Governor-General of Korea

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Governor-General of Chosen
Chōsen Sōtoku ()
Seal of the Government-General of Korea.svg
Residence Government-General Building
Appointer Emperor of Japan
Precursor Resident-General of Korea
Formation 1 October 1910
First holder Terauchi Masatake
Final holder Nobuyuki Abe
Abolished 12 September 1945
Succession

Soviet Union Soviet Civil Administration

United States United States Army Military Government in Korea
Governor-General of Korea
Japanese General Government Building.jpg
Korean name
Hangul 조선총독
Hanja 朝鮮總督
Revised Romanization Joseon Chongdok
McCune–Reischauer Chosŏn Ch'ongdok
Japanese name:
Chōsen Sōtoku ()

The post of Governor-General of Korea served as the chief administrator of Korea while it was held as Chōsen (Korea) from 1910 to 1945. The seat of the colonial government was the General Government Building, completed in 1926.[1]

While suppressing freedom of speech and association as well as independence movement, Governor-General of Korea laid down an infrastructure of public works and facilities, which brought prevention of infectious disease and the increase of birthrate. [2] [3] Governor-General of Korea had a police organisation, which, for example, clamped down on Korean procurers who tricked girls in their minority into working as comfort women.[4]

History

After the annexation of Korea to Japan in 1910, the office of Resident-General was replaced by that of Governor-General. However, the position was unique in among Japan's external possessions, as the Governor-General had sweeping plenipotentiary powers, and the position also entailed judicial oversight and some legislative powers. As of 1944, the Governor-General did not command the Imperial Japanese Army or Imperial Japanese Navy units stationed in Korea.[5] Given the powers and levels of responsibility, only ranking full generals in the Japanese Army were selected for the post (with the sole exception of retired admiral Saitō Makoto).

After the Japanese defeat in World War II, the Korean Peninsula was administrated by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea. The Governor-General building was completely demolished during administration of South Korean president Kim Yong-Sam on August 15, 1995.

Prime Ministers of Japan

Four individuals who held the position of the Governor-General of Korea also held the office of the Prime Minister of Japan. Three, Terauchi Masatake, Saitō Makoto, and Koiso Kuniaki, were Governors-General before becoming Prime Ministers. One, Abe Nobuyuki, was Prime Minister before his appointment as Governor-General. Ugaki Kazushige was named Prime Minister-designate, but he could not take office because he was unable to form a cabinet.

In addition, Resident-General Itō Hirobumi served four terms as Prime Minister prior to his appointment to Korea.

Residents-General

Flag of the Japanese Resident General of Korea (Tōkanki)

From 1906 to 1910, Korean Empire became a protectorate of Japan and Japan was represented by a Resident-General in the Korean Empire.

  1. Prince Itō Hirobumi (1905–1909)
  2. Viscount Sone Arasuke (1909)
  3. General Viscount Terauchi Masatake (1909–1910)

Governors-General

After the annexation of Korea to Japan in 1910, the office of Resident General was replaced by that of Governor-General.

  1. General Count Terauchi Masatake 寺内 正毅 (1910–1916)
  2. Gensui Count Hasegawa Yoshimichi 長谷川好道 (1916–1919)
  3. Admiral Viscount Saitō Makoto 斎藤 実 (1919–1927)
  4. General Ugaki Kazushige 宇垣 一成 (1927)
  5. General Yamanashi Hanzō 山梨半造, (1927–1929)
  6. Viscount Saitō Makoto 斎藤 実 (second time 1929–1931)
  7. General Ugaki Kazushige 宇垣 一成 (second time 1931–1936)
  8. General Minami Jirō 南次郎 (1936–1942)
  9. General (ret'd) Koiso Kuniaki 小磯 國昭 (1942–1944)
  10. General (ret'd) Abe Nobuyuki 阿部信行 (1944–1945)

See also

References

  1. ^ The building was completely destroyed during administration of South Korean president Kim Yong-sam on August 15, 1995.
  2. ^ Governor-General of Korea. 統計年報[Statistics Annual Report]
  3. ^ 黄文雄 Kō Bun'yū 歪められた朝鮮総督府 [Distorted facts about Governor-General of Korea](in Japanese).光文社 Kobunsya
  4. ^ 西岡力 Tsutomu Nishioka 政府は名誉回復の戦いを止めてはならぬ [The Japanese government must not stop demanding the restoration of honour] in Seiron March 2016 (in Japanese).産経新聞社 [Sankei Shimbun Sya]. p.83
  5. ^ Grajdanzev, Andrew (2007). "The Government of Korea". Modern Korea (2 ed.). Orchard Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-4067-3825-4. 

External links

  • Rulers
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