Fujiwara no Kamatari

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Fujiwara no Kamatari
Fujiwara-Kamatari.jpg
An illustration of Fujiwara no Kamatari by Kikuchi Yōsai
Native name 藤原 鎌足
Born Nakatomi no Kamatari
614
Died (669-11-14)November 14, 669
Known for Founder of the Fujiwara clan, launched the Taika Reform of 645 with Naka no Ōe (later Emperor Tenji)
Notable work Poems in the Man'yōshū and Kakyō Hyōshiki
Opponent(s) Soga clan
Spouse(s) Kagami no Ōkimi
Children Jōe, Fujiwara no Fuhito, Hikami no Ōtoji, Ōhara no Ōtoji, Mimi no Toji
Parent(s) Nakatomi no Mikeko,

Fujiwara no Kamatari (藤原 鎌足, 614 – November 14, 669) was a Japanese statesman, courtier and politician during the Asuka period (538–710).[1] Kamatari was born to the Nakatomi clan and became the founder of the Fujiwara clan.[2] He, along with the Mononobe clan, was a supporter of Shinto and fought the introduction of Buddhism to Japan. The Soga clan, defenders of Buddhism in the Asuka period, defeated Kamatari and the Mononobe clan and Buddhism became the dominant religion of the imperial court. Kamatari, along with Prince Naka no Ōe, later Emperor Tenji (626–672), launched the Taika Reform of 645, which centralized and strengthened the central government. Just before his death he received the honorific of Taishōkan (or Daishokukan) and the surname Fujiwara from the Emperor Tenji, thus establishing the Fujiwara clan.[3][4]

Biography

Kamatari was born to the Nakatomi clan, was the son of Nakatomi no Mikeko, and named Nakatomi no Kamatari (中臣 鎌足) at birth.[3] He was a friend and supporter of the Prince Naka no Ōe, later Emperor Tenji. Kamatari was the head of the Jingi no Haku, or Shinto ritualists; as such, he was one of the chief opponents of the increasing power and prevalence of Buddhism in the court, and in the nation. As a result, in 645, Prince Naka no Ōe and Kamatari made a coup d'état in the court. They slew Soga no Iruka who had a strong influence over Empress Kōgyoku; thereafter, Iruka's father, Soga no Emishi, committed suicide.

Empress Kōgyoku was forced to abdicate in favor of her younger brother, who became Emperor Kōtoku; Kōtoku then appointed Kamatari naidaijin (内大臣, Inner Minister).

Kamatari was a leader in the development of what became known as the Taika Reforms, a major set of reforms based on Chinese models and aimed at strengthening Imperial power.[3] He acted as one of the principal editors responsible for the development of the Japanese legal code known as Sandai-kyaku-shiki, sometimes referred to as the Rules and Regulations of the Three Generations.[5]

During his life Kamatari continued to support Prince Naka no Ōe, who became Emperor Tenji in 661. Tenji granted him the highest rank Taishōkan (or Daishokukan) (大織冠) and a new clan name, Fujiwara (藤原), as honors.[3]

Legacy

Kamatari's son was Fujiwara no Fuhito. Kamatari's nephew, Nakatomi no Omimaro became head of Ise Shrine, and passed down the Nakatomi name.

In the 13th century, the main line of the Fujiwara family split into five houses: Konoe, Takatsukasa, Kujō, Nijō and Ichijō. These five families in turn provided regents for the Emperors, and were thus known as the Five Regent Houses. The Tachibana clan (samurai) also claimed descent from the Fujiwara. Emperor Montoku of the Taira clan was descended through his mother to the Fujiwara.

Until the marriage of the Crown Prince Hirohito (posthumously Emperor Shōwa) to Princess Kuni Nagako (posthumously Empress Kōjun) in January 1924, the principal consorts of emperors and crown princes had always been recruited from one of the Sekke Fujiwara. Imperial princesses were often married to Fujiwara lords - throughout a millennium at least. As recently as Emperor Shōwa's third daughter, the late former Princess Takanomiya (Kazoku), and Prince Mikasa's elder daughter, the former Princess Yasuko, married into Takatsukasa and Konoe families, respectively. Empress Shōken was a descendant of the Fujiwara clan and through Hosokawa Gracia of the Minamoto clan. Likewise a daughter of the last Tokugawa Shogun married a second cousin of Emperor Shōwa.

Fujiwara no Kamatari with his sons Joē and Fujiwara no Fuhito, who is wearing court robes.

Among Kamatari's descendants are Fumimaro Konoe[citation needed] the 34th/38th/39th Prime Minister of Japan and Konoe's grandson Morihiro Hosokawa[citation needed] the 79th Prime Minister of Japan (who is also a descendant of the Hosokawa clan via the Ashikaga clan of the Minamoto clan).

Family

  • Father: Nakatomi no Mikeko (中臣御食子)
  • Mother: Ōtomo no Chisen-no-iratsume (大伴智仙娘), daughter of Otomo no Kuiko (大伴囓子). Also known as "Ōtomo-bunin" (大伴夫人).
    • Main wife: Kagami no Ōkimi (鏡王女, ?-683)
    • Wife: Kurumamochi no Yoshiko-no-iratsume (車持与志古娘), daughter of Kurumamochi no Kuniko (車持国子).
      • 1st son: Jōe (定恵, 643–666), buddhist monk who traveled to China.
      • 2nd son: Fujiwara no Fuhito (藤原不比等, 659–720)
    • Children with unknown mother:
      • Daughter: Fujiwara no Hikami-no-iratsume (藤原氷上娘, ?–682), Bunin of Emperor Tenmu, mother of Princess Tajima.
      • Daughter: Fujiwara no Ioe-no-iratsume (藤原五百重娘), Bunin of Emperor Tenmu, wife of Fujiwara no Fuhito and mother of Prince Niitabe and Fujiwara no Maro.
      • Daughter: Fujiwara no Mimimotoji (藤原耳面刀自), Bunin of Emperor Kōbun, mother of Princess Ichishi-hime (壱志姫王).
      • Daughter: Fujiwara no Tome/Tone-no-iratsume (藤原斗売娘), wife of Nakatomi no Omimaro (中臣意美麻呂), mother of Nakatomi no Azumahito (中臣東人).

Popular culture

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Fujiwara no Tadahira" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 203, p. 203, at Google Books; Brinkley, Frank et al. (1915). A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era, p. 203., p. 203, at Google Books
  2. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1962). Sovereign and Subject, pp. 216-220.
  3. ^ a b c d "Fujiwara no Kamatari". Encyclopedia of Japan. Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 56431036. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-10-27. 
  4. ^ "藤原 鎌足" [Fujiwara no Kamatari]. Dijitaru Daijisen (in Japanese). Tokyo: Shogakukan. 2012. OCLC 56431036. Archived from the original on 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2012-10-27. 
  5. ^ Brinkley, p. 177., p. 177, at Google Books

References

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