Global Financial Centres Index

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The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Economist Intelligence Unit. The first index was published in March 2007. It has been jointly published twice per year by Z/Yen Group in London and the China Development Institute in Shenzhen since 2015,[1] and is widely quoted as a source for ranking financial centres.[2][3][4][5]


The ranking is an aggregate of indices from five key areas: "business environment", "financial sector development", "infrastructure factors", "human capital", "reputation and general factors". As of September 11, 2017, the top centres worldwide are:[6]

N.B. Wellington, Hamburg, Chengdu, and Buenos Aires are the latest new entries, having not been included in the GFCI 21 ranking.

Financial centre profiles

This report ranked all 92 international financial centers into the following matrix, as of 11 September 2017:[6]

Level Broad & deep
Global Leaders
Relatively broad
Global Diversified
Relatively deep
Global Specialists
Global Contenders
Global United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi
China Beijing
United Arab Emirates Dubai
Germany Frankfurt
Switzerland Geneva
 Hong Kong
United Kingdom London
United States New York City
France Paris
China Shanghai
Australia Sydney
Japan Tokyo
Canada Toronto
Switzerland Zürich
Netherlands Amsterdam
Republic of Ireland Dublin
Russia Moscow
United States Washington, D.C.
Luxembourg Luxembourg
China Shenzhen
China Qingdao
Level Broad & deep
Established Transnational
Relatively broad
Transnational Diversified
Relatively deep
Transnational Specialists
Transnational Contenders
Transnational United States Boston
United States Chicago
South Africa Johannesburg
United States Los Angeles
Australia Melbourne
Canada Montreal
United States San Francisco
South Korea Seoul
Sweden Stockholm
Canada Vancouver
Thailand Bangkok
Belgium Brussels
South Korea Busan
Denmark Copenhagen
United Kingdom Edinburgh
Turkey Istanbul
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur
Spain Madrid
Italy Milan
Germany Munich
Italy Rome
 British Virgin Islands
Morocco Casablanca
 Cayman Islands
China Dalian
China Guangzhou
Kazakhstan Almaty
Qatar Doha
 Isle of Man
Level Broad & deep
Established Players
Relatively broad
Local Diversified
Relatively deep
Local Specialists
Evolving Centres
Local Germany Hamburg
Japan Osaka
Czech Republic Prague
Estonia Tallinn
Israel Tel Aviv
Austria Vienna
Poland Warsaw
New Zealand Wellington
Greece Athens
Hungary Budapest
Canada Calgary
United Kingdom Glasgow
Finland Helsinki
Portugal Lisbon
Mexico Mexico City
Norway Oslo
Brazil Rio de Janeiro
Brazil São Paulo
China Chengdu
Latvia Riga
Taiwan Taipei
 Trinidad and Tobago
Argentina Buenos Aires
Indonesia Jakarta
Philippines Manila
India Mumbai
Iceland Reykjavik
Saudi Arabia Riyadh
Russia Saint Petersburg

Key areas

The human capital factors summarise the availability of a skilled workforce, the flexibility of the labour market, the quality of the business education and the skill-set of the workforce, and quality of life. The business environment factors aggregate and value the regulation, tax rates, levels of corruption, economic freedom and how difficult in general it is to do business. To measure regulation an online questionnaire has been used. The financial sector development factors assess the volume and value of trading in capital markets and other financial markets, the cluster effect of the number of different financial service companies at the location, and employment and economic output indicators. The infrastructure factors account for the price and availability of office space at the location, as well as public transport. Reputation and General considers more subjective aspects such as innovation, brand appeal, cultural diversity and competitive positioning.

Industry sectors

The index provides sub-rankings in the main areas of financial services – banking, investment management, insurance, professional services, government and regulation.


  1. ^
  2. ^ See, for example, Yoshio Okubo, Vice Chairman, Japan Securities Dealers Association (October 2014). "Comparison of Global Financial Center". Harvard Law School, Program on International Financial Systems, Japan-U.S. Symposium. Retrieved 30 May 2015. 
  3. ^ "New York Strips London of Mantle as World's Top Financial Center". Bloomberg L.P. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2015. 
  4. ^ "New York and London vie for crown of world's top financial centre". The Financial Times. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  5. ^ "Seoul's Rise as a Global Financial Center". The Korea Society. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "The Global Financial Centres Index 22" (PDF). Long Finance. September 2017. 
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