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Grecoman or Graecoman (Greek: Γραικομάνοι, Grekománoi, Bulgarian: Гъркомани, Garkomani, Macedonian: Гркомани, Grkomani, Romanian: Grecomani, Albanian: Grekomanë, Aromanian: Gricumanji) is a pejorative term used in Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Romania and Albania to characterize Arvanitic-,[1] Aromanian-,[2] and Slavic-speaking[3] Greeks. The term generally means "pretending to be a Greek" and implies a non-Greek origin.[4] Another meaning of the term is fanatic Greek.[5] The term is considered highly offensive to the Greek people.[6] The "Grecoman" is regarded as an ethnic Greek in Greece, but as Hellenized minorities in neighboring countries.[7]


  1. ^ Skendi 1967, p. 67.
  2. ^ Kahl 2002, pp. 145–169.
  3. ^ Karakasidou 1997, p. 106; Mackridge & Yannakakis 1997, p. 148 (Note #11); Nugent 2002, p. 181; Cowan 2000, p. 40; Danforth 1997, pp. 245–246; Kalyvas 2006, p. 312 (Footnote #65); Rossos 2008, p. 145; Brown 2003, p. 82.
  4. ^ Van Boeschoten 2006, pp. 347–377.
  5. ^ "The Macedonian Affair - A Historical Review of the Attempts to Create a Counterfeit Nation (Institute of International and Strategic Studies in Athens, Greece)". Hellenic Resources Network. 1995–2009. Retrieved 12 February 2011.
  6. ^ Danforth 1997, p. 221.
  7. ^ Kontogiorgi 2006, pp. 233–234.


  • Brown, Keith (2003). The Past in Question: Modern Macedonia and the Uncertainties of Nation. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09995-2.
  • Cowan, Jane K. (2000). Macedonia: The Politics of Identity and Difference. Sterling, Virginia: Pluto Press. ISBN 0-7453-1589-5.
  • Danforth, Loring M. (1997). The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04356-6.
  • Kahl, Thede (June 2002). "The Ethnicity of Aromanians after 1990: The Identity of a Minority that Behaves like a Majority". Ethnologia Balkanica: 145–169.
  • Kalyvas, Stathis N. (2006). The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-85409-1.
  • Karakasidou, Anastasia N. (1997). Fields of Wheat, Hills of Blood: Passages to Nationhood in Greek Macedonia, 1870-1990. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-42494-4.
  • Kontogiorgi, Elisabeth (2006). Population Exchange in Greek Macedonia: The Rural Settlement of Refugees 1922-1930. Oxford, United Kingdom: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-927896-2.
  • Mackridge, Peter; Yannakakis, Eleni (1997). Ourselves and Others: The Development of a Greek Macedonian Cultural Identity since 1912. Oxford, United Kingdom: Berg Publishers. ISBN 1-85973-138-4.
  • Nugent, David (2002). Locating Capitalism in Time and Space: Global Restructurings, Politics, and Identity. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4238-3.
  • Rossos, Andrew (2008). Macedonia and the Macedonians: A History. Stanford, California: Hoover Press (Stanford University). ISBN 0-8179-4882-1.
  • Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian National Awakening, 1878-1912. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Van Boeschoten, Riki (2006). "Code-switching, Linguistic Jokes and Ethnic Identity: Reading Hidden Transcripts in a Cross-cultural Context". 24. Journal of Greek Studies: 347–377.
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