Gujari language

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Gujari
Gojri, Gurjari
Native to Afghanistan, Pakistan, India
Region Kashmir, southeastern Afghanistan
Native speakers
(990,000 cited 1992–2000)[1]
Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.
Language codes
ISO 639-3 gju
Glottolog guja1253[2]

Gujari, also known as Gojri (ગુજરી, गुजरी, گوجری‬) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes of India , Pakistan and also found in Afghanistan.[3][4]

The language is mainly spoken in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Punjab, and many other parts of India. The language is also spoken by Gujjars of Pakistan in all the provinces of Pakistan including Azad Jammu & Kashmir and Hazara region. In Pakistan there are a number of organisation institution are working for the development of Gojri inludin a news channel in Gujri. Many Gujari words originate from Rajasthan where Gurjars lives. The Government of Jammu and Kashmir has recognized Gujari by including it into sixth schedule of the state constitution.[5]

History

Gojri is an offshoot of Indo-Aryan Group of languages, and during the dawn of Sanskrit and Persian poetry and prose in the Indian sub-continent several noted poets and Sufi saints used Gojri to spread their message. Noted poet-musician Hazrat Amir Khusro formally made mention of the Gojri language in the list of eighteen Indian languages of his time. Researchers and historians believe that Gujri language is the mother of Rajasthani languages.[6]

Gojri is being widely spoken and is the mother tongue of over 20 million people residing in various parts of India particularly in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Uttarakhand.[7]

Literary Traditions

Gojri has a richest treasure of Gojri Folk-lore including folk Songs, Ballads, Folk-tales/ Dastans. Hundreds of Folk Song-stories like NOORO, TAJO, NURA BEGUMA, SHUPIYA, KUNJHDI, MARIYAN have been recorded and published by the different organization.

In modern literature, a tradition of creative writing is more than 100 years old. Poets like Sain Qadar Baksh, Noon Poonchi contributed in this languages immensely. Mian Nizam ud Din (RA), Khuda Baksh Zar, Zabai Rajourvi, Shams ud Din Mehjoor Poonchi, Mian Bashir Ahmed, Javaid Rahi, Rafiq Anjum Milki Ram Kushan, Sarwari Kassana, Naseem Poonchi made remarkable contributions to Gojri through poetry, prose and criticism.

Presently hundreds of writers enriching Gojri with their writings and more than one thousand books are available in Gojri. Around 100 books of Gojri are available on net on PDF form including first-ever Gojri Dictionary compiled by Javaid Rahi.[8][9]

To share the classical literature written in Sanskrit, Persian, English others in Gojri, 50 world classics rendered in the language, translated by noted tribal writers.

Institutions working for Gojri

The All India Radio and Doordarshan Kendra are already running various Gojri programmes. The Radio Kashmir Jammu, Srinagar, Poonch in India and Seven Radio Stations of Pakistan and PTV have since long been airing Gojri programmes and news bulletins which has wide acceptance across the state of Jammu and Kashmir. A large number of Gojri books have been published in various subjects which include encyclopedias, dictionaries, grammar, poetry, prose, flora and fauna, folklore, art and architecture, agriculture, sociology and research documents.

The National Academy of Letters, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi has also recognized Gojri as one of the major Indian languages for its prestigious National Award, Bhasha Samman, and other programmes. The Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Arts, Culture and Languages have a well established Gojri Department in its Central Office which is in operation for last 40 years. Hundreds of books in Gojri, dictionaries and other research works have been published by this institution and organized hundreds of Seminar, conference etc. for the development of Gojri Language. Jammu and Kashmir State Board of School Education made curriculum in Gojri up to Middle Standard for Teaching Gojri in Schools. The University of Jammu Council has also approved the opening of Gojri Research Centre in Jammu and University of Kashmir have awarded several Doctorate Degrees on completing research projects on Gojri. In Pakistan-administered Kashmir, the Gojri Academy has been established and Post Graduate Studies Department has been set up in various Universities, Regional Research Centers. Organizations working for Gojri:

  • Jammu & Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture & Languages, Jammu
  • University of Jammu, Jammu
  • Jammu & Kashmir State Board of School Education Jammu
  • Central University Himachal Pardesh
  • Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation Poonch
  • Gurjar Desh Charitable Trust Jammu
  • Anjmun Gujjran Srinagar
  • Jammu and Kashmir Anjuman Taraqi Gojri Adab Rajouri
  • Bhartya Gurjar Pareshad Uatter Pradesh.
  • Anjuman Gojri Zuban-o-Adab Tral Kashmir
  • Organisation of Himalyan Gujjars Poonch
  • Adbi Sangat Wangat Kashmir
  • Adbi Majlis Gojri Jammu
  • Sarwari Memorial Gojri Society Jammu
  • Gojri Dramatic Club Jammu
  • Gujjar Writers Association Uri Baramulla.
  • Gojri Anjumun Badgam
  • Gujjar Manch Kathua
  • Bazm-i-Adab Kalakote Rajouri
  • Gojri Development Center Karnah Kupwara
  • Halqa.e.Gojari Adab Gilgit
  • Bazm-e-Gojri, Pakistan (Rawalpindi/islamabad)

References

  1. ^ Gujari at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gujari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Gojri And Its Relationship With Rajasthani, Etc.
  4. ^ Dr. R.P. Khatana. "Gujari Language and Identity in Jammu and Kashmir". Kashmir News Network: Language Section (koshur.org). Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  5. ^ The Government of Jammu and Kashmir has already recognised Gojri by including it in the sixth schedule of the constitution. In Jammu and Kashmir Gujari is written right-to-left in an extension of the Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic alphabet. Gujari is associated with the Nastaʿlīq style of Persian calligraphy - http://jktribals.page.tl/Gojri-Language.htm, http://www.merinews.com/article/writers-in-jk-seek-constitutional-safeguards-for-gojri/129813.shtml
  6. ^ Ajay Mitra Shastri; R. K. Sharma; Devendra Handa (2005). Revealing India's past: recent trends in art and archaeology. Aryan Books International. p. 227. ISBN 8173052875, ISBN 978-81-7305-287-3. It is an established fact that during 10th-11th century.....Interestingly the language was known as the Gujjar Bhakha.. 
  7. ^ State /Aprx. Population /Language - http://jktribals.page.tl/Gojri-Language.htm
  8. ^ 2018/javaidrahi .html GOJRI BOOKS in PDF (Gujari, Gojari, Gujar, Gujer, Gujjari, Gujuri
  9. ^ Dr Javaid Rahi. "The Gujjars". J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages : Language Section (JKAACL). Retrieved 2018-03-26. 
  • 1992: Rensch, Calvin R., Hindko and Gujari National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 305 pp. ISBN 969-8023-13-5.

External links

  • Dr. R.P. Khatana. Gujari Language and Identity in Jammu and Kashmir.
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