Glycerius

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Glycerius
Emperor of the Western Roman Empire
Solidus Glycerius Ravenna (obverse).jpg
Solidus of Emperor Glycerius
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign March 3/5/25 473 AD – 24 June 474 AD
Predecessor Olybrius
Successor Julius Nepos
Co-emperors Leo I (Eastern Emperor, 473-474)
Leo II (Eastern Emperor, 474)
Died After 474 (possibly 480)
Full name
Flavius Glycerius
Regnal name
Flavius Glycerius Augustus
Religion Chalcedonian Christianity

Glycerius (Latin: Flavius Glycerius) (– after 474 AD) was Western Roman Emperor from 473 to 474. He served as comes domesticorum during the reign of Olybrius, until Olybrius died on 2 November 472. After a four-month interregnum, Glycerius was proclaimed Western Emperor on 3/5/25 March 473 by the magister militum and power behind the throne Gundobad. Very few of the events of his reign are known, other than that he repelled the invasion of the Ostrogoths, who were attempting to invade Italy, and diverted them to Gaul. Glycerius was not recognized by the Eastern Roman Emperor Leo I, who instead recognized Julius Nepos, and sent him with an army to invade the Western Empire. Glycerius was left without allies, because Gundobad had left to rule the Burgundians, and therefore was forced to abdicate on 24 June 474. After his abdication he became Bishop of Salona. He may have had a role in the assassination of Julius Nepos in 480. He died some time after 474, possibly in 480.

Life

Flavius Glycerius was born at an unknown date, in Dalmatia.[1][2] Glycerius rose to the rank of comes domesticorum during the reign of Western Roman Emperor Olybrius, who was a puppet emperor controlled first by the Magister militum Ricimer and then by his nephew, the Magister militum Gundobad. After the death of Olybrius on 2 November 472, and an interregnum of nearly four months, Gundobad proclaimed Glycerius as Western Roman Emperor on either 3/5 or 25 March 473.[3][4][5][1][6]

Much of Glycerius' reign is unknown, however it is known that Glycerius was able to repel the invasion of the Ostrogoths, who were attempting to invade Italy, and diverted them instead to Gaul.[3][7][6] The Eastern Roman Emperor, Leo I, refused to recognize Glycerius as Western Emperor because he was merely a puppet emperor. Emperor Leo instead chose to recognize one of his own men, Julius Nepos, and sent him with a fleet to invade the Western Empire. Glycerius was without allies, as Gundobad had already left to become King of Burgundy, leaving him with no option but to surrender. Glycerius abdicated on 24 June 474, in Ravenna, and was ordained as Bishop of Salona, and became Nepos' personal bishop.[3][4][7][2] According to Malchus, Glycerius had some part in organizing the assassination of Julius Nepos in 480, after Nepos had been forced to flee Italy and was ruling in exile in Dalmatia, although the historical records for the assassination are muddled.[8][9] Glycerius died some time after 474, possibly in 480.[7]

References

Primary sources

Citations

  1. ^ a b Meijer 2004, p. 159.
  2. ^ a b Adkins & Adkins 2014, p. 37.
  3. ^ a b c Bunson 2014, p. 244.
  4. ^ a b Bunson 2014, p. 249.
  5. ^ Lee 2013, p. 96.
  6. ^ a b MacGeorge 2002, p. 272.
  7. ^ a b c Meijer 2004, pp. 159–160.
  8. ^ a b MacGeorge 2002, p. 31.
  9. ^ MacGeorge 2002, p. 62.
  10. ^ a b c Meijer 2004, p. 160.

Bibliography

  • Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy A. (2014). Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Facts On File. ISBN 9780816074822. 
  • Bunson, Matthew (2014). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Facts On File. ISBN 9781438110271. 
  • Lee, A. D. (2013). From Rome to Byzantium AD 363 to 565. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748668359. 
  • MacGeorge, Penny (2002). Late Roman Warlords. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191530913. 
  • Meijer, Fik (2004). Emperors Don't Die in Bed. Routledge. ISBN 9781134384051. 
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Olybrius
Western Roman Emperor
473–474
Succeeded by
Julius Nepos
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