Glottolog

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Glottolog is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the new Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. There are two components: Languoid catalogue, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and Langdoc, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue Ethnologue in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested");[1] it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them. In some cases, the language names used in the bibliographic entries in Langdoc are identified by ISO or Glottolog code; this is an area of ongoing expansion. Glottolog differs in several negative ways as well: Notably, apart from a single point-location on a map at its geographic center, no ethnographic or demographic information is provided. External links are provided to ISO, Ethnologue, and other online language databases.

Edition 2.2 was published online in 2013, and licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License. Edition 2.4 was published in 2015, and edition 3.0 in 2017.

Language families

Glottolog is more conservative in its classification than most online databases in establishing membership of languages and groups within families, but more liberal in considering unclassified languages to be isolates. Edition 2.4 lists 425 oral-language families, including isolates, and 75 sign-language families and isolates,[2] as follows.

Name Region[3] Languages
Atlantic-Congo Africa, North America 1432
Austronesian Africa, Eurasia, Papunesia, South America 1276
Indo-European Africa, Australia, Eurasia, North America, Papunesia, South America 585
Sino-Tibetan Eurasia 472
Afro-Asiatic Africa, Eurasia 372
Nuclear Trans New Guinea Papunesia 315
Pama-Nyungan Australia, Papunesia 240
Otomanguean North America 178
Austroasiatic Eurasia 164
Tai-Kadai Eurasia 96
Dravidian Eurasia 81
Arawakan North America, South America 76
Mande Africa 74
Tupian South America 71
Uto-Aztecan North America 68
Central Sudanic Africa 62
Nuclear Torricelli Papunesia 55
Nilotic Africa 51
Algic North America 45
Athapaskan-Eyak-Tlingit North America 45
Quechuan South America 45
Cariban South America 44
Turkic Eurasia 44
Uralic Eurasia 44
Hmong-Mien Eurasia 39
Panoan South America 38
Sepik Papunesia 36
Mayan North America 33
Nuclear-Macro-Je South America 31
Lower Sepik-Ramu Papunesia 30
Nakh-Daghestanian Eurasia 30
Chibchan North America, South America 27
Tucanoan South America 26
Salishan North America 25
Timor-Alor-Pantar Papunesia 22
Lakes Plain Papunesia 20
Dogon Africa 19
Mixe-Zoque North America 19
Ta-Ne-Omotic Africa 19
Siouan North America 18
Morehead-Wasur Papunesia 17
Mongolic Eurasia 16
Border Papunesia 15
North Halmahera Papunesia 15
Japonic Eurasia, Papunesia 14
Khoe-Kwadi Africa 14
Angan Papunesia 13
Ndu Papunesia 13
Nubian Africa 13
Tor-Orya Papunesia 13
Chapacuran South America 12
Eskimo-Aleut Eurasia, North America 12
Gunwinyguan Australia 12
Totonacan North America 12
Tungusic Eurasia 12
Iroquoian North America 11
Miwok-Costanoan North America 11
Western Daly Australia 11
Worrorran Australia 11
Geelvink Bay Papunesia 10
Great Andamanese Eurasia, Papunesia 10
Heiban Africa 10
Ijoid Africa 10
Maban Africa 10
Nyulnyulan Australia 10
Saharan Africa 10
Songhay Africa 10
Surmic Africa 10
Chocoan South America 9
Cochimi-Yuman North America 9
Dagan Papunesia 9
Sko Papunesia 9
South Bougainville Papunesia 9
Kiowa-Tanoan North America 8
Kwerbic Papunesia 8
Mailuan Papunesia 8
Narrow Talodi Africa 8
Tuu Africa 8
Bosavi Papunesia 7
Daju Africa 7
Huitotoan South America 7
Inland Gulf Papunesia 7
Koiarian Papunesia 7
Matacoan South America 7
Muskogean North America 7
Pomoan North America 7
Tacanan South America 7
Arawan South America 6
Baining Papunesia 6
Barbacoan South America 6
Chumashan North America 6
East Strickland Papunesia 6
Goilalan Papunesia 6
Kadugli-Krongo Africa 6
Kartvelian Eurasia 6
Kiwaian Papunesia 6
Kxa Africa 6
Left May Papunesia 6
Marind Papunesia 6
Nambiquaran South America 6
South Bird's Head Family Papunesia 6
Wakashan North America 6
Yeniseian Eurasia 6
Zaparoan South America 6
Abkhaz-Adyge Eurasia 5
Caddoan North America 5
Chukotko-Kamchatkan Eurasia 5
Guahibo South America 5
Guaicuruan South America 5
Lengua-Mascoy South America 5
Mirndi Australia 5
Misumalpan North America 5
Nimboran Papunesia 5
Nuclear Eleman Papunesia 5
Pauwasi Papunesia 5
Sahaptian North America 5
South Omotic Africa 5
Tirio Papunesia 5
West Bird's Head Papunesia 5
Xincan North America 5
Yanomam South America 5
Yareban Papunesia 5
Yuat Papunesia 5
Chinookan North America 4
Chonan South America 4
Eastern Jebel Africa 4
Eastern Trans-Fly Papunesia 4
Huavean North America 4
Iwaidjan Proper Australia 4
Jivaroan South America 4
Kamakanan South America 4
Koman Africa 4
Maiduan North America 4
Mangarrayi-Maran Australia 4
Maningrida Australia 4
Mao Africa 4
Nadahup South America 4
North Bougainville Papunesia 4
Sentani Papunesia 4
Suki-Gogodala Papunesia 4
Tama Africa 4
Tangkic Australia 4
Turama-Kikori Papunesia 4
Walio Papunesia 4
Yokutsan North America 4
Yukaghir Eurasia 4
Arafundi Papunesia 3
Aymara South America 3
Bororoan South America 3
Cahuapanan South America 3
Charruan South America 3
Dizoid Africa 3
East Bird's Head Papunesia 3
Giimbiyu Australia 3
Jarrakan Australia 3
Kalapuyan North America 3
Katla-Tima Africa 3
Kawesqar South America 3
Kayagar Papunesia 3
Kolopom Papunesia 3
Kuliak Africa 3
Kwalean Papunesia 3
Mairasi Papunesia 3
Mongol-Langam Papunesia 3
Peba-Yagua South America 3
Puri South America 3
Saliban South America 3
Shastan North America 3
Tsimshian North America 3
West Bomberai Papunesia 3
Yangmanic Australia 3
Zamucoan South America 3
Amto-Musan Papunesia 2
Araucanian South America 2
Awin-Pa Papunesia 2
Baibai-Fas Papunesia 2
Bayono-Awbono Papunesia 2
Boran South America 2
Bulaka River Papunesia 2
Bunaban Australia 2
Chimakuan North America 2
Coosan North America 2
Doso-Turumsa Papunesia 2
Eastern Daly Australia 2
East Kutubu Papunesia 2
Etrusco-Rhaetian Eurasia 2
Furan Africa 2
Garrwan Australia 2
Haida North America 2
Harakmbut South America 2
Hatam-Mansim Papunesia 2
Hibito-Cholon South America 2
Huarpean South America 2
Hurro-Urartian Eurasia 2
Inanwatan Papunesia 2
Jarawa-Onge Eurasia 2
Jicaquean North America 2
Kakua-Nukak South America 2
Kariri South America 2
Katukinan South America 2
Kaure-Narau Papunesia 2
Keresan North America 2
Konda-Yahadian Papunesia 2
Koreanic Eurasia 2
Kresh-Aja Africa 2
Kwomtari Papunesia 2
Lencan North America 2
Lepki-Murkim Papunesia 2
Limilngan Australia 2
Manubaran Papunesia 2
Marrku-Wurrugu Australia 2
Mombum Papunesia 2
Monumbo Papunesia 2
Namla-Tofanma Papunesia 2
North-Eastern Tasmanian Australia 2
Northern Daly Australia 2
Nyimang Africa 2
Pahoturi Papunesia 2
Palaihnihan North America 2
Piawi Papunesia 2
Rashad Africa 2
Senagi Papunesia 2
Somahai Papunesia 2
South-Eastern Tasmanian Australia 2
Southern Daly Australia 2
Tarascan North America 2
Taulil-Butam Papunesia 2
Teberan Papunesia 2
Temein Africa 2
Tequistlatecan North America 2
Ticuna-Yuri South America 2
Uru-Chipaya South America 2
Western Tasmanian Australia 2
Wintuan North America 2
Yawa Papunesia 2
Yuki-Wappo North America 2
Abinomn Papunesia 1
Abun Papunesia 1
Adai North America 1
Aewa South America 1
Aikanã South America 1
Ainu (Japan) Eurasia 1
Alsea North America 1
Andaqui South America 1
Andoque South America 1
Anem Papunesia 1
Ap Ma Papunesia 1
Arutani South America 1
Atacame South America 1
Atakapa North America 1
Banaro Papunesia 1
Bangime Africa 1
Basque Eurasia 1
Beothuk North America 1
Berta Africa 1
Betoi South America 1
Bilua Papunesia 1
Birri Africa 1
Bogaya Papunesia 1
Burmeso Papunesia 1
Burushaski Eurasia 1
Camsá South America 1
Candoshi-Shapra South America 1
Canichana South America 1
Cayubaba South America 1
Cayuse North America 1
Chimariko North America 1
Chiquitano South America 1
Chitimacha North America 1
Chono South America 1
Coahuilteco North America 1
Cofán South America 1
Comecrudo North America 1
Cotoname North America 1
Cuitlatec North America 1
Culli South America 1
Damal Papunesia 1
Dem Papunesia 1
Dibiyaso Papunesia 1
Duna Papunesia 1
Elamite Eurasia 1
Elseng Papunesia 1
Esselen North America 1
Fasu Papunesia 1
Fulniô South America 1
Gagadu Australia 1
Guachi South America 1
Guaicurian North America 1
Guamo South America 1
Guató South America 1
Gule Africa 1
Gumuz Africa 1
Guriaso Papunesia 1
Hadza Africa 1
Hattic Eurasia 1
Hruso Eurasia 1
Iberian Eurasia 1
Irántxe South America 1
Itonama South America 1
Jalaa Africa 1
Jirajaran South America 1
Kaki Ae Papunesia 1
Kamula Papunesia 1
Kanoê South America 1
Kapori Papunesia 1
Karankawa North America 1
Karok North America 1
Kehu Papunesia 1
Kembra Papunesia 1
Kenaboi Eurasia 1
Kibiri Papunesia 1
Kimki Papunesia 1
Klamath-Modoc North America 1
Kol (Papua New Guinea) Papunesia 1
Kosadle Papunesia 1
Kujarge Africa 1
Kunama Africa 1
Kungarakany Australia 1
Kunza South America 1
Kuot Papunesia 1
Kusunda Eurasia 1
Kutenai North America 1
Kwaza South America 1
Laal Africa 1
Lafofa Africa 1
Laragia Australia 1
Lavukaleve Papunesia 1
Leco South America 1
Lule South America 1
Máku South America 1
Maratino North America 1
Massep Papunesia 1
Matanawí South America 1
Mato Grosso Arára South America 1
Mawes Papunesia 1
Maybrat Papunesia 1
Meroitic Africa 1
Mimi-Gaudefroy Africa 1
Minkin Australia 1
Mochica South America 1
Molale North America 1
Molof Papunesia 1
Mor (Bomberai Peninsula) Papunesia 1
Morori Papunesia 1
Mosetén-Chimané South America 1
Movima South America 1
Mpur Papunesia 1
Muniche South America 1
Mure South America 1
Nara Africa 1
Natchez North America 1
Nihali Eurasia 1
Nivkh Eurasia 1
Odiai Papunesia 1
Omurano South America 1
Ongota Africa 1
Oti South America 1
Otomaco South America 1
Oyster Bay-Big River-Little Swanport Australia 1
Páez South America 1
Pankararú South America 1
Papi Papunesia 1
Pawaia Papunesia 1
Payagua South America 1
Pele-Ata Papunesia 1
Pirahã South America 1
Puelche South America 1
Puinave South America 1
Pumé South America 1
Puquina South America 1
Purari Papunesia 1
Pyu Papunesia 1
Ramanos South America 1
Salinan North America 1
Sandawe Africa 1
Sapé South America 1
Sause Papunesia 1
Savosavo Papunesia 1
Sechuran South America 1
Seri North America 1
Shabo Africa 1
Shom Peng Eurasia 1
Siuslaw North America 1
Suarmin Papunesia 1
Sulka Papunesia 1
Sumerian Eurasia 1
Tabo Papunesia 1
Taiap Papunesia 1
Takelma North America 1
Tallán South America 1
Tambora Papunesia 1
Tanahmerah Papunesia 1
Taruma South America 1
Taushiro South America 1
Timote-Cuica South America 1
Timucua North America 1
Tinigua South America 1
Tiwi Australia 1
Tonkawa North America 1
Touo Papunesia 1
Trumai South America 1
Tunica North America 1
Tuxá South America 1
Umbugarla Australia 1
Urarina South America 1
Usku Papunesia 1
Vilela South America 1
Wadjiginy Australia 1
Wageman Australia 1
Waorani South America 1
Warao South America 1
Washo North America 1
Wiru Papunesia 1
Xukurú South America 1
Yale Papunesia 1
Yámana South America 1
Yana North America 1
Yele Papunesia 1
Yerakai Papunesia 1
Yetfa Papunesia 1
Yuchi North America 1
Yuracaré South America 1
Yurumanguí South America 1
Yuwana South America 1
Zuni North America 1
LSFic (sign) 32
ASLic (sign) 20
BSLic (sign) 10
Arab Sign 6
Russian Sign 6
CSLic (sign) 5
DGSic (sign) 4
JSLic (sign) 3
Old Chiangmai-Bangkok-Haiphong Sign 3
Spanish Sign 3
Paraguay-Uruguay Sign 2
Providencia-Cayman Sign 2
Afghan Sign Language 1
Albanian Sign Language 1
Argentine Sign Language 1
Armenian Sign Language 1
Bamako Sign Language 1
Brazilian Sign Language 1
Burkina Faso Sign Language 1
Ecuadorian Sign Language 1
Estonian Sign Language 1
Guatemalan Sign Language 1
Hausa Sign Language 1
Indian Sign Language 1
Kenyan Sign Language 1
Lyons Sign Language 1
Maltese Sign Language 1
Mauritian Sign Language 1
Mofu-Gudur Sign Language 1
Mozambican Sign Language 1
Nepalese Sign Language 1
Pakistan Sign Language 1
Penang Sign Language 1
Persian Sign Language 1
Rennellese Sign Language 1
Salvadoran Sign Language 1
Saudi Arabian Sign Language 1
Sri Lankan Sign Language 1
Tanzanian Sign Language 1
Tijuana Sign Language 1
Turkish Sign Language 1
Venezuelan Sign Language 1
Yoruba Sign Language 1
Zambian Sign Language 1
Zimbabwe Sign Language 1
Adamorobe Sign Language 1
Alipur Sign Language 1
Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language 1
Ban Khor Sign Language 1
Bengkala Sign Language 1
Bribri Sign Language 1
Brunca Sign Language 1
Bura Sign Language 1
Chatino Sign Language 1
Enga Sign Language 1
Ghandruk Sign Language 1
Ghardaia Sign Language 1
Guinea-Bissau Sign Language 1
Inuit Sign Language 1
Jamaican Country Sign Language 1
Jhankot Sign Language 1
Jumla Sign Language 1
Kajana Sign Language 1
Keresan Pueblo Indian Sign Language 1
Mardin Sign Language 1
Martha's Vineyard Sign Language 1
Mbour Sign Language 1
Nanabin Sign Language 1
Nicaraguan Sign Language 1
Old Kentish Sign Language 1
Original Costa Rican Sign Language 1
Tebul Sign Language 1
Urubú-Kaapor Sign Language 1
Yolngu Sign Language 1
Yucatec Maya Sign Language 1

Creoles are classified with the language that supplied their basic lexicon.

In addition to languages classified into families, Glottolog recognizes 79 pidgins (including one sign pidgin), 24 mixed languages, 8 artificial languages, 9 speech registers (including 3 auxiliary sign systems), 118 attested but unclassifiable languages (including 2 sign languages), 61 unattested languages, and 270 spurious languages (such as retired ISO entries, and including 3 sign languages) kept for bookkeeping purposes.

References

  1. ^ See for example the bookkeeping section for ISO languages that Glottolog has deemed to be spurious distinctions.
    This discrimination does not apply to dialects, many of which have been inherited from MultiTree or other sources without verification.
  2. ^ Sign languages are listed together, including those grouped typologically as village sign languages, as are pidgins and unclassified languages, but without a claim that they are necessarily related.
  3. ^ Geographic regions include "Papunesia" (a portmanteau of Papua (New Guinea) and Austronesia), which refers to the islands of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania.

External links

  • Glottolog homepage
  • Family listing
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