Government of Peru

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Republic of Peru
Formation 1993
Legislative branch
Legislature Congress of the Republic of Peru
Meeting place Legislative Palace
Executive branch
Leader President of the Republic
Headquarters Government Palace
Judicial branch
Court Supreme Court of Justice
Seat Lima
Gran Sello de la República del Perú.svg
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The Republic of Peru is a unitary state and a semi-presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. The current government was established by the 1993 Constitution of Peru. The government is composed of three branches, being the executive, judicial, and legislative branches.

Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Martín Vizcarra Peruvians for Change 23 March 2018
First Vice President Vacant
Second Vice President Mercedes Aráoz Peruvians for Change 28 July 2016
Prime Minister César Villanueva Independent 2 April 2018

The head of state is the President of Peru, who is elected to a term of five years; incumbents cannot be re-elected for a second consecutive term[1]. Family members may also not immediately succeed another family member's presidency.[2] The current president is Martín Vizcarra. He was sworn into office as President on March 23, 2018 following the resignation of President Kuczynski[3]. The executive branch, in addition to the legislative branch, may propose legislation. After legislation is passed by the congress, the President may promulgate the legislation, giving it the force of law.
In addition to the president, the executive branch contains the Council of Ministers, which, in addition to the Prime Minister, are appointed by the president.

Requirements to be Minister of State

According to Article 124 of the Political Constitution of Peru (1993), in order to be Minister, it is required:

  • Being born in Peru.
  • Be a current citizen.
  • Be 25 years old or older.
  • Members of the Armed Forces and National Police can be Ministers.

Article 92 states that members of Congress can be Ministers of State.


  1. Run the process of strategic planning, embedded in the National System of Strategic Planning and determining the sector's functional national goals applicable to every level of government; approve action plans; assign necessary resources to their execution, within the boundaries of the corresponding public budget.
  2. Approve the budget proposal to the entities within their sector, abiding by the article 32 and supervising their execution.
  3. Stablish the management measurements of the entities within their sector and evaluate their fulfillment.
  4. Propose the inner organization of their Ministry and approve it according to their competencies attributed by Law.
  5. Designate and remove the advising positions or any directly appointed, the heads of public entities and other entities of the sector, when this appointment is not explicitly attributed to the Council of Ministries, other authorities or the President; and submit to the President the new appointees for approval in the contrary.
  6. Maintain relations with regional and local government within the competencies attributed to the sector.
  7. Countersign the presidential mandates that concern to their Ministry
  8. Issue Supreme Resolution and Ministerial Resolutions.
  9. Put into effect the transfer of competencies, functions, and sectorial resources to Regional and Local Government and account for their execution.
  10. Execute all other functions that are put upon the Ministry by the Political Constitution of Peru, the Law and the President.

The Ministers of State can delegate, within their Ministry, the faculties and powers that are not exclusive to their function, to the extent that it is allowed by Law. Functions 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8 are exclusive to the Minister.

Ministries in Peru

Ministry Minister in charge
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Néstor Popolizio
Ministry of Defense José Modesto Huerta
Ministry of Interior Mauro Medina
Ministry of Justice and Human Rights Salvador Heresi Chicoma
Ministry of Economy and Finance David Tuesta Cárdenas
Ministry of Production Raúl Pérez-Reyes
Ministry of Agriculture Gustavo Mostajo
Ministry of Energy and Mining Francisco Ísmodes
Ministry of Foreign Commerce and Tourism Roger Valencia
Ministry of Environment Fabiola Muñoz
Ministry of Health Silvia Pessah
Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation Javier Piqué
Ministry of Education Daniel Alfaro Paredes
Ministry of Transport and Communications Edmer Trujillo Mori
Ministry of Labor and Employment Christian Sánchez Reyes
Ministry of Development and Social Inclusion Liliana La Rosa
Ministry of Women and Vulnerable Populations Ana María Mendieta
Ministry of Culture Patricia Balbuena

Judicial branch

The judicial branch is represented by the Supreme Court Of Justice, a 16-member body divided into three supreme sectors:[4]

Legislative branch

The legislative branch of Peru is vested in the Congress of the Republic of Peru, which is a 130-member unicameral house.[5] The legislators are elected for five year terms on a proportional representation basis. Legislation is voted on in congress, then sent to the president, who may approve it.


Universal suffrage is granted to all over the age of 18. Voting is compulsory until the age of 70. Some argue whether compulsive voting is for best of the country and the citizens. Enforced strictly, with exceptions. [6]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Constitucion Política Del Perú 1993 (Ultima actualización / Last updated: July 2011) Titulo IV De La Estructura Del Estado; Capitulo IV Poder Ejecutivo; Articulo 112°. El mandato presidencial es de cinco años, no hay reelección inmediata. Transcurrido otro periodo constitucional, como mínimo, el ex presidente puede volver an postular, sujeto a las mismas condiciones.
  2. ^ Taj, Mitra. "Keiko Fujimori's brother says he will run for president of Peru in 2021 if she loses". Business Insider. Retrieved 26 April 2016. 
  3. ^ "Martín Vizcarra sworn in as Peru's new president as embattled Kuczynski exits". The Guardian. 23 березня 2018. Retrieved 23 березня 2018.  Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (help)
  4. ^ "Judicial Branch of Peru". World Fact Book. CIA. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  5. ^ "Legislative Branch of Peru". World Fact Book. CIA. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  6. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
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