Foreign relations of Peru

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Peru is an important second-tier state in South America,[1] Peru has been a member of the United Nations since 1949, and Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Fujimori’s tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru's relations with the United States and with many Latin American and European countries, but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001.

Peru is planning full integration into the Andean Free Trade Area. In addition, Peru is a standing member of APEC and the World Trade Organization, and is an active participant in negotiations toward a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina
 Canada
 Chile See Chile–Peru relations

In November 1999, Peru and Chile signed three agreements which put to rest the remaining obstacles holding up implementation of the 1929 Treaty of Lima, which officially ended the 1879 War of the Pacific. In December 1999, President Alberto Fujimori made the first visit ever to Chile by a Peruvian head of state.

Relations between the two nations have since mostly recovered. In 2005, the Peruvian Congress unilaterally approved a law which increased the stated sea limit with Chile. This law superseded the Peruvian supreme decree 781 for same purpose from 1947, which had autolimited its maritime border to geographical parallels only. Peru's position was that the border has never been fully demarcated, but Chile disagreed reminding on treaties in 1952 and 1954 between the countries, which supposedly defined seaborder. The border problem has still not been solved. However, Chile's Michelle Bachelet and Peru's Alan García have established a positive diplomatic relationship, and it is very unlikely any hostilities will break out because of the dispute. Nevertheless, in early April 2007, Peruvian nationalistic sectors, mainly represented by left wing ex-presidential candidate Ollanta Humala decided to congregate at 'hito uno' right at the border with Chile, in a symbolic attempt to claim sovereignty over a maritime area known in Peru as Mar de Grau (Grau's Sea) just west of the Chilean city of Arica. Peruvian police stopped a group of nearly 2,000 people just 10 km from the border, preventing them from reaching their intended destination. Despite these incidents, the presidents of both Chile and Peru have confirmed their intentions to improve the relationships between the two countries, mainly fueled by the huge amount of commercial exchange between both countries' private sectors.

 Ecuador
  • In October 1998, Peru and Ecuador signed a peace accord which definitively resolved border differences which had, over the years, resulted in armed conflict. Peru and Ecuador are now jointly coordinating an internationally sponsored border integration project. The United States Government, as one of four guarantor states, was actively involved in facilitating the 1998 peace accord between Peru and Ecuador and remains committed to its implementation. The United States has pledged $40 million to the Peru-Ecuador border integration project and another $4 million to support Peruvian and Ecuadorian demining efforts along their common border.
  • In November 2009, Peru made an agreement with Ecuador in which Peru would export between 40 and 50 megawatts of electricity until April 2010 in order to help Ecuador with its energy crisis.[7] Rafael Correa, Ecuador's president, expressed his gratitude to Peru for its generous aid during Ecuador's energy crisis.[8]
 Guyana 1971
 Mexico 1823

Peru and Mexico have historically had a unique relationship solidly based on that they share two of the most significant ancient cultures in the Americas. Both countries have expressed solidarity over the need to defend the recovery of cultural and archaeological heritage in the form of artifacts that have been illegally stolen from Peru and Mexico and which are to this date, illegally or legitimately kept in foreign locations. Peru's President Alan García and Mexico's Felipe Calderón signed a joint declaration in April 2011 aimed at deepening the two countries' friendship, cooperation, integration, trade, investments and the permanent fight against poverty and organized crime. The two countries aim to achieve a new model of integration within Latin America, and to represent a positive, realistic, and active example of integration amongst two "brotherly" nations.

 Paraguay
 United States
  • The U.S. maintains an embassy in Lima, Peru. There is a U.S. Consular Agency in Cuzco, and the USAID building is located in Lima.
 Uruguay
  • Peru has an embassy in Montevideo.[14]
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Lima and an honorary consulate in Arequipa.
  • Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about relations with Uruguay (in Spanish only)

Asia-Pacific

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 1992 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 April 1992.
 Australia

Australia is represented in Peru through its embassy in Lima. Peru has an embassy in Canberra and a general consulate in Sydney. Both countries have an expanding relationship in all areas. Australia is Peru's APEC ally.

 Israel
  • Israel has an embassy in Lima.[15]
  • Peru has an embassy in Tel Aviv.[16]
  • Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about relations with Israel (in Spanish only)
 Japan 1873 See Japan–Peru relations
  • Japan has an embassy in Lima.[17]
  • Peru has an embassy in Tokyo and a consulate-general in Nagoya.[18]
 North Korea See Foreign relations of North Korea
 South Korea 1 April 1963[19]
 Palestine 2011-01-24
  • Peru recognized Palestine on 24 January 2011.[20]
 Philippines

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Bulgaria 1969 See Bulgaria–Peru relations
  • Peru closed its embassy in Sofia for economic reasons in 2003.
  • Peru is represented in Bulgaria through its embassy in Athens (Greece).
  • Bulgaria is represented in Peru through its embassy in Brasília (Brazil).[21]
  • Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about relations with Bulgaria (in Spanish only)
 Croatia 1993-01-12
  • Croatia is represented in Peru through its embassy in Santiago (Chile) and through an honorary consulate in Lima.
  • Peru is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and through an honorary consulate in Zagreb.
  • There are around 6,500 people of Croatian descent living in Peru. Most Croats arrived in Peru between the Interwar period.
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Peru
 Cyprus 1966
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1966.[22]
  • Cyprus is represented in Peru through its embassy in Brasilia, Brazil.[23]
 Denmark
 Finland 1963-01-25
  • Peru recognized Finland on June 23, 1919.
  • Peru has an embassy in Helsinki.
  • Finland has an embassy in Lima and two honorary consulate in Arequipa and Cusco.
  • Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland about Peru
 Greece 1966 See Greece–Peru relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1966.[26]
  • In 1992, Greece opened an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Athens.
 Italy 1874-12-23 See Italy–Peru relations
 Russia
 Serbia 1967
  • Diplomatic relations between then Yugoslavia and Peru existed before the Second World War. They were renewed in 1967.
  • Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about the relation with Serbia (in Spanish only)
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Peru
 Spain 1879 See Peru–Spain relations
 Sweden
  • Peru has an embassy in Stockholm.
  • Sweden is represented in Peru, through its embassy in Santiago, Chile. Sweden has a consulate in Lima.
 United Kingdom
  • Peru has a consulate in London.
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Lima.
  • Consulate of Peru in London (in Spanish only)

Illicit drugs

Until recently the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru has reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 24% to 387 km2 at the end of 1999; most of cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia, Bolivia, and Brazil for processing into cocaine for the international drug market, but exports of finished cocaine are increasing by maritime conveyance to Mexico, US, and Europe.

See also

References

  1. ^ Schenoni, Luis (2017) "Subsystemic Unipolarities?" in Strategic Analysis, 41(1): 74-86 [1]
  2. ^ "Embajada de la República Argentina en República del Perú | Embassy of Argentina in Lima (in Spanish)". eperu.cancilleria.gov.ar. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  3. ^ Embassy of Peru in Buenos Aires (in Spanish)
  4. ^ Canadian embassy in Lima
  5. ^ "Inicio Embajada del Perú en Canadá | Peruvian embassy in Ottawa". embassyofperu.ca. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  6. ^ Alexander Panetta, "Canada limits main foreign aid recipients to 20 countries", Canada East website (accessed 3 March2009)
  7. ^ "Perú exportará energía eléctrica a Ecuador hasta abril de 2010". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2009-12-20. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  8. ^ http://www.peru.com/economiayfinanzas/noticias20091114/66081/Presidente-de-Ecuador-Rafael-Correa-agradece-cooperacion-de-Peru-en-crisis-energetica-
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-07. Retrieved 2016-02-24. 
  10. ^ "Embassy of Mexico in Lima (in Spanish)". embamex.sre.gob.mx. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  11. ^ "Consulado General del Perú | Embassy of Peru in Mexico City (in Spanish)". consuladodelperu.com.mx. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  12. ^ Paraguayan embassy in Lima (in Spanish only)
  13. ^ "Peruvian embassy in Asuncion (in Spanish only)". embperu.com.py. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  14. ^ "Peruvian embassy in Montevideo (in Spanish only)". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2002-02-10. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  15. ^ Israeli embassy in Lima (in Hebrew and Spanish only)
  16. ^ Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations: direction of the Peruvian embassy in Tel Aviv
  17. ^ Embassy of Japan in Lima (in Japanese and Spanish)
  18. ^ Embassy of Peru in Tokyo (in Japanese and Spanish)
  19. ^ a b "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Korea-Latin America and Caribbean". mofa.go.kr. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  20. ^ Government of Peru (24 January 2011). "Perú reconoce al Estado Palestino" (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 2011-01-30. Retrieved 2011-01-24. 
  21. ^ "Министерство на външните работи | Bulgarian embassy in Brasilia (also accredited to Peru)". mfa.bg. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  22. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus
  23. ^ "MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS - Bilateral Relations | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus". mfa.gov.cy. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  24. ^ "Embassy Information.com". pe.embassyinformation.com. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  25. ^ http://www.um.dk/da/menu/OmOs/Organisation/AmbassaderMv/Sydamerika/Peru.htm
  26. ^ "Greece's Bilateral Relations | Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece". mfa.gr. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  27. ^ "Embajada de Italia en Lima | Embassy of Italy in Lima (in Italian and Spanish)". amblima.esteri.it. Retrieved 2016-06-13. 
  28. ^ Embassy of Peru in Rome (in Italian and Spanish)
  29. ^ Embassy of Peru in Madrid
  30. ^ Embassy of Spain in Lima
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