Gjilan

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Gjilan
Gjilan or Gjilani  (Albanian)
Гњилане/Gnjilane  (Serbian)
City and municipality
Gjilan at night
Gjilan at night
Flag of Gjilan
Flag
Official seal of Gjilan
Seal
Location of the city of Gjilan within Kosovo
Location of the city of Gjilan within Kosovo
Coordinates: 42°28′N 21°28′E / 42.47°N 21.47°E / 42.47; 21.47Coordinates: 42°28′N 21°28′E / 42.47°N 21.47°E / 42.47; 21.47
Country  Kosovo
District District of Gjilan
Government
 • Type Town Assembly
 • Mayor Lutfi Haziri (LDK)
 • Legislature Gjilan Assembly
 • Municipal 392 km2 (151 sq mi)
Elevation 508 m (1,667 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Urban 54,239
 • Municipal 90,178
 • Municipal density 230/km2 (600/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 60000
Area code(s) +383 280
Car plates 06
Date of Liberation 15 June 1999[1]
Website kk.rks-gov.net/gjilan

Gjilan (Albanian: Gjilani, IPA: [ɟilani] (About this sound listen))) or Gnjilane (Serbian Cyrillic: Гњилане), is a city and municipality located in the Gjilan District in eastern Kosovo.[a] According to the 2011 census, the city of Gjilan has 54,239 inhabitants, while the municipality has 90,178 inhabitants.

Geography

Gjilan is located in the southeastern part of Kosovo, the region of Anamorava. It is one of the largest municipalities in the country. The geographic position it has makes it possible to make good connections with other centers of Kosovo and the region. Around the town of Gjilan lies the Hill of Martyrs (Popovica), Gllama, Dheu i Bardhe, the area of Malisheva, Zabeli of Sahit Agas and the Bregu i Thate. There are three small rivers, Mirusha, Banja and Stanishori, which join and flow to Morava, west of the Uglar village.
Gjilan is 46km far from Pristina, from Kamenica - 27 km, from Vitia - 22 km, from Artana - about 25 kilometers. The municipalities of the region are bordered in the southeast with Presevo (33 km) and Kumanovo (53), while in the east - with Bujanovac (40 km).[2]

The Gjilan area is defined by the Morava River, which collects all the small rivers, with an average monthly flow rate of 6.7 cubic meters/second. In the southeast is surrounded by the mountains of Karadak.[3]

Coordinates of the city of Gjilan are 42 degrees north and 21.20 degrees east and 501 and 590 m above sea level, while 475 m in Budrike, up to 1000 m altitude in the border zone with Macedonia.

In seismic maps, Gjilan is known as a region of marked vulnerability to danger. In 2002, it was hit by an earthquake that left a dead, injured tens and over 8,000 damaged public and private facilities.

Name

Ottoman chronicler Evliya Çelebi mentions Morava as a settlement of the Sanjak of Vučitrn. Çelebi writes that: "The seventeen day journey from Constantinople (Istanbul) to pass through Vranje, Novo Brdo, Krivareka (Egridere) and Morava (Gjilan). The etymology of Gjilan is disputed. Albanian sources claim that the town (initially a village) obtained its name from Bahti Beg Gjinolli of Gjinaj clan that ruled the region of Vučitrn (Llapi and Drenica), and populated this area in the 18th century (around 1750). However, there is no definite evidence to support that claim, and in fact no one can confirm as to who the first true inhabitants were, or when they first settled there. On the other hand, Serbian sources claim that the origin of the town name is in the Serbian word gnjio (putrid, rotten).[4][better source needed]

History

The city center of Gjilan, to the clock tower. The picture also shows the Little Mosque in the center of the city

In 1342, a place called Morava was visited by Serbian King Stefan Dušan (later Emperor, r. 1331-1355).[5] A fort was built nearby in the 14th century. Gornja Morava was known as simply Morava under Ottoman rule, and it extended west of the Upper Žegra-Budriga-Cernica line, thus Gjilan stayed in the oblast (province) of Topolnica, which provincial seat was Novo Brdo.[6] In the 1455 defter (Ottoman tax registry), Gjilan was inhabited by Serbs, and the priest Božidar served the town.[7] There were 41 households. Haji Kalfa (first half of the 17th century) mentions Morava being 17 days from Constantinople.[5] Gornja Morava and Izmornik were organized into the Sanjak of Vučitrn up until the 18th century.[8] Gjilan became a kadiluk around 1780, and 20–25 years later a large village.[9]

The exact year of establishment of Gjilan to this day is not exactly determined. In the 17th century, Evlia Çelebija mentions Gjilan, but named Morava, as a cadillac within the Sandzak of Vushtrri.
Among other things, Evlia Çelebija writes that "Seventeen days the road from Constantinople (today's Istanbul) to Artana passes through Vranje, Krivarekë (Egridere) of Morava (Gjilan)".
There is a tradition in the people that Gjilan as a settlement was formed around 1750, and as an urban center - in 1772. Gjilan as a town developed in addition to the extinction of (Artana), which in the Middle Ages was one of the cities and the largest commercial, economic and mining centers in the Balkans.
The feudal family "Gjinaj" in the second half of the XIX century transferred their headquarters from Artana and built their own houses in the place where Gjilani is now located.[10]

Modern history

Gjilan celebrating the 10th anniversary of the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence

The exact year of establishment of Gjilan to this day is not exactly determined. In the 17th century, Evlia Çelebija mentions Gjilan, but named Morava, as a cadillac within the Sandzak of Vushtrri.
Among other things, Evlia Çelebija writes that "Seventeen days the road from Constantinople (today's Istanbul) to Artana passes through Vranje, Krivarekë (Egridere) of Morava (Gjilan)".
There is a tradition in the people that Gjilan as a settlement was formed around 1750, and as an urban center - in 1772. Gjilan as a town developed in addition to the extinction of (Artana), which in the Middle Ages was one of the cities and the largest commercial, economic and mining centers in the Balkans.
The feudal family "Gjinaj" in the second half of the XIX century transferred their headquarters from Artana and built their own houses in the place where Gjilani is now located.[11]

In 1999, Camp Monteith was established outside the city as a base of operations for KFOR during Operation Joint Guardian, on the site of a destroyed Serbian military base which was handed over to the Kosovo Protection Corps in 2007 after the U.S. Military downsized their number of troops. Gjilan has also served as the regional headquarters of the UNMIK International Police task force from 1999.

In between 23 and 27 November 1999, during the Gnjilane massacre, Gnjilane was the scene of the killing of 80 Serb and other civilians by the Kosovo Liberation Army (UCK) paramilitary troops, subgroup called Gnjilane group, in November 1999, during the Kosovo War.[12]

Population

Communist-era apartment complex in Gjilan.
Historical population
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1953 48,748 —    
1961 52,415 +0.91%
1971 67,893 +2.62%
1981 84,085 +2.16%
1991 103,675 +2.12%
2011 90,178 −0.69%
2016
est.
80,525 −2.24%
Source: Division of Kosovo

According to the last official census done in 2011, the city of Gjilan has 90,178 inhabitants.


Ethnic groups

The vast majority of the population is Albanian, followed by Serbs, and a small number of minorities. There are among others, 978 Turks or 1% of the municipal population. The number of Serbs has decreased due to partial boycott[13] and the creation of the Serb-majority municipality of Parteš.

The ethnic composition of the municipality:

Ethnic composition
Year/Population Albanians  % Serbs  % Roma  % Others  % Total
1953 24,797 50.87 19,196 39.32 48,748
1961 29,942 57.12 18,297 34.91 735 1.50 52,415
1971 43,754 64.45 20,237 29.81 1,824 2.69 67,893
1981 59,764 71.08 19,212 22.85 3,347 3.98 1,762 2.1 84,085
1991 79,357 76.54 19,370 18.68 3,477 3.4 1,471 1.4 103,675
1998 94,218 79.4 19,481 16.4 3,568 3 1,387 1.2 118,654
2011 87,814 97,45 624 0,7 361 0,4 1,379 1,52 90,178
Source: Yugoslav Population Censuses for data through 1991,and Kosovo 2011 census.

Languages

Albanian, Serbian and Turkish languages are official languages in the municipality.[14]

Education

Education in Gjilan includes primary, secondary education, and a public university. Currently there are 23,608 Albanian students and 881 minority students enrolled in educational institutions around Gjilan. The primary education ranging from grades 1−5 along with the lower secondary education is obligatory for all citizens and it begins when the child turns 6 years old. The mandatory is nevertheless free of charge.

The second phase of the obligatory education is the so-called lower secondary education which consists of teenagers usually around 12–15 years of age, therefore, grades 6-9. This education, according to the law, is also free of charge and publicly funded. The lower secondary education in Gjilan is held in these language: Albanian, Serbian, Turkish.

Higher education is available of attaining in various Universities and different educational institutions offering high professional education. Higher education is also available in public or private institutions where the students are offered associate degrees', Bachelor's degrees', Master's degrees', and PhD's. Various schedules are additionally available where students can choose to pursue their studies full-time or part-time.

Economy

There are 3,700 registered private businesses in the municipality employing 7,900 people. Before 1999, Gjilan was an important industrial centre in Kosovo. Still in operation are the radiator factory and tobacco factory, which has been recently privatized. The new city business incubator, supported by the European Agency for Reconstruction, was inaugurated in summer 2007.

Culture

An Albanian dance during "Flame's Pentagram"

Flaka e Janarit

Flaka e Janarit is a cultural event that starts on January 11 in Gjilan, Kosovo with symbolic opening of the flame, to keep up with various cultural activities to 31 January of each year. It gathers thousands of artists and art lovers from all the Albanian territories, who for three consecutive weeks transform the city into a cultural metropolis. The nation's martyrs are honored through values of art by this event, which began before the 10th anniversary of the assassination of writer, activist and patriot Jusuf Gërvalla, along with Kadri Zeka and Bardhosh Gërvalla. It was exactly the 10th anniversary without these three martyrs of freedom and from coincidence of these murders in a same date on 11 January, this event got this name "Flaka e Janarit". Moreover, this month has "eaten" lots of devout patriots.[15]

There are 41 mosques in Gjilan.[16]

Features

Gjilan is the administrative center of the District of Gjilan of Kosovo. Since February 15, 2003, it is the headquarters of the Local Democracy Agency in Kosovo of the Council of Europe.

Sports

Gjilan is home to the basketball club Drita Gjilan, the football clubs KF Gjilani and KF Drita and volleyball club KV Drita, male and female- the most successful club in Gjilan's history. Also has the football club which is in the 2nd league Kf.Bashkimi.

Gallery

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Gjilan is twinned with:

Annotations

  1. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations member states.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Gjilan's Liberation Day to be marked today". Kosovapress. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  2. ^ "Geographical position". Municipality of Gjilan - Official Website. Municipality of Gjilan. Retrieved 31 March 2018. 
  3. ^ "Geographical position". Municipality of Gjilan - Official Website. Municipality of Gjilan. Retrieved 31 March 2018. 
  4. ^ http://kk.rks-gov.net/gjilan/City-guide/History.aspx
  5. ^ a b Kostić 1922, p. 126

    "ГЊИЛАНЕ. ИЛИ. ГИЉАНЕ. У 14. веку помиње се неко место Морава, где се 1342. год бакио краљ Душан. Хаџи Калфа (прва половина 17. века) помиње неко место Мораву, на 17 дана од Цариграда. Јањева, Новог Брда и Кача- ..." Gnjilane or Giljane. In 14th century some place Morava was mentioned, where king Dusan rested in 1342. Haji Kalfa (first half of the 17th century) mentioned some place Morava, on 17 days (distance) from Istanbul. Janjeva, Novo Brdo and Kaca -..."

  6. ^ Urošević/Macura 1987, p. 10

    "Горња Морава се под турском управом звала само Мора- ва, а протезала се западно од линије с. Жегра — Будрига — Церница, тако да је Гњилане остајало у области Топонице, чије је обласно средиште било Ново Брдо." "Upper Morava under Ottoman rule was called just Morava. It was located Western of the line s. Zegra - Budriga - Cernica, so Gnjilane was in area of Toponica, which regional center was Novo Brdo."

  7. ^ Kalezić 2002, p. 448

    "Из турског дефтера (1455) види се да је насељено Србима и да је у њему служио свештеник Божидар. Старо Гњилане налазило се у Петиковиди (Петковици) предграђу данашњег насеља које је подиг- нуто на месту" "From the Ottoman Defter (1455) it is seen that it was inhabited by Serbs and that in it the priest Bozidar served. Old Gnjilane was located in Petikovida (Petkovica) suburb of today's settlement which was created in that place"

  8. ^ Urošević/Macura 1987, p. 11
  9. ^ Cvijić 1930, p. 38

    "Гњилане је дакле могло постати тек после овог кадије, око 1780 године, тако да је после 20 — 25 година, на крају 18 века, могло бити велико село — варошица. При доласку Џинића у новобрдски" "So, Gnjilane was founded only after this kadi, around the year 1780, so it was after 20 - 25 years, at the end of 18th century, a large village - varosica"

  10. ^ "The history". https://kk.rks-gov.net/gjilan/. Gjilan municipality. Retrieved 31 March 2018.  External link in |website= (help)
  11. ^ "The history". https://kk.rks-gov.net/gjilan/. Gjilan municipality. Retrieved 31 March 2018.  External link in |website= (help)
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-27. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  13. ^ "ECMI: Minority figures in Kosovo census to be used with reservations". ECMI. 
  14. ^ OSCE Implementation of the Law on the Use of Languages by Kosovo Municipalities
  15. ^ Rrustemi, Sabit (2001). Cultural literary magazine "Agmia". 5: Pg.85–86.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ "MUNICIPAL PROFILE". OSCE. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 

Sources

  • А. Урошевић: Гњилане — Гласник Географског друштва, св. ХУП. Београд, 1931
  • А. Урошевић: Горња Морава и Изморник., Насеља и порекло становништва, књ. 28, Београд 1935

External links

  • Municipality of Gjilan
  • SOK Kosovo and its population
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