Great Blizzard of 1899

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Great Blizzard of 1899
"Snowballing" (snowball fight on the steps of the Florida Capitol, February 10 1899).jpg
Snowball fight on the steps of the Florida State Capitol in Tallahassee in February 1899.
Type Winter storm & historic cold wave
Formed February 10, 1899 (1899-02-10)[1]
Dissipated February 14, 1899 (1899-02-14)
Areas affected United States, particularly east of the Rocky Mountains

The Great Blizzard of 1899 also known as the Great Arctic Outbreak of 1899 and the St. Valentine's Day Blizzard, was a very severe winter weather event that affected most of the U.S., especially east of the Rocky Mountains. On February 11, Swift Current in present-day Saskatchewan reported a record-high barometric pressure of 31.42 inches of mercury (1,064 mb).[2]:1

Arctic cold

Temperature map of the United States during the storm

For the 1895–2017 period of record:

  • February 1899 was the second-coldest February in the contiguous U.S. (behind only 1936). The average temperature was 25.50 °F (−3.61 °C), which was 8.36 °F (4.64 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 33.86 °F (1.03 °C) and 0.27 °F (0.15 °C) warmer than February 1936.[3]
  • December 1898 through February 1899 was the third-coldest meteorological winter in the contiguous U.S. (behind the coldest and second-coldest winters of 1978/79 and 1935/36, respectively). The average temperature was 27.95 °F (−2.25 °C), which was 4.47 °F (2.48 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 32.42 °F (0.23 °C) and 1.34 °F (0.74 °C) warmer than the 1978/79 winter.[4]
  • February 1899 was the coldest February in Kansas, Missouri, and Wyoming.[5]
  • February 1899 was the second-coldest February in Arkansas, Colorado, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and South Dakota.[6]

The following low temperatures occurred during the last ten days of January and the first three weeks of February.[7] The climate regions are defined by the National Centers for Environmental Information.[8]

Northeast

For the 1895–2017 period of record in the Northeast climate region:

  • February 1899 was the 18th-coldest February. The average temperature was 18.1 °F (−7.7 °C), which was 4.7 °F (2.6 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 22.8 °F (−5.1 °C) and 7.7 °F (4.3 °C) warmer than the coldest February 1934.[9]
  • December 1898 through February 1899 was the 24th-coldest meteorological winter. The average temperature was 20.9 °F (−6.2 °C), which was 2.6 °F (1.4 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 23.5 °F (−4.7 °C) and 5.5 °F (3.1 °C) warmer than the coldest winter of 1917/18.[10]

Connecticut

16th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[11]

Delaware

Ninth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[12]

Maine

28th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[14]

Maryland

Eighth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[16]

Massachusetts

25th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[18]

New Hampshire

33rd-coldest February, 1895–2017.[20]

New Jersey

11th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[23]

New York

25th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[26]

Pennsylvania

12th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[30]

Rhode Island

14th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[35]

Vermont

37th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[36]

Northern Rockies and Plains

For the 1895–2017 period of record in the Northern Rockies and Plains climate region:

  • February 1899 was the second-coldest February (behind only 1936). The average temperature was 6.3 °F (−14.3 °C), which was 14.5 °F (8.1 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 20.8 °F (−6.2 °C) and 7.0 °F (3.9 °C) warmer than February 1936.[38]
  • December 1898 through February 1899 was the eighth-coldest meteorological winter. The average temperature was 13.1 °F (−10.5 °C), which was 6.2 °F (3.4 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 19.3 °F (−7.1 °C) and 3.8 °F (2.1 °C) warmer than the coldest winter of 1978/79.[39]

Montana

Second-coldest February, 1895–2017.[40]

Nebraska

Second-coldest February, 1895–2017.[45]

  • Alliance: −40 °F (−40.0 °C)[46]
  • Bridgeport: −47 °F (−43.9 °C)[46] all-time record for Nebraska, which Oshkosh tied on December 22, 1989[47]
  • Culbertson: −38 °F (−38.9 °C) all-time record[48]
  • Hay Springs: −41 °F (−40.6 °C) all-time record as of July 31, 2012[49]
  • Imperial: −35 °F (−37.2 °C) all-time record[49]
  • Kimball: −30 °F (−34.4 °C) all-time record for February[46]
  • Lincoln: −26 °F (−32.2 °C) tied for all-time record for February[50]
  • Lodgepole: −36 °F (−37.8 °C) tied with February 8, 1936, for all-time record[46]
  • North Platte: −35 °F (−37.2 °C) tied with January 15, 1888, for all-time record[49]
  • Omaha: −26 °F (−32.2 °C) all-time record for February[50]
  • Scottsbluff: −45 °F (−42.8 °C) all-time record[46]
  • Springview: −30 °F (−34.4 °C) tied for all-time record for February[49]
  • Valentine: −37 °F (−38.3 °C) all-time record for February[49]

North Dakota

Fourth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[51]

South Dakota

Second-coldest February, 1895–2017.[54]

  • Aberdeen: −35 °F (−37.2 °C)[55]
  • Alexandria: −38 °F (−38.9 °C) tied with February 2, 1905, and January 13, 1916, for second-lowest ever and tied for all-time record for February[56]
  • Bowdle: −39 °F (−39.4 °C) all-time record as of April 30, 1944[55]
  • Brookings: −41 °F (−40.6 °C) tied with January 12, 1912, for all-time record[56]
  • Camp Crook: −40 °F (−40.0 °C)[57]
  • De Smet: −40 °F (−40.0 °C) second-lowest ever and all-time record for February[56]
  • Flandreau: −38 °F (−38.9 °C) all-time record for February[56]
  • Forestburg: −46 °F (−43.3 °C) all-time record[56]
  • Highmore: −40 °F (−40.0 °C)[55]
  • Hot Springs: −41 °F (−40.6 °C) tied with January 11, 1909, for all-time record[57]
  • Howard: −42 °F (−41.1 °C) tied with February 2, 1917, for all-time record for February[56]
  • Huron: −37 °F (−38.3 °C) all-time record for February[56]
  • Kennebec: −45 °F (−42.8 °C) all-time record[55]
  • La Delle: −47 °F (−43.9 °C) tied with January 12, 1912, for all-time record (as of October 27, 1974)[55]
  • Mitchell: −39 °F (−39.4 °C) tied with February 2, 1905, for second-lowest ever (as of March 31, 2003)[56]
  • Oelrichs: −41 °F (−40.6 °C) all-time record[57]
  • Pierre: −39 °F (−39.4 °C)[25]:Pierre, S. Dak. entry, p. 284
  • Rapid City: −34 °F (−36.7 °C)[57]
  • Sioux Falls: −42 °F (−41.1 °C) all-time record[56]
  • Spearfish: −29 °F (−33.9 °C)[57]
  • Watertown: −38 °F (−38.9 °C) tied for all-time record for February[55]
  • Wentworth: −40 °F (−40.0 °C) all-time record (as of August 14, 2006)[56]
  • Wessington Springs: −39 °F (−39.4 °C) all-time record[56]
  • Yankton: −30 °F (−34.4 °C)[25]:Yankton, S. Dak. entry, p. 286
  • Temperatures not available: Vermillion

Wyoming

Coldest February, 1895–2017.[58]

Northwest

For the 1895–2017 period of record in the Northwest climate region:

  • February 1899 was the 13th-coldest February. The average temperature was 26.4 °F (−3.1 °C), which was 5.1 °F (2.8 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 31.5 °F (−0.28 °C) and 4.8 °F (2.7 °C) warmer than the coldest February 1929.[62]
  • December 1898 through February 1899 was the 19th-coldest meteorological winter. The average temperature was 26.5 °F (−3.1 °C), which was 2.8 °F (1.6 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 29.3 °F (−1.5 °C) and 6.2 °F (3.4 °C) warmer than the coldest winter of 1948/49.[63]

Idaho

19th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[64]

Oregon

14th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[67]

Washington

11th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[69]

Ohio Valley

For the 1895–2017 period of record in the Ohio Valley climate region:

  • February 1899 was the third-coldest February (behind the coldest 1978 and the second-coldest 1895). The average temperature was 22.20 °F (−5.44 °C), which was 10.60 °F (5.89 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 32.80 °F (0.44 °C) and 1.90 °F (1.06 °C) warmer than February 1978.[74]
  • December 1898 through February 1899 was the ninth-coldest meteorological winter. The average temperature was 27.0 °F (−2.8 °C), which was 5.0 °F (2.8 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 32.0 °F (0.0 °C) and 3.5 °F (1.9 °C) warmer than the coldest winter of 1977/78.[75]

Illinois

Sixth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[76]

  • Albion: −21 °F (−29.4 °C) all-time record as of December 31, 2006[77]
  • Aurora: −22 °F (−30.0 °C)[78]
  • Champaign: −25 °F (−31.7 °C) tied with February 13, 1905, January 19, 1994, and January 5, 1999, for all-time record[79]
  • Chicago: −21 °F (−29.4 °C) all-time record for February[78]
  • Elgin: −23 °F (−30.6 °C)[78][77]
  • Fairfield: −21 °F (−29.4 °C) all-time record for February[80]
  • Joliet: −20 °F (−28.9 °C)[78]
  • Mt. Vernon: −22 °F (−30.0 °C) tied with February 10, 1982, for all time record[80]
  • Nashville: −21 °F (−29.4 °C) tied with December 22, 1989, for all-time record[81]
  • Ottawa: −23 °F (−30.6 °C) tied for all-time record for February[78]
  • Palestine: −27 °F (−32.8 °C) all-time record[79]
  • Peoria: −22 °F (−30.0 °C)[79]
  • Sparta: −23 °F (−30.6 °C) all-time record as of December 31, 2006[77]
  • Springfield: −21 °F (−29.4 °C)[79]
  • Temperatures not available: Cicero, Naperville, Rockford, Waukegan

Indiana

Seventh-coldest February, 1895–2017.[82]

Kentucky

Third-coldest February, 1895–2017.[86]

Missouri

Coldest February, 1895–2017.[91]

Ohio

Tenth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[95]

Tennessee

Fourth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[101]

West Virginia

Eighth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[106]

South

For the 1895–2017 period of record in the South climate region:

  • February 1899 was the second-coldest February (behind only 1905). The average temperature was 34.3 °F (1.3 °C), which was 11.3 °F (6.3 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 45.6 °F (7.6 °C) and 0.5 °F (0.3 °C) warmer than February 1905.[110]
  • December 1898 through February 1899 is tied with 1904/05 for the coldest meteorological winter of all-time. The average temperature was 37.6 °F (3.1 °C), which was 6.1 °F (3.4 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 43.7 °F (6.5 °C).[111]

Arkansas

Second-coldest February, 1895–2017.[112]

Kansas

Coldest February, 1895–2017.[116]

Louisiana

Fourth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[121]

Mississippi

Second-coldest February, 1895–2017.[126]

Oklahoma

Second-coldest February, 1895–2017.[129]

  • Anadarko: −17 °F (−27.2 °C) tied with January 4, 1947, and December 23, 1989, for all-time record (as of December 4, 2016)[130]
  • Beaver: −25 °F (−31.7 °C) all-time record[131]
  • Guthrie: −17 °F (−27.2 °C) all-time record for February[132]
  • Healdton: −14 °F (−25.6 °C) all-time record[132]
  • Hennessey: −17 °F (−27.2 °C) second-lowest ever (as of March 31, 2012)[130]
  • Newkirk: −22 °F (−30.0 °C) all-time record (as of September 13, 2012)[132]
  • Norman: −17 °F (−27.2 °C) tied with February 13, 1905, for all-time record[132]
  • Oklahoma City: −17 °F (−27.2 °C) all-time record[132]
  • Perry: −17 °F (−27.2 °C) all-time record for February[132]
  • Stillwater: −17 °F (−27.2 °C)[132]
  • Temperatures not available: Enid, Lawton, Tulsa

Texas

Third-coldest February, 1895–2018.[133]

Southeast

For the 1895–2017 period of record in the Southeast climate region:

  • February 1899 was the 17th-coldest February. The average temperature was 42.8 °F (6.0 °C), which was 4.7 °F (2.6 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 47.5 °F (8.6 °C) and 5.5 °F (3.1 °C) warmer than the coldest February 1895.[144]
  • December 1898 through February 1899 was the 21st-coldest meteorological winter. The average temperature was 44.4 °F (6.9 °C), which was 2.4 °F (1.3 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 46.7 °F (8.2 °C) and 3.5 °F (1.9 °C) warmer than the coldest winter of 1976/77.[145]

Alabama

Fifth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[146]

District of Columbia

Florida

51st-coldest February, 1895–2017.[151]

Georgia

22nd-coldest February, 1895–2017.[158]

North Carolina

12th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[164]

  • Chapel Hill: −6 °F (−21.1 °C) all-time record for February[165]
  • Charlotte: −5 °F (−20.6 °C) tied with December 30, 1880, and January 21, 1985, for all-time record[166]
  • Fayetteville: −5 °F (−20.6 °C) all-time record[165]
  • Greenville: −5 °F (−20.6 °C) all-time record for February[166]
  • Henderson: −9 °F (−22.8 °C) all-time record for February[166]
  • Highlands: −19 °F (−28.3 °C) tied with January 21, 1985, for all-time record[166]
  • Monroe: −10 °F (−23.3 °C) all-time record[166]
  • Raleigh: −2 °F (−18.9 °C) all-time record for February[165]
  • Salisbury: 4 °F (−15.6 °C)[166]
  • Tarboro: −3 °F (−19.4 °C) all-time record for February[165]
  • Wilmington: 5 °F (−15.0 °C) all-time record for February[167]

South Carolina

20th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[168]

Virginia

Sixth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[171]

Southwest

For the 1895–2017 period of record in the Southwest climate region:

  • February 1899 was the tenth-coldest February. The average temperature was 30.4 °F (−0.9 °C), which was 5.3 °F (2.9 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 35.7 °F (2.1 °C) and 4.4 °F (2.4 °C) warmer than the coldest February 1903.[175]
  • December 1898 through February 1899 was the third-coldest meteorological winter (behind only the coldest winter of 1932/33 and the second-coldest 1948/49). The average temperature was 28.7 °F (−1.8 °C), which was 4.7 °F (2.6 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 33.4 °F (0.8 °C) and 1.5 °F (0.8 °C) warmer than 1932/33.[176]

Arizona

37th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[177]

Colorado

Second-coldest February, 1895–2017.[181]

New Mexico

Ninth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[186]

Utah

26th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[188]

Upper Midwest

For the 1895–2017 period of record in the Upper Midwest climate region:

  • February 1899 is tied with 1917 for the third-coldest February (behind the coldest 1936 and the second-coldest 1904). The average temperature was 6.20 °F (−14.3 °C), which was 10.8 °F (6.0 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 17.0 °F (−8.33 °C) and 5.8 °F (3.2 °C) warmer than February 1936.[190]
  • December 1898 through February 1899 was the seventh-coldest meteorological winter. The average temperature was 10.4 °F (−12.0 °C), which was 6.1 °F (3.4 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 16.5 °F (−8.6 °C) and 2.9 °F (1.6 °C) warmer than the coldest winter of 1935/36.[191]

Iowa

Third-coldest February, 1895–2017.[192]

Michigan

Fifth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[197]

Minnesota

Fifth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[203]

Wisconsin

Fourth-coldest February, 1895–2017.[209]

West

For the 1895–2017 period of record in the West climate region:

  • February 1899 was the 48th-coldest February. The average temperature was 40.4 °F (4.7 °C), which was 0.5 °F (0.3 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 40.9 °F (4.9 °C) and 9.3 °F (5.2 °C) warmer than the coldest February 1903.[215]
  • December 1898 through February 1899 was the 38th-coldest meteorological winter. The average temperature was 38.4 °F (3.6 °C), which was 0.5 °F (0.3 °C) colder than the 1895–2017 average of 38.9 °F (3.8 °C) and 7.9 °F (4.4 °C) warmer than the coldest winter of 1948/49.[216]

California

47th-coldest February, 1895–2017.[217]

Nevada

52nd-coldest February, 1895–2017.[222]

Winter weather

On February 12, snow flurries were reported in some areas from New Orleans eastward to Fort Myers and Tampa, Florida.[1] The storm crossed the Florida peninsula and intensified as it moved rapidly up the east coast.[2] High Point, North Carolina recorded 10–12 inches (250–300 mm) of snow.[3] Washington, D. C. recorded a single-day snowfall of 20.5 inches (520 mm), which was a record for the time. (On January 28, 1772, 36 inches (91 cm) of snow fell in the Washington area during the "Washington and Jefferson Snowstorm"; however that was before official record-keeping began.[225])

On February 19, ice floes were reported to be moving out of the Mississippi River into the Gulf of Mexico.[2]:48 On February 14, New Orleans dropped to 6 °F (−14.4 °C), an all-time record.[124] The previous day, the city experienced its coldest-ever Mardi Gras low temperature of 7 °F (−13.9 °C). The Rex parade was delayed while snow was removed from the route.[226][227]

The low temperature in Miami, Florida on February 14 dropped to 29 °F (−1.7 °C) with a high of only 48 F. The city has only recorded a lower temperature twice since record-keeping commenced on September 6, 1895.[228]

Casualties, damages, and inconveniences

The Great Arctic Outbreak of 1899 had disastrous impact across many areas of the continental U.S. and Cuba as people, livestock, and wildlife succumbed to the frigid cold.

U.S. bird populations were decimated across the nation. Henderson County, Tennessee saw nearly the complete extinction of its bluebird population [229] and Culpeper County, as well as most northern and central Virginia counties lost nearly all of its quail, having to import new birds in the late teens and 1920s to repopulate the areas.[230] Pine Warblers were also especially decimated.

Some of the bird species affected:[231]

It has been estimated that over 100 people died. In Brooklyn, 31 year-old Mary Goodwin was frozen to death and a thinly clad, unidentified woman in The Dalles, Oregon was found frozen to death in a hallway in an attempt to find warmth. Mail carriers Palmer and Hawkins of New York were thought to have drowned attempting to deliver the mail. It is believed that their boat, overturned by the high winds, was crushed by the floating ice.[232]

Crops were ruined, and orchards were utterly destroyed in Georgia.[233] Walla Walla, Washington's majority of wheat was frozen out, with Eureka flat seeing the most damage.[234]

Traffic was brought to a complete standstill in all parts of the country. Barges in the Mississippi, which was in some parts entirely frozen through, and Great Lakes were brought to a complete standstill by ice. Traffic across all railroads were delayed or paralyzed indefinitely and steamers and liners were likewise delayed.[235]

References

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  38. ^ "February, Average temperature, Northern Rockies and Plains". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  39. ^ "December through February, Average temperature, Northern Rockies and Plains". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  40. ^ "February, Average temperature, Montana (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  41. ^ a b c d e f "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Chinook, MT -- Fort Logan 4 ESE, MT -- Great Falls, MT -- Havre Area, MT; Climatological Data for Adel, MT - February 1899 and for Helena, MT - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Great Falls, MT. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  42. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Big Timber, MT -- Billings Water Treatment Plant, MT -- Ekalaka, MT -- Fort Keogh, MT". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Billings, MT. Retrieved March 30, 2018. 
  43. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Climatological Data for Butte Bert Money Airport, MT - February 1899 and for Kalispell Glacier Airport, MT - February 1899; Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Missoula Area, MT". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Missoula, MT. Retrieved January 2, 2018. 
  44. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Glasgow Area, MT". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Glasgow, MT. Retrieved January 2, 2018. 
  45. ^ "February, Average temperature, Nebraska (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  46. ^ a b c d e "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Alliance 1WNW, NE -- Bridgeport, NE -- Kimball 2NE, NE -- Lodgepole, NE -- Scottsbluff Area, NE". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Cheyenne, WY. Retrieved December 29, 2017. 
  47. ^ a b c d e "State Climate Extremes Committee - Records". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  48. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Culbertson, NE". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Goodland, KS. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  49. ^ a b c d e "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Hay Springs, NE -- Imperial, NE -- North Platte Area, NE -- North Valentine Miller Field, NE". National Weather Service Forecast Office, North Platte, NE; Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Springview 2 NW, NE. Retrieved December 29, 2017. 
  50. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Lincoln Area, NE and for Omaha Area, NE". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Omaha/Valley, NE. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  51. ^ "February, Average temperature, North Dakota (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  52. ^ a b c d e f g "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Ashley, ND -- Bottineau, ND -- Dickinson Exp Station, ND -- Jamestown State Hosp, ND -- Mohall, ND -- Williston Area, ND; Climatological Data for Bismark Area, ND - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Bismark, ND. Retrieved January 2, 2018. 
  53. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Fargo Area, ND -- Grand Forks Area, ND -- Minnewaukan, ND". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Grand Forks, ND. Retrieved January 2, 2018. 
  54. ^ "February, Average temperature, South Dakota (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  55. ^ a b c d e f "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Aberdeen Area, SD -- Bowdle, SD -- Highmore 1 W, SD -- Kennebec, SD -- Watertown Regional AP, SD". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Aberdeen, SD. Retrieved January 2, 2018. 
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Alexandria, SD -- Brookings 2 NE, SD -- De Smet, SD -- Flandreau, SD -- Forestburg 4 NNE, SD -- Mitchell 2 N, SD -- Sioux Falls Area, SD -- Wentworth 2.5 WNW, SD -- Wessington Springs, SD; Climatological Data for Huron Area, SD - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Sioux Falls, SD. Retrieved April 2, 2018. 
  57. ^ a b c d e "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Camp Crook, SD -- Hot Springs, SD -- La Delle 7 NE, SD -- Oelrichs, SD; Climatological Data for Rapid City WBO, SD - February 1899 and for Spearfish, SD - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Rapid City, SD. Retrieved January 2, 2018. 
  58. ^ "February, Average temperature, Wyoming (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  59. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Basin, WY and for Lovell, WY; Climatological Data for Yellowstone Park Mammoth, Wyoming - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Western and Central Wyoming. Retrieved December 29, 2017. 
  60. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Cheyenne, WY". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Cheyenne, WY. Retrieved December 28, 2017. 
  61. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Climatological Data for Evanston 1 E, WY - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Salt Lake City, UT. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  62. ^ "February, Average temperature, Northwest". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  63. ^ "December through February, Average temperature, Northwest". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  64. ^ "February, Average temperature, Idaho (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  65. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Climatological Data for Lewiston Area, ID - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Spokane, WA. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  66. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Riggins, ID". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Missoula, MT. Retrieved January 3, 2018. 
  67. ^ "February, Average temperature, Oregon (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  68. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Corvallis State University, OR -- Forest Grove, OR -- Salem Area, OR". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Portland, OR. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  69. ^ "February, Average temperature, Washington (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  70. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Pullman Area, WA; Climatological Data for Spokane Area, WA - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Spokane, WA. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  71. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Climatological Data for Seattle Area, WA - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Seattle, WA. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  72. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Climatological Data for Tri-Cities Area, WA - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Pendleton, OR. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  73. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Vancouver 4 NNE, WA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Portland, OR. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  74. ^ "February, Average temperature, Ohio Valley". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  75. ^ "December through February, Average temperature, Ohio Valley". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  76. ^ "February, Average temperature, Illinois (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  77. ^ a b c Jim Angel, state climatologist (2007). "Historical Climate Data: Temperature Extremes for Station 110055 ALBION, IL -- Station 112736 ELGIN, IL -- Station 118147 SPARTA 1 W, IL". Illinois State Water Survey. Retrieved January 1, 2018. 
  78. ^ a b c d e "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Aurora, IL -- Chicago Area, IL -- Elgin, IL (2007-2017) -- Ottawa 5SW, IL; Climatological Data for Elgin, IL - February 1899 and for Joliet, IL - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Chicago, IL. Retrieved January 1, 2018. 
  79. ^ a b c d "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Champaign 3S, IL -- Palestine, IL -- Peoria Area, IL -- Springfield Area, IL". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Central Illinois. Retrieved January 1, 2018. 
  80. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Fairfield Radio WFIW, IL and for Mt Vernon 3 NE, IL; Climatological Data for Mt Vernon 3 NE, IL - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Paducah, KY. Retrieved January 1, 2018. 
  81. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Nashville 1 E, IL". National Weather Service Forecast Office, St. Louis, MO. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  82. ^ "February, Average temperature, Indiana (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Anderson Sewage Plant, IN -- Bloomington Indiana Univ, IN -- Columbus, IN -- Indianapolis Area, IN -- Oolitic Purdue Ex Frm, IN -- Shelbyville Sewage Plant, IN -- Vincennes 4 E, IN -- Washington 1 W, IN". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Indianapolis, IN. Retrieved December 31, 2017. 
  84. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Angola, IN -- South Bend Area, IN -- Fort Wayne Area, IN". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Northern Indiana. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  85. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Evansville Area, IN". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Paducah, Kentucky. Retrieved December 31, 2017. 
  86. ^ "February, Average temperature, Kentucky (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  87. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Ashland, KY". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Charleston, WV. Retrieved December 28, 2017. 
  88. ^ a b c d "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Bowling Green Warren County Airport, KY -- Georgetown Water Wks, KY -- Lexington Area, KY -- Louisville Area, KY". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Louisville, KY. Retrieved December 31, 2017. 
  89. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Henderson 8 SSW, KY and for Hopkinsville, KY". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Paducah, Kentucky. Retrieved December 31, 2017. 
  90. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Maysville Wastewater Treatment Plant, KY". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Wilmington, OH. Retrieved December 31, 2017. 
  91. ^ "February, Average temperature, Texas (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  92. ^ a b c d "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Columbia Area, MO -- Jefferson City WTR PL, MO -- St Charles Elm Point, MO -- St Louis Area, MO". National Weather Service Forecast Office, St. Louis, MO. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  93. ^ a b c d e "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Kansas City Area, MO -- Maryville 2E, MO -- Oregon, MO -- Sedalia Water Plant, MO. -- Warrensburg 4NW, MO". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Kansas City/Pleasant Hill. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  94. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Marble Hill, MO and for Poplar Bluff, MO". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Paducah, KY. Retrieved December 31, 2017. 
  95. ^ "February, Average temperature, Ohio (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  96. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Akron Area, OH -- Cleveland Area, OH -- Toledo Area, OH". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Cleveland, OH. Retrieved January 3, 2018. 
  97. ^ a b c d e f g h i "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Bellefontaine, OH -- Celina 3 NE, OH -- Cincinnati Area, OH -- Circleville, OH -- Columbus Area, OH -- Dayton Area, OH -- Hillsboro, OH -- Portsmouth-Sciotoville, OH -- Waverly, OH". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Wilmington, OH. Retrieved January 1, 2018. 
  98. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for McArthur, OH and for McConnellsville LK 7, OH". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Charleston, WV. Retrieved December 28, 2017. 
  99. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Napoleon, OH". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Northern Indiana. Retrieved January 1, 2018. 
  100. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Zanesville Area, OH". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Pittsburgh, PA. Retrieved December 28, 2017. 
  101. ^ "February, Average temperature, Tennessee (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  102. ^ a b c d e f g "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Carthage, TN -- Clarksville WWTP, TN -- Franklin Sewage Plant, TN -- McMinnville, TN -- Murfreesboro 5N, TN -- Nashville Area, TN -- Tullahoma, TN". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Nashville, TN. Retrieved January 3, 2018. 
  103. ^ a b c d e f "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Chattanooga Area, TN -- Elizabethton, TN -- Knoxville Area, TN -- Newport 1 NW, TN -- Rogersville 1 NE, TN -- Tellico Plains, TN; Climatological Data for Knoxville Area - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Morristown, TN. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  104. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Jackson Exp Sta, TN and for Memphis Area, TN". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Memphis, TN. Retrieved January 3, 2018. 
  105. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Sewanee, TN". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Huntsville, AL. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  106. ^ "February, Average temperature, West Virginia (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  107. ^ a b c d e f g h "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Beckley Area, WV -- Buckhannon, WV -- Glenville, WV -- Hamlin, WV -- Huntington Area, WV -- Marlinton, WV -- Philippi, WV -- Weston, WV". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Charleston, WV. Retrieved December 28, 2017. 
  108. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Moorefield 1 SSE, WV and for Upper Tract, WV". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Baltimore/Washington. Retrieved December 28, 2017. 
  109. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Morgantown Area, WV -- New Cumberland L/D, WV -- Parsons 1 NE, WV". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Pittsburgh, PA. Retrieved December 28, 2017. 
  110. ^ "February, Average temperature, South". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  111. ^ "December through February, Average temperature, South". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  112. ^ "February, Average temperature, Arkansas (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  113. ^ a b c d e f g h "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Amity 2 SE, AR -- Brinkley, AR -- Camden 1, AR -- Conway, AR -- Hardy, AR -- Little Rock Area, AR -- Newport, AR -- Pine Bluff, AR". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Little Rock, AR. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  114. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Corning, AR -- Jonesboro Area, AR -- Pocahontas 1, AR". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Memphis, TN. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  115. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Fayetteville Exp Sta, AR and for Fort Smith Area, AR". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Tulsa, OK. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  116. ^ "February, Average temperature, Kansas (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  117. ^ a b c d e "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Abilene, KS -- Concordia Area, KS -- Lawrence, KS -- Manhattan, KS -- Topeka Area, KS". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Topeka, KS. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  118. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Atchison, KS and for Olathe 3E, KS". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Kansas City/Pleasant Hill. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  119. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Dodge City Area, KS -- Meade, KS -- Pratt, KS". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Dodge City, KS. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  120. ^ a b c d e f "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Fall River Lake, KS -- Norwich, KS -- Sedan, KS -- Wellington, KS -- Wichita Area, KS -- Yates Center, KS". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Wichita, KS. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  121. ^ "February, Average temperature, Louisiana (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  122. ^ a b c d e "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Alexandria, LA -- Franklin 3 NW, LA -- Jennings, LA -- Lafayette Regional AP, LA -- Lake Charles Area, LA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Lake Charles, LA. Retrieved December 30, 2017. 
  123. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Bastrop, LA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Jackson, MS. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  124. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Baton Rouge Area, LA and for New Orleans Audubon, LA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, New Orleans/Baton Rouge, LA. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  125. ^ a b c d "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Minden, LA -- Plain Dealing, LA -- Ruston LA Tech, LA -- Shreveport Area, LA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Shreveport, LA. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  126. ^ "February, Average temperature, Mississippi (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  127. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Aberdeen, MS and for Booneville, MS". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Memphis, TN. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  128. ^ a b c d e f g h "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Brookhaven City, MS -- Canton 4N, MS -- Hattiesburg 5SW, MS -- Kosciusko, MS -- Louisville, MS -- Meridian Area, MS -- Natchez, MS -- State University, MS". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Jackson, MS. Retrieved December 30, 2017. 
  129. ^ "February, Average temperature, Oklahoma (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  130. ^ a b "CLIMOD 2: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Anadarko 3 E, OK and Hennessey 4 ESE, OK". Northeast Regional Climate Center. Retrieved March 30, 2018. 
  131. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Beaver, OK". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Amarillo, TX. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  132. ^ a b c d e f g "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Guthrie 5S, OK -- Healdton 3 E, OK -- Newkirk 5NE, OK -- Norman 3SSE, OK -- Oklahoma City Area, OK -- Perry, OK -- Stillwater 2 W, OK; Climatological Data for Norman 3SSE, OK - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Norman, OK. Retrieved December 29, 2017. 
  133. ^ "February, Average temperature, Texas (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved March 30, 2018. 
  134. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Amarillo Area, TX". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Amarillo, TX. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  135. ^ a b c d e "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Austin Area, TX -- Blanco, TX -- Hallettsville 2 N, TX -- New Braunfels, TX -- San Antonio Area, TX". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Austin/San Antonio, TX. Retrieved March 30, 2018. 
  136. ^ a b c d e f "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Brenham, TX -- College Station Area, TX -- Conroe, TX -- Danevang 1 W, TX -- Galveston Area, TX -- Houston Area, TX". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Houston, TX. Retrieved December 29, 2017. 
  137. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Brownsville Area, TX". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Brownsville, TX. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  138. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Corpus Christi Area, TX". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Corpus Christi, TX. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  139. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Crosbyton, TX". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Lubbock, TX. Retrieved March 30, 2018. 
  140. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Dallas-Fort Worth Area, TX". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Fort Worth, TX. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  141. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for El Paso Area, TX". National Weather Service Forecast Office, El Paso Area. Retrieved December 29, 2017. 
  142. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Marshall, TX and Tyler Pounds Field, TX". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Shreveport, LA. Retrieved March 30, 2018. 
  143. ^ "CLIMOD 2: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Temple, TX". Northeast Regional Climate Center. Retrieved March 30, 2018. 
  144. ^ "February, Average temperature, Southeast". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  145. ^ "December through February, Average temperature, Southeast". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  146. ^ "February, Average temperature, Alabama (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  147. ^ a b c d "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Birmingham Area, AL -- Montgomery Area, AL -- Oneonta, AL -- Talledega, AL". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Birmingham, AL. Retrieved January 5, 2018. 
  148. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Mobile Area, AL". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Mobile/Pensacola. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  149. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Muscle Shoals Area, AL -- Scottsboro, AL -- Valley Head, AL". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Huntsville, AL. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  150. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Washington Area, DC". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Baltimore/Washington. Retrieved December 28, 2017. 
  151. ^ "February, Average temperature, Florida (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  152. ^ a b c d e f "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Tampa Area, FL -- Inverness 3 SE, FL -- Plant City, FL -- Saint Leo, FL -- Tarpon Spgs Sewage Pl, FL -- Bartow 1SE, FL". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Tampa Bay, FL. Retrieved January 6, 2017. 
  153. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Tallahassee Area, FL -- De Funiak Springs 1 E, FL". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Tallahassee, FL. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  154. ^ a b c d e f "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Gainesville Area, FL -- Jacksonville Area, FL -- Federal Point, FL -- Lake City 2 E, FL -- Live Oak, FL -- Ocala, FL". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Jacksonville, FL. Retrieved January 6, 2018. 
  155. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Key West Area, FL". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Key West, FL. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  156. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Miami Area, FL -- West Palm Beach Area, FL". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Miami-South Florida, FL. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  157. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Orlando Area, FL". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Melbourne, FL. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  158. ^ "February, Average temperature, Georgia (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  159. ^ a b c "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Atlanta Area, GA -- Columbus Area, GA -- Rome Area, GA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Peachtree City, GA. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  160. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Augusta Area, GA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Columbia, SC. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  161. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Blakely, GA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Tallahassee, FL. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  162. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Savannah Area, GA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Charleston, SC. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  163. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Waycross 4 NE, GA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Jacksonville, FL. Retrieved January 6, 2018. 
  164. ^ "February, Average temperature, North Carolina (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  165. ^ a b c d "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Chapel Hill 2 W, NC -- Fayetville (PWC), NC -- Raleigh Area, NC -- Taboro 1 S, NC". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Raleigh, NC. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  166. ^ a b c d e f "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Charlotte Area, NC -- Greenville-Spartanburg Area, NC -- Hendersonville 1 NE, NC -- Highlands, NC -- Monroe 2 SE, NC -- Salisbury, NC". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Greenville-Spartanburg, NC. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  167. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Wilmington Area, NC". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Wilmington, NC. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  168. ^ "February, Average temperature, South Carolina (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  169. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Columbia Area, SC". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Columbia, SC. Retrieved December 25, 2017. 
  170. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Santuck, SC". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Greenville-Spartanburg, NC. Retrieved December 27, 2017. 
  171. ^ "February, Average temperature, Virginia (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  172. ^ a b c d "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Bedford, VA -- Hot Springs, VA -- Lynchburg Area, VA -- Wytheville 1 S, VA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Blacksburg, VA. Retrieved December 31, 2017. 
  173. ^ a b c d e "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Charlottesville 2W, VA -- Dale Enterprise, VA -- Staunton Water Treatment Plant, VA -- Warrenton 3 SE, VA -- Woodstock 2 NE, VA". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Baltimore/Washington. Retrieved December 28, 2017. 
  174. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Norfolk Area, VA; Climatological Data for Richmond Area, VA - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Wakefield, VA. Retrieved December 30, 2017. 
  175. ^ "February, Average temperature, Southwest". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  176. ^ "December through February, Average temperature, Southwest". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
  177. ^ "February, Average temperature, Arizona (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  178. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Phoenix Area, AZ". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Phoenix, AZ. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  179. ^ a b "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Prescott, AZ -- Williams, AZ". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Flagstaff, AZ. Retrieved January 5, 2018. 
  180. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Tucson Area, AZ". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Tucson, AZ. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  181. ^ "February, Average temperature, Colorado (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  182. ^ a b c d "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Breckenridge Area, CO -- Denver Area, CO -- Fort Collins Area, CO; Climatological Data for Boulder, CO - February 1899". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Denver-Boulder, CO. Retrieved December 29, 2017. 
  183. ^ a b c d "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Colorado Springs Area, CO -- Lamar Area, CO -- Las Animas, CO -- Pueblo Area, CO". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Pueblo, CO. Retrieved December 29, 2017. 
  184. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Mancos 1SW, CO". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Grand Junction, CO. Retrieved December 29, 2017. 
  185. ^ "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Wray, CO". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Goodland, KS. Retrieved January 4, 2018. 
  186. ^ "February, Average temperature, New Mexico (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  187. ^ a b c d e f "NOAA Online Weather: Climatological Data for Albuquerque Area, NM - February 1899 and for Roswell Area, NM - February 1899; Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Alamogordo 1, NM -- Buckmans, NM -- Clayton Municipal Air Park, NM -- Las Vegas 2 NW, NM". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Albuquerque, NM. Retrieved March 30, 2018. 
  188. ^ "February, Average temperature, Utah (statewide)". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 16, 2018. 
  189. ^ a b c d "NOAA Online Weather: Lowest Min Temperature by Day for Heber, UT -- Logan Utah St U, UT -- Salt Lake City Area, UT -- St. George, UT". National Weather Service Forecast Office, Salt Lake City, UT. Retrieved December 26, 2017. 
  190. ^ "February, Average temperature, Upper Midwest". National Centers for Environmental Information. Retrieved January 25, 2018. 
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