Ordination (statistics)

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Ordination or gradient analysis, in multivariate analysis, is a method complementary to data clustering, and used mainly in exploratory data analysis (rather than in hypothesis testing). Ordination orders objects that are characterized by values on multiple variables (multivariate objects) so that similar objects are near each other and dissimilar objects are farther from each other. Such relationships between the objects, on each of several axes (one for each variable), are then characterized numerically and/or graphically. Many ordination techniques exist, including principal components analysis (PCA), non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), correspondence analysis (CA) and its derivatives (detrended CA (DCA), canonical CA (CCA)), Bray–Curtis ordination, and redundancy analysis (RDA), among others.


Ordination can be used on the analysis of any set of multivariate objects. It is frequently used in several environmental or ecological sciences, particularly plant community ecology. It is also used in genetics and systems biology for microarray data analysis and in psychometrics.

See also

  • Multivariate statistics
  • Principal components analysis
  • Correspondence analysis
  • Multiple correspondence analysis
  • Detrended correspondence analysis
  • Intrinsic dimension
  • Pagani, Regina Negri; Kovaleski, João Luiz; Resende, Luis Mauricio (2015). "Methodi Ordinatio: a proposed methodology to select and rank relevant scientific papers encompassing the impact factor, number of citation, and year of publication". Scientometrics. 105 (3): 2109–2135. doi:10.1007/s11192-015-1744-x.


  • Birks, H.J.B., 1998. An Annotated Bibliography Of Canonical Correspondence Analysis And Related Constrained Ordination Methods 1986–1996. Botanical Institute, University of Bergen. World Wide Web: http://www.bio.umontreal.ca/Casgrain/cca_bib/index.html
  • Braak, C.J.F. ter & I.C. Prentice 1988 A theory of gradient analysis. Adv. Ecol. Res. 18:271-313.
  • Gauch, H.G., Jr. 1982. Multivariate Analysis in Community Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Jongman et al., 1995. Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Pagani et al., 2015. Methodi Ordinatio: a proposed methodology to select and rank relevant scientific papers encompassing the impact factor, number of citation, and year of publication. Scientometrics, December 2015, Volume 105, Issue 3, pp 2109-2135.

Further reading

  • Mike Palmer, Ordination Methods for Ecologists Botany Department of Oklahoma State University. Retrieved 15 August 2010.

External links

  1. General
    • http://ordination.okstate.edu/ The Ordination Web Page - Ordination Methods for Ecologists
    • http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~efc/classes/biol710/ordination/ordination.htm
    • https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11192-015-1744-x
  2. Specific Techniques
    • http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stcoran.html
    • http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~efc/classes/biol710/ordination/CA.htm
    • http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stmulsca.html
    • http://www2.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/pa765/correspondence.htm
    • http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/glosfra.html
    • https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11192-015-1744-x Ordination method for articles, using year of publication, impact factor and number of citations.
  3. Software
    • http://home.centurytel.net/~mjm/pcordwin.htm
    • http://www.microcomputerpower.com/catalog/canoco.html
    • http://www.brodgar.com
    • http://www.VisuMap.com
    • http://cc.oulu.fi/~jarioksa/softhelp/ceprog.html DECORANA
    • http://cc.oulu.fi/~jarioksa/softhelp/casvd.html Correspondence Analysis with SVD
    • https://cran.r-project.org/package=seriation R package for ordering objects
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