Governor of Southern Rhodesia

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Governor of Southern Rhodesia
Flag of the Governor of Southern Rhodesia (1951 - 1970).svg
Flag of the Governor of Southern Rhodesia (1951–70)
Style His Excellency The Right Honourable
Appointer King/Queen of the United Kingdom
Formation 1 October 1923
First holder The Rt Hon. John Chancellor
Final holder The Lord Soames
Abolished 18 April 1980

The Governor of Southern Rhodesia was the representative of the British monarch in the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia from 1923 to 1980. He was appointed by the Crown and acted as the local head of state, receiving instructions from the British Government.

Constitutional role

The Governor was also Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces and as such, in theory at least, exercised considerable influence over the running of the colony and its government, but in practice, the Governor's main function was to maintain a satisfactory relationship between the British and Southern Rhodesian Governments and acted in an advisory capacity most of the time. From 1951, however, in contrast to other colonies, the British government was represented in Southern Rhodesia by a High Commissioner in Salisbury.[1]

When Southern Rhodesia was part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, the position of the Governor remained unchanged, but as Salisbury became the capital of the Federation, the Governor General resided at Government House, previously the Governor's official residence.[2] During this time, the Governor of Southern Rhodesia resided at Governor's Lodge in the suburb of Highlands.[3]

UDI

Following the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, the government of Ian Smith ceased to recognise the authority of the then Governor, Sir Humphrey Gibbs, and appointed Clifford Dupont to exercise the Governor's powers as Officer Administering the Government.[4]

However, Gibbs continued to occupy Government House, asserting his position as the Queen's de jure representative, and did not resign from the post until June 1969, following the decision of white voters in a referendum to approve a new constitution declaring Rhodesia, as Southern Rhodesia had become more commonly known, a republic.[5]

In 1977, Field Marshal Lord Carver was designated Resident Commissioner for Rhodesia, but he resigned fourteen months later.[6]

The office of Governor remained vacant until 11 December 1979, when The Lord Soames assumed the post, following the signing of the Lancaster House Agreement, under which Southern Rhodesia would achieve de jure independence as Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980.

Flag

Flag of the Governor of Southern Rhodesia (1924–51)

In common with most other British colonies, the flag used by the Governor, as the Sovereign's representative in Southern Rhodesia was initially a Union Flag with a white roundel in the centre, charged with the shield from the colony's arms granted on 11 August 1924. Unique among the flags of the Governors of British Colonies, this shield of Arms was not surrounded by the customary wreath. This flag was adopted on 1 October 1924 and was flown until 30 July 1951.

On 31 July 1951, a new flag was put into use for the Governor of Southern Rhodesia. This was dark blue and charged in the centre with a Royal Crown, its height being four-sevenths of the hoist. Initially the Tudor Crown would have been used, but after her accession to the throne in 1952, Queen Elizabeth II indicated her preference for St Edward's Crown and this version would have been used thereafter. Although the colony had attained 'Responsible Government' in 1923, it was never a fully fledged Dominion, and so did not have a Governor-General, whose flag in other Dominions would be dark blue, charged in the centre with the Royal Crest above a Crown, with the name of the Dominion written in a yellow scroll below.

Governors of Southern Rhodesia (1923–1980)

Took office Left office Name
(Birth–Death)
Comments
1 October 1923 15 June 1928 Sir John Chancellor
(1870–1952)
15 June 1928 24 November 1928 Sir Murray Bisset
(1876–1931)
Acting
24 November 1928 1 May 1934 Sir Cecil Hunter-Rodwell
(1874–1953)
1 May 1934 8 January 1935 Sir Fraser Russell
(1876–1952)
Acting; 1st Time
8 January 1935 8 January 1942 Sir Herbert Stanley
(1872–1955)
8 January 1942 10 December 1942 Sir Fraser Russell
(1876–1952)
Acting; 2nd Time
10 December 1942 26 October 1944 Sir Evelyn Baring
(1903–1973)
26 October 1944 20 February 1945 Sir Robert James Hudson
(1885–1963)
Acting; 1st Time
20 February 1945 2 February 1946 Sir Campbell Tait
(1886–1946)
2 February 1946 19 July 1946 Sir Fraser Russell
(1876–1952)
Acting; 3rd Time
19 July 1946 14 January 1947 Sir Robert James Hudson
(1885–1963)
Acting; 2nd Time
14 January 1947 21 November 1953 Sir John Noble Kennedy
(1893–1970)
21 November 1953 26 November 1954 Sir Robert Clarkson Tredgold
(1899–1977)
Acting
26 November 1954 28 December 1959 Sir Peveril William-Powlett
(1898–1985)
28 December 1959 24 June 1969 Sir Humphrey Gibbs
(1902–1990)
After the UDI on 11 November 1965, position not recognized by the Rhodesian government
24 June 1969 11 December 1979 Position vacant On 1 September 1977, The Lord Carver was named as Resident Commissioner-designate
11 December 1979 18 April 1980 The Lord Soames
(1920–1987)

For continuation after independence, see: List of Presidents of Zimbabwe

See also

References

  1. ^ Diplomacy with a Difference: the Commonwealth Office of High Commissioner, 1880–2006, Lorna Lloyd, BRILL, 2007, page 240
  2. ^ Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Newsletter, Issues 27-52,, 1960, page 428
  3. ^ Year Book and Guide of the Rhodesias and Nyasaland, with Biographies, Rhodesian Publications, Limited, 1962, page 33
  4. ^ Ian Smith Strips Gibbs Of All Official Privilege, Associated Press, The Morning Record, November 18, 1965
  5. ^ Final Break, TIME, June 27, 1969
  6. ^ Obituary: Field Marshal Lord Carver, The Guardian, 12 December 2001
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