Gopher

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Pocket gophers
Temporal range: Chadronian–Recent
[1]
Pocket-Gopher Ano-Nuevo-SP.jpg
Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Superfamily: Geomyoidea
Family: Geomyidae
Bonaparte, 1845
Genera

Cratogeomys
Geomys
Orthogeomys
Pappogeomys
Thomomys
Zygogeomys

Pocket gophers, commonly referred to as gophers, are burrowing rodents of the family Geomyidae.[2] About 35 species of gophers live in Central and North America.[3] They are commonly known for their extensive tunneling activities. Gophers are endemic to North and Central America.

The name "pocket gopher" on its own may be used to refer to any of a number of genera within the family. These are the "true" gophers, but several ground squirrels in the distantly related family Sciuridae are often called gophers, as well. The origin of the word "gopher" is uncertain. French gaufre, meaning waffle, has been suggested, on account of the gopher's tunnels resembling the honeycomb-like pattern of holes in a waffle.[4] Another suggestion is that the word is of Muskogean origin.[5]

Description

Gophers weigh around 0.5 lb (230 g), and are about 6–8 in (150–200 mm) in body length, with a tail 1–2 in (25–51 mm) long. A few species reach weights approaching 1 kg (2.2 lb). Within any species, the males are larger than the females and can be nearly double their weight.[6]

Their lifespans are normally one to three years[7] assuming no diseases or predation. The maximum lifespan for the pocket gopher is about five years.[8] Some gophers, such as those in the genus Geomys, have lifespans that have been documented as up to seven years in the wild.[7]

Most gophers have brown fur that often closely matches the color of the soil in which they live. Their most characteristic features are their large cheek pouches, from which the word "pocket" in their name derives. These pouches are fur-lined, can be turned inside out, and extend from the side of the mouth well back onto the shoulders. Gophers have small eyes and a short, hairy tail, which they use to feel around tunnels when they walk backwards.

Pocket gophers have been found to often carry external parasites.[7] Common predators of the gopher include weasels, snakes, and hawks.[9]

Behavior

All pocket gophers create a network of tunnel systems that provide protection and a means of collecting food. They are larder hoarders, and their cheek pouches are used for transporting food back to their burrows. Gophers can collect large hoards. Unlike ground squirrels, gophers do not live in large communities and seldom find themselves above ground. Tunnel entrances can be identified by small piles of loose soil covering the opening.[10] Their burrows can be found in many areas where the soil is softer and easily tunneled. They often appear in vegetable gardens, lawns, or farms, as gophers like moist soil (see Soil biomantle). This has led to their frequent treatment as pests.

Gophers eat plant roots, shrubs, and other vegetables such as carrots, lettuce, radishes, and any other vegetables with juice. Some species are considered agricultural pests. The resulting destruction of plant life then leaves the area a stretch of denuded soil. At the same time, the soil disturbance created by turning it over can lead to the establishment of early successional communities of r-selected and other ruderal plant species. The stashing and subsequent decomposition of plant material in the gophers' larder can produce deep fertilization of the soil.[citation needed]

Pocket gophers are solitary outside of the breeding season, aggressively maintaining territories that vary in size depending on the resources available. Males and females may share some burrows and nesting chambers if their territories border each other, but in general, each pocket gopher inhabits its own individual tunnel system. Although they attempt to flee when threatened, they may attack other animals, including cats and humans, and can inflict serious bites with their long, sharp teeth.

Depending on the species and local conditions, pocket gophers may have a specific annual breeding season, or may breed repeatedly through the year. Each litter typically consists of two to five young, although this may be much higher in some species. The young are born blind and helpless, and are weaned around 40 days old.[11]

Control

Geomys and Thomomys species are classed as "prohibited new organisms" under New Zealand's Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996, preventing them from being imported into the country.[12]

Classification

A typical pocket gopher.

Much debate exists among taxonomists about which races of pocket gophers should be recognised as full species, and the following list cannot be regarded as definitive.

Some sources also list a genus Hypogeomys, with one species, but this genus name is normally used for the Malagasy giant rat, which belongs to the family Nesomyidae.

In popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ Eduardo Jiménez-Hidalgo; Rosalía Guerrero-Arenas; Krister T. Smith (2017). "Gregorymys veloxikua, The Oldest Pocket Gopher (Rodentia: Geomyidae), and The Early Diversification of Geomyoidea". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. in press. doi:10.1007/s10914-017-9383-z. 
  2. ^ "ODFW, Oregon Wildlife Species: Gophers". Dfw.state.or.us. 2014-08-25. Retrieved 2017-05-27. 
  3. ^ "Outwit Critters:". Retrieved 16 January 2014. There are 35 species of gophers living in both North and Central America. 
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ "American Heritage Dictionary Entry: gopher". Ahdictionary.com. Retrieved 2017-05-27. 
  6. ^ Macdonald, David W., ed. (2006). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-920608-2. 
  7. ^ a b c Hygnstrom, Scott E. (2010). Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. DIANE Publishing Inc. p. B–21. ISBN 1-4379-3688-1. 
  8. ^ Whisson, Delsey. Small Grain Production Pt 8: Pest Management -- Vertebrates. UCANR Publications. p. 5. ISBN 1-60107-411-5. 
  9. ^ "Pocket Gophers". National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  10. ^ "Gopher". A-Z Animals. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  11. ^ Patton, James (1984). Macdonald, D., ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 628–631. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. 
  12. ^ Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 2003 - Schedule 2 Prohibited new organisms, New Zealand Government, retrieved 26 January 2012 
  13. ^ [2][dead link]
  14. ^ Martin, Scott (25 March 2007). "The Book of Caddyshack: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About the Greatest Movie Ever Made". Taylor Trade Publishing – via Google Books. 
  15. ^ "The Go Gopher - The Go Blog". 
  16. ^ "Archive - The CBBC Broom Cupboard - 25 Years of live Children's BBC presentation". BBC. Retrieved 2017-05-27. 
  17. ^ TV, Guardian (6 August 2015). "Gordon's alive! Phillip Schofield's puppet sidekick is back". The Guardian. 

External links

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