Graffito of Esmet-Akhom

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The Graffito of Esmet-Akhom (or Philae 436) is the latest known inscription written in Egyptian hieroglyphs. It is inscribed in the temple of Philae (Temple of Isis) in southern Egypt, and was written in 394 CE.[1]


The inscription is dated to the birthday of the deity Osiris, year 110 (of Diocletian), which is 24 August 394. The figure on the left is meant to depict a king wearing a crown and the text in the top right is relating to a royal decree.[2]

The hieroglyphic inscription reads:

"Before Merul son of Horus, by the hand(?) of (?) Esmet-Akhom(?) son of Esmet, second prophet of Isis, for ever and ever. Words spoken by Merul, lord of Abaton, great god."[3]

The demotic inscription reads:

"I Esmet-akhom, the scribe of the house of record(?) of Isis, son of Esmet-Panekhate the second prophet of Isis and his mother Eswe-re; I performed work on this figure of Mandulis for everlasting, because he is kindly of face(?) unto me. To-day, the day of the Birth of Osiris, his (?) dedication-festival, year 110."[3]

Hieroglyphic inscription 
Demotic inscription 


  1. ^ "THE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE: NOT JUST HIEROGLYPHS". American Research Center in Egypt Orange County. Retrieved 2015-04-26. 
  2. ^ Aswan - Last Hieroglyphic Text
  3. ^ a b Frank R. Trombley (1995). Hellenic Religion and Christianization: C. 370-529. Brill. p. 228. ISBN 9789004096912.  google books preview
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