jammu
  • Gojri Dramatic Club Jammu
  • Gujjar Writers Association Uri Baramulla.
  • Gojri Anjumun Badgam
  • Gujjar Manch Kathua
  • Bazm-i-Adab Kalakote Rajouri
  • Gojri Development Center Karnah Kupwara
  • Halqa.e.Gojari Adab Gilgit
  • Bazm-e-Gojri, Pakistan (Rawalpindi/islamabad)

References

  1. ^ Gujari at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gujari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Gojri And Its Relationship With Rajasthani, Etc.
  4. ^ Dr. R.P. Khatana. "Gujari Language and Identity in Jammu and Kashmir". Kashmir News Network: Language Section (koshur.org). Retrieved 2007-05-31.
  5. ^ In Jammu and Kashmir, Gujari is written right-to-left in an extension of the Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic alphabet. Gujari is associated with the Nastaʿlīq style of Persian calligraphy - http://jktribals.page.tl/Gojri-Language.htm, http://www.merinews.com/article/writers-in-jk-seek-constitutional-safeguards-for-gojri/129813.shtml
  6. ^ Ajay Mitra Shastri; R. K. Sharma; Devendra Handa (2005). Revealing India's past: recent trends in art and archaeology. Aryan Books International. p. 227. ISBN 8173052875, ISBN 978-81-7305-287-3. It is an established fact that during 10th-11th century.....Interestingly the language was known as the Gujjar Bhakha..
  7. ^ State /Aprx. Population /Language - http://jktribals.page.tl/Gojri-Language.htm
  • 1992: Rensch, Calvin R., Hindko and Gujari National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 305 pp.  ISBN 969-8023-13-5.

External links

  • Dr. R.P. Khatana. Gujari Language and Identity in Jammu and Kashmir.
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gujari_language&oldid=865186002"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujari_language
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Gujari language"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA