Generation II reactor

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Generation II reactor vessels size comparison.

A generation II reactor is a design classification for a nuclear reactor, and refers to the class of commercial reactors built up to the end of the 1990s.[1] Prototypical generation II reactors include the PWR, CANDU, BWR, AGR, VVER[1] and RBMK.

These are contrasted to generation I reactors, which refer to the early prototype of power reactors, such as Shippingport, Magnox/UNGG, AMB, Fermi 1, and Dresden 1.[1] The last commercial Gen I power reactor was located at the Wylfa Nuclear Power Station[2] and ceased operation at the end of 2015. The nomenclature for reactor designs, describing four 'generations', was proposed by the US Department of Energy when it introduced the concept of generation IV reactors.

The designation generation II+ reactor is sometimes used for modernized generation II designs built post-2000, such as the Chinese CPR-1000, in competition with more expensive generation III reactor designs. Typically, the modernization includes improved safety systems and a 60-year design life.[citation needed]

Generation II reactor designs generally had an original design life of 30 or 40 years.[citation needed] This date was set as the period over which loans taken out for the plant would be paid off. However, many generation II reactor are being life-extended to 50 or 60 years, and a second life-extension to 80 years may also be economic in many cases.[3] By 2013 about 75% of still operating U.S. reactors had been granted life extension licenses to 60 years.[4]

Fukushima Daiichi's three destroyed reactors are Mark I Boiling water reactors (BWR) designed by General Electric. In 2016, unit 2 at the Watts Bar Nuclear Generating Station came online and is likely to be the last generation II reactor to become operational in the United States.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Jamasb, Tooraj; William J. Nuttall; Michael G. Pollitt (2006). Future electricity technologies and systems (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-521-86049-9.
  2. ^ Stephen M. Goldberg and Robert Rosner (2011). "Nuclear Reactors: Generation to Generation" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 1 September 2018. The only remaining commercial Gen I plant, the Wylfa Nuclear Power Station in Wales, was scheduled for closure in 2010. However, the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority announced in October 2010 that the Wylfa Nuclear Power Station will operate up to December 2012.
  3. ^ "No reason why NPPs cannot live beyond 60". Nuclear Engineering International. 1 October 2010. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2010.
  4. ^ "Renewal a bridge to replacement". World Nuclear News. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013.

External links

  • Nuclear Reactors Knowledge Base at IAEA
  • Gen IV at US DOE
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