Fujian People's Government

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People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China
中華共和國人民革命政府
1933–1934
Flag of Fujian People's government
Flag
Territory claimed by the Fujian People's Government within the Republic of China
Territory claimed by the Fujian People's Government within the Republic of China
Status Historical unrecognised state
Capital Fuzhou
Common languages Chinese (Mandarin, Min, Hakka, Gan and Wu), She language
Chairman of the People's Revolutionary Government Committee  
• 1933-1934
Li Jishen
Chairman of the Presidium of the Chinese National People's Provisional Congress  
• 1933-1934
Huang Qixiang
Chairman of the Military Commission  
• 1933-1934
Li Jishen
Legislature Chinese National People's Provisional Congress
Historical era Chinese Civil War
• Formation
November 22 1933
• Surrender to the Kuomintang
January 13 1934
Area
1934 121,580 km2 (46,940 sq mi)
Date format
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Republic of China (1912–1949)
Republic of China (1912–1949)
Today part of  People's Republic of China
  Fujian (Mainland)
 Republic of China
  Fujian (Kinmen)
  Fujian (Matsu)
Main Leaders of the Fujian People's Government

The Fujian People's Government (or spelt as the Fukien People's Government) is the common name for the People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China (1933–1934)[a] (Chinese: 中華共和國人民革命政府; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Gònghéguó Rénmín Gémìng Zhèngfǔ), also known as the Fujian People's Government (Chinese: 福建人民革命政府; pinyin: Fújiàn Rénmín Zhèngfǔ), was a short-lived anti-Kuomintang government in the Republic of China's Fujian Province. The rebellion that led to its formation and its collapse are known as the Fujian Incident (閩變 Mǐnbiàn or 福建事變 Fújiàn Shìbiàn) or Fujian Rebellion.

Background

Map of the Administrative divisions of the Fujian People's Government

In November 1933 some leaders of the National Revolutionary Army's 19th Route Army—including Cai Tingkai, Chen Mingshu and Jiang Guangnai, who had gained fame for their role in the January 28 Incident—were deployed to southern China to suppress a Communist rebellion. Instead, they negotiated peace with the rebels. In alliance with other Kuomintang forces under Li Jishen (李濟深), the 19th Route leaders broke with Chiang Kai-shek and took control of Fujian, where they were stationed, and on 22 November 1933, proclaimed a new government. The chairman of the government was Li Jishen, Eugene Chen (陳友仁) was foreign minister, Jiang Guangnai was finance minister and Cai Tingkai was military head and governor of Fujian Province.

Deputies of the Chinese National People's Provisional Congress

The flag was red (proletariat) and bule (peasants) with a yellow star in the middle (glorious unity of the productive people), and the name of the new state was the "Republic of China" (中華共和國), with its founding being year one. The 19th Route Army was renamed the People's Revolutionary Army.

Chen Mingshu led the newly created Productive People's Party, while it had support from the "Third Party". The Chinese Youth Party considered supporting them, but were put off by their leftism and lack of realistic sustainability. The rebellion initially enjoyed popular support among most Fujianese, but high taxes to support the army decreased its popularity. In addition, the new government's decision to break continuity by issuing a new flag, new symbols and occasionally removing the portrait of Sun Yat-sen caused hesitation in many quarters. After adopting a wait-and-see approach, the New Guangxi clique declined to support the rebels. Feng Yuxiang was widely expected to be supportive, but he remained silent. Chen Jitang and Hu Hanmin were sympathetic to their goals, but condemned them for dividing the country. The fear of a new civil war at a time of Japanese aggression was the main reason why the rebellion had very little popularity.

The rebels were motivated by, among other things, personal disagreements with Chiang Kai-shek, opposition to perceived appeasement of Japan and their assignment to the then relatively poor Fujian. The goals of the new government included the overthrow of the Kuomintang government in Nanjing, various social and political reforms and stronger resistance to foreign interference in China. The rebellion brought a temporary halt to the central government's Fifth Encirclement Campaign in southeast China. However, implied or promised aid to the rebellion from the Communist Party's Jiangxi Soviet failed to materialize due to opposition by the 28 Bolsheviks and the effort began to collapse.

The Kuomintang responded to the rebellion first with air attacks and, in January 1934, a ground offensive that quickly led to the defeat of the formerly prestigious 19th Route Army. On 13 January 1934, the government was defeated and its leaders fled or defected to Chiang Kai-shek's forces.

Notes

  1. ^ Although the government bore the same English name as Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang regime in Nanjing, i.e. "Republic of China," the Chinese forms names were different: 中華共和國 (Zhōnghuá Gònghéguó) for the Fujian People's Government vs. 中華民國 (Zhōnghuá Mínguó) in Nanjing.

References

  • William F. Dorrill. The Fukien Rebellion and the CCP: A Case of Maoist Revisionism The China Quarterly, No. 37. (Jan. - Mar., 1969), pp. 31–53.
  • Frederick S. Litten. "The CCP and the Fujian Rebellion." Republican China, vol. XIV, number 1, November 1988, pp. 57–74. Accessed 20 February 2007.
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