Government of the Soviet Union

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Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Правительство СССР
State Emblem of the Soviet Union.svg
Formation 1922
Extinction 1991
Legislative branch
Legislature Supreme Soviet
Meeting place State Kremlin Palace
Executive branch
Leader Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Headquarters Kremlin Senate
Main organ State Committee of the Soviet Union
Judicial branch
Court Supreme Court of the Soviet Union
Seat Moscow

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main part of the executive branch of government of the USSR. Its head of government was the officeholder known generally in the West as the Premier of the Soviet Union. However, the USSR was a one-party state governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the power of which was derived from the Constitution of the Soviet Union. The Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de facto the most important policy-making organ of the country and made government policy, with the Government being subordinate to the Party.[1]

The members of the Soviet Government—- people's commissars, ministers, and directors of state committees—- were recommended by the Premier and appointed by the Praesidium of the Supreme Soviet. The Government of the USSR exercised its executive powers in conformity with the Soviet Constitution and legislation enacted by the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.

During the period between when the USSR was established on December 30, 1922, and the first Government of the USSR was formed on July 6, 1923, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic's government acted as an interim government of the USSR.

Terminology

The generic term Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics can refer to the following organs of government of the USSR:

Additionally, during the last period of the Soviet Union, the following interim bodies performed functions of the union government (management of the economy and performing economic and social reforms) after the Cabinet of Ministers was dissolved by a vote of no confidence:

  • Committee for the Operational Management of the National Economy (since August 24, 1991)
  • Inter-republican Economic Committee (since September 5, 1991)
  • Interstate Economic Committee (since November 14, 1991 until December 26, 1991)

However eventually no new full government was formed due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

The term was also used by the government itself, the press and colloquially to mean the executive part alone, as that part of the government was responsible for ordinary governance of the nation.

Powers of the Government

Kremlin Senate, the building which used to house the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

The Government of the USSR, and the main executive power of the Soviet state, were both directed by the premier, who had an unspecified number of first deputy chairmen and deputy chairmen of the government, all of which were given responsibility concerning one specific topic. These were accompanied by a varying number of government ministers and state committee managers, recommended by the premier and appointed by the Praesidium of the Supreme Soviet. The executive branch was responsible for both short- and long-term economic, social and cultural development. The Government's official residence was at the Kremlin Senate in Moscow.

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics exercised its executive powers in conformity with the Soviet Constitution and legislation enacted by the Supreme Soviet. Its structure, operational procedures and decision-making processes were defined by the 1977 Soviet constitution. The Constitution mandated that the Government propose legislation and other documents to the Supreme Soviet, propose the budget and guide the economy, issue decisions and ordinances and verify their execution. The decisions and ordinances of the Council of Ministers of the USSR were binding throughout the USSR. It defined internal policies, directed and oversaw operation of state administration, oversaw the country's economic development, directed the activities and development of public services, and performed other activities which conformed to the provisions of the Constitution and applicable legislation. The Government also controlled foreign trade and had directed the "general development" of the Soviet armed forces.

The Government managed the internal sphere of the Union of Soviet of Socialist Republics' social policy. It was responsible for implementing procedures which would either promote or ensure the well-being of Soviet citizens by economic, social and economic development. The government was also responsible for monetary, technological, pollution, price wages and social security policies, controlled all All-Union institutions (institutions controlled by the USSR's Government) and All-Republican institutions. For instance, the Government controlled the State Bank of the USSR and was responsible for the organisation of state insurance and accounting. It was the Government which drafted the five-year plans for economic and social development, through its control of the State Planning Committee, and the country's budget, through its control of the Ministry of Finance. Both the five-year plan and the budget needed approval from the Supreme Soviet to be implemented. It was responsible for socialist property, public order and the protection of its citizens.

The Government was responsible to the Soviet Parliament, and the parliament could in theory force the resignation of the Government as a whole or any Government appointees by a simple majority vote. The Premier and the members of the Government were responsible jointly for decisions passed by the Government and were responsible for their respective portfolios. The Premiers of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, literally heads of state, appointed government ministers, and the appointment was approved by the Supreme Soviet. The Premier could recommend civil servants to the Presidium, which could then either pass or reject the nominee.

See also

References

  1. ^ Rees, E.A., ed. (2004). "Introduction" (PDF). The Nature of Stalin's Dictatorship: The Politburo, 1924–1953. Routledge. pp. 1–18. ISBN 1403904014.

External links

  • Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from 1917–1964 and 1964–1991
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Government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Government of the Soviet Union
ruling the territory of the Soviet Union

1922–1991
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Government of the Russian Federation
1991–present
Government of the Soviet Union
Representative for the Soviet Union in the United Nations
1945–1991
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Government of the Russian Federation
representative for the Russian Federation in the United Nations
1991–present
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