Geta (emperor)

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Geta
Publius Septimius Geta Louvre Ma1076.jpg
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign 209 – December 211
Predecessor Septimius Severus
Successor Caracalla
Co-emperors Severus (209 – February 211)
Caracalla (209 – December 211)
Born (189-03-07)7 March 189
Rome
Died 26 December 211(211-12-26) (aged 22)
Full name
Publius Septimius Geta
Regnal name
Imperator Caesar Publius Septimius Geta Augustus
Dynasty Severan
Father Septimius Severus
Mother Julia Domna
Roman imperial dynasties
Severan dynasty
Portrait of family of Septimius Severus - Altes Museum - Berlin - Germany 2017.jpg
The Severan Tondo
Chronology
Septimius Severus 193–198
—with Caracalla 198–209
—with Caracalla and Geta 209–211
Caracalla and Geta 211–211
Caracalla 211–217
Interlude: Macrinus 217–218
Elagabalus 218–222
Alexander Severus 222–235
Dynasty
Severan dynasty family tree
All biographies
Succession
Preceded by
Year of the Five Emperors
Followed by
Crisis of the Third Century

Geta (/ˈɡɛtə/; Latin: Publius, or Lucius, Septimius Geta Augustus;[note 1] 7 March 189 – 26 December 211)[1] was Roman emperor with his father Septimius Severus and older brother Caracalla from 209, when he was named Augustus like his brother, who had held the title since 198. Severus died in 211, and although he intended for his sons to rule together, they proved incapable of sharing power, culminating with the murder of Geta in December of that year.[2]

Early life

Geta was the younger son of Septimius Severus by his second wife Julia Domna. Geta was born in Rome, at a time when his father was only a provincial governor at the service of Emperor Commodus.

Conflicts between Geta and Caracalla were constant and often required the mediation of their mother. To appease his younger son, Septimius Severus gave Geta the title of Augustus in 209.

During the campaign against the Britons in the early 3rd century AD, imperial propaganda promoted the image of a happy family that shared the responsibilities of rule. Septimius Severus entrusted Julia Domna with the role of counsellor, Caracalla acted as the emperor's second in command, and administrative and bureaucratic duties were Geta's responsibility. In reality, however, the rivalry and antipathy between the brothers did not abate.

Joint Emperor

When Septimius Severus died in Eboracum in early 211, Caracalla and Geta were proclaimed joint emperors and returned to Rome. It is said that on the journey from England to Rome the two brothers kept well-away from each other, not once lodging in the same house or sharing a common meal.[3]

Their joint rule was a failure. The Imperial Palace in Rome was divided into two separate sections, and neither allowed the servants of the other into his own. They only met in the presence of their mother, and with a strong military guard, being in constant fear of assassination.[4] The historian Herodian asserted that the brothers decided to split the empire in two halves, when, by the end of 211, the situation had become unbearable.[5] Caracalla tried unsuccessfully to murder Geta during the festival of Saturnalia (17 December). Finally, on the 19th of December, Caracalla had his mother arrange a peace meeting with his brother in his mother's apartments, thus depriving Geta of his body-guards, and then had him murdered in her arms by centurions.[6]

Because Geta had been well-liked by some of the rank-and-file in the army, Caracalla did not, as expected order the damnation of his memory, but had him deified respectfully.[7] Reportedly, Caracalla was thereafter tormented by the guilty consciousness of his deed, but sought to expiate it by adding to this crime the proscription of all his brother's former followers.[8] Cassius Dio stated that around 20,000 men and women were killed or proscribed on this charge during this time.[9]

Portrait

Very few marble portraits attributable to Geta survive to date, presumably due to the very thorough damnatio memoriae which resulted in the erasing of his images. However Roman coins with his image are plentiful, and can reflect how his father Septimius Severus and later Geta himself wanted him to be seen by the Roman people (and especially the Roman military).

Images of Geta and his older brother Caracalla cannot be well distinguished until the death of the father. Both sons were supposed to be presented as equally suitable heirs to the throne, showing thus more "depth" to the dynasty.

On his coins, Caracalla, who became Augustus in 198, was shown with a wreath of laurels, while Geta remained bareheaded until he himself became Augustus in 209.[10] Between 209 and their father's death in February 211, both brothers were shown as equally mature young men with a short full beard, ready to take over the empire. Between the death of Septimus Severus and the assassination of Geta, Caracalla's portraits did not change, while Geta was depicted with a long beard with hanging hairs, much like his father, a strong indication of Geta's efforts to be seen as the "true" successor of his father.[10]

Gallery

Severan family tree

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In Classical Latin, Geta's name would be inscribed as PVBLIVS SEPTIMIVS GETA AVGVSTVS.

References

  1. ^ Birley 1999, p. 324.
  2. ^ Varner, Eric R. Mutilation and Transformation: Damnatio Memoriae and Roman Imperial Portraiture (2004) Brill Academic Publishers. p. 168
  3. ^ Edward Gibbon, The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire, (The Modern Library, 1932), chap. VI., p. 114
  4. ^ Gibbon, Ibid.
  5. ^ Herodian, History of the Empire from the death of Marcus, IV., p. 144
  6. ^ Gibbon, Ibid. p. 115
  7. ^ Gibbon, Ibid. p. 116
  8. ^ Gibbon, Ibid.
  9. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History [1]
  10. ^ a b (in German) Andreas Pangerl: Porträttypen des Caracalla und des Geta auf Römischen Reichsprägungen - Definition eines neuen Caesartyps des Caracalla und eines neuen Augustustyps des Geta; Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt des RGZM Mainz 43, 2013, 1, 99–116

Bibliography

External links

  • Life of Geta (Historia Augusta at LacusCurtius: Latin text and English translation)
Geta (emperor)
Born: 7 March 189  Died: 19 December 211
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Septimius Severus
Roman Emperor
209–211
With: Septimius Severus and Caracalla
Succeeded by
Caracalla
Political offices
Preceded by
Lucius Fabius Cilo,
Marcus Annius Flavius Libo
Consul of the Roman Empire
205
with Caracalla
Succeeded by
Marcus Nummius Umbrius Primus Senecio Albinus,
Lucius Fulvius Gavius Numisius Petronius Aemilianus
Preceded by
Lucius Annius Maximus,
Gaius Septimius Severus Aper
Consul of the Roman Empire
208
with Caracalla
Succeeded by
Lucius Aurelius Commodus Pompeianus,
Quintus Hedius Lollianus Plautius Avitus
Legendary titles
Vacant
Interregnum
Title last held by
Lucius
King of Britain Succeeded by
Bassianus
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