Gujari language

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Gujari
Gojri, Gurjari
Native to Afghanistan, Pakistan, India
Region Kashmir, southeastern Afghanistan
Native speakers
(1 million cited 1992–2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 gju
Glottolog guja1253[2]

Gujari, also known as Gojri (ગુજરી, गुजरी, گُوجَری‬) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes of India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.[3][4]

The language is mainly spoken in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Punjab, Delhi and other parts of India. The language is also spoken by Gujjars across Pakistan, including the Azad Kashmir and the Hazara region. In Pakistan organisations and institutions work for the development of Gujari, including a Gujari-language news channel. The government of Jammu and Kashmir has recognized Gujari y including it in the sixth schedule of the state constitution.[5]

Literary traditions

Gujari folklore includes songs, ballads and folktales, known as Dastans. Hundreds of folk songs have been recorded and published, including "Nooro", "Tajo", "Nura Beguma", "Shupiya", "Kunjhdi", "Mariyan".

A modern tradition of creative writing encompasses poets such as Sain Qadar Baksh, Noon Poonchi, and others. Others such as Mian Nizam ud Din, Khuda Baksh Zar, Zabai Rajouri, Shams ud Din Mehjoor Poonchi, Mian Bashir Ahmed, Javaid Rahi, Rafiq Anjum Milki Ram Kushan, Sarwari Kassana, Naseem Poonchi have also made remarkable contributions to Gujari through poetry, prose and criticism.

Institutions and media

All India Radio and Doordarshan Kendra run various Gujari programmes. Radio Kashmir Jammu, Srinagar, Poonch in India and Seven Radio Stations of Pakistan and PTV air Gojri programmes and news bulletins accepted across Jammu and Kashmir. Books have been published in Gujarati, including encyclopedias, poetry, fiction and non-fiction, on topics including dictionaries, grammars, nature, folklore, art and architecture, agriculture, sociology and research.

The National Academy of Letters, Sahitya Akademi, recognized Gujari as one of the major Indian languages for its National Award, Bhasha Samman, and other programmes. The Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Arts, Culture and Languages established a Gujari Department in its Central Office in the 1970s and published in Gujari. They organized seminars, conferences, etc. for the development of the Gujarati Language. Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School Education made curriculum in Gujari up to Middle Standard for Teaching Gujari in Schools. The University of Jammu Council approved the opening of Gojri Research Centre in Jammu and University of Kashmir that have been awarded Doctorate Degrees on completing research projects on the language. In Pakistan administered Kashmir, the GoGujari RI Academy has been established and Post Graduate Studies Department were set up in various Universities and Regional Research Centers.

Organizations working for Gujari

  • Jammu & Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture & Languages, Jammu
  • University of Jammu, Jammu
  • Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education Jammu
  • Central University Himachal Pradesh
  • Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation Poonch
  • Gurjar Desh Charitable Trust Jammu
  • Anjmun Gujjran Srinagar
  • Jammu and Kashmir Anjuman Taraqi Gojri Adab Rajouri
  • Bhartya Gurjar Pareshad Uatter Pradesh.
  • Anjuman Gojri Zuban-o-Adab Tral Kashmir
  • Organisation of Himalyan Gujjars Poonch
  • Adbi Sangat Wangat Kashmir
  • Adbi Majlis Gojri Jammu
  • Sarwari Memorial Gojri Society Jammu
  • Gojri Dramatic Club Jammu
  • Gujjar Writers Association Uri Baramulla.
  • Gojri Anjumun Badgam
  • Gujjar Manch Kathua
  • Bazm-i-Adab Kalakote Rajouri
  • Gojri Development Center Karnah Kupwara
  • Halqa.e.Gojari Adab Gilgit
  • Bazm-e-Gojri, Pakistan (Rawalpindi/islamabad)

References

  1. ^ Gujari at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gujari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Gojri And Its Relationship With Rajasthani, Etc.
  4. ^ Dr. R.P. Khatana. "Gujari Language and Identity in Jammu and Kashmir". Kashmir News Network: Language Section (koshur.org). Retrieved 2007-05-31.
  5. ^ In Jammu and Kashmir, Gujari is written right-to-left in an extension of the Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic alphabet. Gujari is associated with the Nastaʿlīq style of Persian calligraphy - http://jktribals.page.tl/Gojri-Language.htm, http://www.merinews.com/article/writers-in-jk-seek-constitutional-safeguards-for-gojri/129813.shtml
  • 1992: Rensch, Calvin R., Hindko and Gujari National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 305 pp.  ISBN 969-8023-13-5.

External links

  • Dr. R.P. Khatana. Gujari Language and Identity in Jammu and Kashmir.
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