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Flying fox
A large flying fox (Pteropus vampyrus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Suborder: Megachiroptera
Family: Pteropodidae
Genus: Pteropus
Brisson, 1762

See Text

Bats of the genus Pteropus, belonging to the megabat suborder, Megachiroptera, are the largest bats in the world. They are commonly known as fruit bats or flying foxes, among other colloquial names. They live in the tropics and subtropics of Asia (including the Indian subcontinent), Australia, East Africa, and a number of remote oceanic islands in both the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[1] At least 60 extant species are in this genus.[2]

The oldest ancestors of the genus Pteropus to be unearthed appear in the fossil record almost exactly as they are today,[citation needed] the only notable differences being early flight adaptations such as a tail for stabilizing. The oldest megachiropteran is dated about 35 million years ago, but the preceding gap in the fossil record makes their true lineage unknown. Recent genetic studies, however, have supported the argument that Old World bats, such as Pteropus, share lineage with New World bats (those found in the Americas).[3][4][5][6]

Characteristically, all species of flying foxes only feed on nectar, blossoms, pollen, and fruit, which explains their limited tropical distribution. Unlike other bats, they do not possess echolocation, a feature which helps the other suborder of bats, the microbats, locate and catch prey such as insects in midair.[7] Instead, smell and eyesight are very well-developed in flying foxes. Feeding ranges can reach up to 40 miles (60 km). When it locates food, the flying fox "crashes" into foliage and grabs for it. It may also attempt to catch hold of a branch with its hind feet, then swing upside down; once attached and hanging, the fox draws food to its mouth with one of its hind feet or with the clawed thumbs at the top of its wings.


Over half of the species are threatened today with extinction, and in particular in the Pacific, a number of species have died out as a result of hunting, deforestation, and predation by invasive species.[8] In the Marianas, flying fox meat is considered a delicacy, which led to a large commercial trade. Human consumption in Guam of the meat of flying foxes that feed on cycads is hypothesized to have led to an increase of the Lytico-bodig disease human neurodegenerative illness due to the presence of the neurotoxin BMAA.[9][10] In 1989, all species of Pteropus were placed on Appendix II of CITES and at least seven on Appendix I, which restricts international trade. The subspecies P. hypomelanus maris of the Maldives is considered endangered due to limited distribution and excessive culling. The commerce in fruit bats continues either illegally or because of inadequate restrictions. Local farmers may also attack the bats because they feed in their plantations, and in some cultures, their meat is believed to cure asthma. Nonhuman predators include birds of prey, snakes, and other mammals. In Mauritius, mango farmers have pressured the government into periodically culling the island's flying fox population, and these culls kill up to half the population at one time.[11]

Drawing of skeleton of an Indian flying fox P. giganteus

The spectacled flying fox, native to Australia, is threatened by the paralysis tick, which carries paralyzing toxins.[12]

Physical characteristics

The large flying fox (P. vampyrus) is generally reported as the largest Pteropus,[1] but a few other species may match it, at least in some measurements. The large flying fox has a wingspan up to 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) and five individuals weighed 0.65–1.1 kg (1.4–2.4 lb).[13][14] Even greater weights, up to 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) and 1.45 kg (3.2 lb), have been reported for the Indian flying fox (P. giganteus) and great flying fox (P. neohibernicus), respectively.[1][15] No full wingspan measurements are available for the great flying fox (P. neohibernicus), but with a forearm length up to 206 mm (8.1 in),[15] it may even surpass the large flying fox (P. vampyrus) where the forearm is up to 200 mm (7.9 in).[13] Outside this genus, the giant golden-crowned flying fox (Acerodon jubatus) is the only bat with similar dimensions.[1]

Most flying fox species are considerably smaller and generally weigh less than 600 g (21 oz).[16] The smallest, the masked flying fox (P. personatus), Temminck's flying fox (P. temminckii), Guam flying fox (P. tokudae), and dwarf flying fox (P. woodfordi), all weigh less than 170 g (6.0 oz).[16]

The pelage is long and silky with a dense underfur. No tail is present. As the name suggests, the head resembles that of a small fox because of the small ears and large eyes. Females have one pair of mammae located in the chest region. Ears are simple (long and pointed) with the outer margin forming an unbroken ring (a defining characteristic of megabats). The toes have sharp, curved claws.


Acerodon jubatus

Acerodon celebensis

P. personatus

Neopteryx frosti

P. macrotis

P. mahaganus

P. gilliardorum

P. woodfordi

P. molossinus

P. tokudae

P. pelagicus

P. scapulatus

P. lombocensis

P. livingstonii

P. voeltzkowi

P. dasymallus

P. pumilus

P. rodricensis

P. vampyrus

P. lylei

P. medius

P. aldabrensis

P. rufus

P. comorensis

P. seychellensis*

P. niger*

P. seychellensis*

P. niger*

P. pselaphon

P. capistratus

P. ennisae

P. vetulus

P. nitendiensis

P. tuberculatus

P. anetianus

P. samoensis

P. fundatus

P. rayneri

P. rennelli

P. cognatus

P. poliocephalus

P. ornatus

P. hypomelanus*

P. griseus

P. speciosus

P. hypomelanus*

P. neohibernicus

P. conspicillatus

P. alecto

P. tonganus

P. ualanus

P. admiralitatum

P. pohlei

P. mariannus

P. pelewensis*

P. yapensis

P. pelewensis*

Phylogeny of Pteropus[17]
Livingstone's fruit bat Pteropus livingstonii
Mariana fruit bat Pteropus mariannus

Genus Pteropus – flying foxes


  1. ^ a b c d Nowak, R. M., editor (1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. Vol. 1. 6th edition. Pp. 264-271. ISBN 0-8018-5789-9
  2. ^ Simmons, N.B. (2005). "Genus Pteropus". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 334–346. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  3. ^ Springer, Ms; Teeling, Ec; Madsen, O; Stanhope, Mj; De, Jong, Ww (May 2001). "Integrated fossil and molecular data reconstruct bat echolocation" (Free full text). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 98 (11): 6241–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.111551998. PMC 33452Freely accessible. PMID 11353869. 
  4. ^ Simmons NB, Seymour KL, Habersetzer J, Gunnell GF (2008-02-14). "Primitive Early Eocene bat from Wyoming and the evolution of flight and echolocation". Nature. 451 (7180): 818–21. doi:10.1038/nature06549. PMID 18270539. Retrieved 2008-07-03. 
  5. ^ Teeling, Ec; Springer, Ms; Madsen, O; Bates, P; O'Brien, Sj; Murphy, Wj (January 2005). "A molecular phylogeny for bats illuminates biogeography and the fossil record". Science. 307 (5709): 580–4. doi:10.1126/science.1105113. PMID 15681385. 
  6. ^ Eick, Gn; Jacobs, Ds; Matthee, Ca (September 2005). "A nuclear DNA phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of echolocation and historical biogeography of extant bats (chiroptera)" (Free full text). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (9): 1869–86. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi180. PMID 15930153. 
  7. ^ Matti Airas. "Echolocation in bats" (PDF). HUT, Laboratory of Acoustics and Audio Signal Processing. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  8. ^ Vincenot, C.E., Florens, F.B.V., Kingston, T. (2017). "Can we protect island flying foxes?". Science. 355 (6332): 1368–1370. doi:10.1126/science.aam7582. 
  9. ^ Cox, P. , Davis, D., Mash, D. , Metcalf J.S., Banack, S. A. (2016). "Dietary exposure to an environmental toxin triggers neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid deposits in the brain". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 283 (3): 1–10. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.2397. PMC 4795023Freely accessible. PMID 26791617. 
  10. ^ Holtcamp, W. (2012). "The emerging science of BMAA: do cyanobacteria contribute to neurodegenerative disease?". Environmental Health Perspectives. 120 (1823): a110–a116. doi:10.1289/ehp.120-a110. PMC 3295368Freely accessible. PMID 22382274. 
  11. ^ "Fabulous Flying Foxes Going Extinct". Animal Rights Channel. Retrieved 6 January 2018. 
  12. ^ Mueller, R. 2000. "Pteropus conspicillatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed May 03, 2007 at [1]
  13. ^ a b Francis, C. M. (2008). Mammals of Southeast Asia. Pp. 195-196. ISBN 978-0-691-13551-9
  14. ^ Payne, J., and Francis, C. M. (1998). Mammals of Borneo. P. 172. ISBN 967-99947-1-6
  15. ^ a b Flannery, T. (1995). Mammals of New Guinea. Pp. 376-377. ISBN 0-7301-0411-7
  16. ^ a b Flannery, T. (1995). Mammals of the South-West Pacific & Moluccan Islands. Pp. 245-303. ISBN 0-7301-0417-6
  17. ^ Almeida, Francisca C; Giannini, Norberto P; Simmons, Nancy B; Helgen, Kristofer M (2014). "Each flying fox on its own branch: A phylogenetic tree for Pteropus and related genera (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 77: 83–95. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.03.009. PMID 24662680. 

Further reading

  • Altringham, J.D. (1996). Bats: biology and behaviour. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850322-9. 
  • Hall, L. S. & Richards, G. C. (2000). Flying foxes: fruit and blossom bats of Australia. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. ISBN 0-86840-561-2. 
  • Marshall, A.G. (1985). "Old world phytophagus bats (Megachiroptera) and their food plants: a survey". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 83 (4): 351–369. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1985.tb01181.x. 
  • Mickleburgh, S., Hutson, A.M. & Racey, P. (1992) Old World Fruit Bats: An Action Plan for Their Conservation. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN
  • Musser, Guy G.; Koopman, Karl F.; Califia, Debra (1982). "The Sulawesian Pteropus arquatus and P. argentatus Are Acerodon celebensis; The Philippine P. leucotis Is an Acerodon". Journal of Mammalogy. 63 (2): 319–328. 
  • Neuweiler, G. (2000). The Biology of Bats. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509951-6. 
  • Nowak, R.M. & Walker, E.P. (1994). Walker's bats of the world. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4986-1. 
  • Welbergen, J.; Klose, S.; Markus, N.; Eby, P. (2008). "Climate change and the effects of temperature extremes on Australian flying-foxes". Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 275 (1633): 419–425. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1385. PMC 2596826Freely accessible. PMID 18048286. 
  • Klose, S. M. (2006). "The flying fox manual. A new handbook for wildlife carers in Australia". Acta Chiropterologica. 8 (2): 573–574. doi:10.3161/1733-5329(2006)8[573:BR]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1733-5329. 
  • Vardon, M.J. & Tidemann, C.R. (1995) Harvesting of flyingfoxes (Pteropus spp.) in Australia: could it promote the conservation of endangered Pacific island species? In Conservation through sustainable use of wildlife (eds G. Grigg, P. Hale & D. Lunney), pp. 82–85, Brisbane, Australia.

External links

  • Flying Fox Manual – A manual for Wildlife Carers in Australia by Dave Pinson
  • Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Flying-fox". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 586. 
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