Foreign relations of Ghana

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The foreign relations of Ghana are controlled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ghana. Ghana is active in the United Nations and many of its specialised agencies, the World Trade Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), the African Union (AU) and the Economic Community of West African States. Generally, it follows the consensus of the Non-aligned Movement and the OAU on economic and political issues not directly affecting its own interests. Ghana has been extremely active in international peacekeeping activities under UN auspices in Lebanon, Afghanistan, Rwanda, and the Balkans, in addition to an eight-year sub-regional initiative with its ECOWAS partners to develop and then enforce a cease-fire in Liberia. Ghana is also a member of the International Criminal Court.

Guiding principles and objectives

A postage stamp from the Soviet Union marking the 80th anniversary of Nkrumah

Ghana's foreign policy since independence has been characterised by a commitment to the principles and ideals of non-alignment and Pan-Africanism as first enunciated by Kwame Nkrumah in the early 1960s. For Nkrumah, non-alignment meant complete independence from the policies and alliances of both East and West and support for a worldwide union of so-called non-aligned nations as a counter to both East and West power blocs. Pan-Africanism, by contrast, was a specifically African policy that envisioned the independence of Africa from Western colonialism and the eventual economic and political unity of the African continent.[1]

The PNDC, like most of its predecessors, made serious and consistent attempts at the practical application of these ideals and principles, and its successor, the NDC government, promises to follow in the PNDC's footsteps. Under the NDC, Ghana remains committed to the principle of non-alignment in world politics. Ghana is also opposed to interference in the internal affairs of both small and large countries. This is a departure from Nkrumah's foreign policy approach; Nkrumah was frequently accused of subverting African regimes, such as Togo and Ivory Coast, which he considered ideologically conservative. The NDC government, like the PNDC before it, believes in the principle of self-determination, including the right to political independence and the right of people to pursue their economic and social development free from external interference. Another feature of NDC rule carried over from the PNDC era is faithfulness to what a leading scholar of Africa has called "one of the most successful neoclassical economic reform efforts supported by the IMF and the World Bank."[1]

Kwame Nkrumah and his family meeting Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser during the 1965 OAU Summit in Accra.

The broad objectives of Ghana's foreign policy thus include maintaining friendly relations and cooperation with all countries that desire such cooperation, irrespective of ideological considerations, on the basis of mutual respect and non-interference in each other's internal affairs. Africa and its liberation and unity are naturally the cornerstones of Ghana's foreign policy. As a founding member of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), NDC policy is to adhere faithfully to the OAU Charter.[1]

Another important principle of Ghana's foreign policy involves the closest possible cooperation with neighbouring countries with which the people of Ghana share cultural history, ties of blood, and economics. The results have included various bilateral trade and economic agreements and permanent joint commissions involving Ghana and its immediate neighbours, sometimes in the face of latent ideological and political differences and mutual suspicion, as well as numerous reciprocal state visits by high-ranking officials. These measures have contributed significantly to subregional cooperation, development, and the reduction of tension.[1]

As an example of Ghana's interest in regional cooperation, the country enthusiastically endorsed formation of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in 1975. This organisation was created specifically to foster inter-regional economic and political cooperation. It has served as a useful vehicle for contacts with neighbouring West African governments and for channelling increased Ghanaian exports to regional markets. Since 1990 ECOWAS has been engaged in a peacekeeping mission in Liberia to which Ghana has contributed a large contingent of troops. Ghana has participated in other international peacekeeping efforts as well, sending soldiers to operations of the United Nations (UN) in Cambodia in 1992-93 and Rwanda in 1993-94.[1]

In August 1994, Rawlings became ECOWAS chairman, a post that had eluded him since the PNDC came to power. He immediately undertook several initiatives to reduce tensions and conflict in West Africa. Notable among them was the Akosombo Accord of September 12, designed to end civil war in Liberia.[1]

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria
  • Algeria has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Algiers.
 Angola
  • Angola has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Luanda.
 Burkina Faso See Burkina Faso–Ghana relations

With the coming to power of Thomas Sankara in Burkina Faso in 1983, relations between Ghana and Burkina became both warm and close. Indeed, Rawlings and Sankara began discussions about uniting Ghana and Burkina in the manner of the defunct Ghana-Guinea-Mali Union, which Nkrumah had sought unsuccessfully to promote as a foundation for his dream of unified continental government. Political and economic ties between Ghana and Burkina, a poorer country, were strengthened through joint commissions of cooperation and through border demarcation committee meetings. Frequent high-level consultations and joint military exercises, meant to discourage potential dissidents and to protect young "revolutions" in each country, were fairly regular features of Ghana-Burkina relations.[2]

  • Burkina Faso has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Ouagadougou.
 Egypt
  • Egypt has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Cairo.
 Ethiopia
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
 Ivory Coast See Ivory Coast–Ghana relations

Ghana-Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) relations suffered from the same ups and downs that characterised Ghana-Togo relations. In early 1984, the PNDC government complained that Ivory Coast was allowing Ghanaian dissidents to use its territory as a base from which to carry out acts of sabotage against Ghana. Ghana also accused Ivory Coast of granting asylum to political agitators wanted for crimes in Ghana. Relations between Ghana and Ivory Coast improved significantly, however, after 1988. In 1989, after fifteen years of no progress, the Ghana-Ivory Coast border re-demarcation commission finally agreed on the definition of the 640-kilometer border between the two countries. The PNDC thereafter worked to improve the transportation and communication links with both Ivory Coast and Togo, despite problems with both countries.[3]

  • Ghana has an embassy in Abidjan.
  • Ivory Coast has an embassy in Accra.
 Kenya See Ghana–Kenya relations
  • Ghana has a high commission in Nairobi.
  • Kenya is accredited to Ghana from its high commission in Abuja, Nigeria.
 Namibia
  • Ghana has a high commission in Windhoek.
  • Namibia has a high commission in Accra.
 Nigeria See Ghana–Nigeria relations

Despite close cultural ties, diplomatic relations between the two countries have in many instances been volatile. After the takeover in November 1993 by General Sani Abacha as the new Nigerian head of state, Ghana and Nigeria continued to consult on economic, political, and security issues affecting the two countries and West Africa as a whole. Between early August 1994 when Rawlings became ECOWAS chairman and the end of the following October, the Ghanaian president visited Nigeria three times to discuss the peace process in Liberia and measures to restore democracy in that country.[1]

  • Ghana has a high commission in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos.
  • Nigeria has a high commission in Accra.
 Senegal
  • Ghana has an embassy in Dakar.
  • Senegal has an embassy in Accra.
 South Africa See Ghana–South Africa relations
High Commission of Ghana in Pretoria
  • Ghana has a high commission in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has a high commission in Accra.
 Togo See Ghana–Togo relations

The strains in Ghana-Togo relations stretch back to pre-independence days. After 1918, following the defeat of Germany, the League of Nations divided the German colony of Togoland from north to south, a decision that divided the Ewe people among the Gold Coast, British Togoland, and French Togoland. After 1945, the United Nations took over the Togoland mandates. During the 1950s, when the independence of Ghana was in sight, demands grew for a separate Ewe state, an idea that Kwame Nkrumah, leader of the Gold Coast independence movement, opposed. Following a UN plebiscite in May 1956, in which a majority of the Ewe voted for union with Ghana, British Togoland became part of the Gold Coast.[1][4] After Togolese independence in 1960, relations between Togo and Ghana deteriorated, aggravated by political differences and incidents such as smuggling across their common border. At times, relations have verged on open aggression.[3] The result of the transfer of Togoland to Ghana has meant that many Togolese keep one foot on either side of the border, living in Ghana by night and working in the markets of the capital, Lomé, by day.[4]

  • Ghana has an embassy in Lomé.
  • Togo has an embassy in Accra.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina
  • Argentina is accredited to Ghana from its embassy in Abuja, Nigeria.
  • Ghana is accredited to Argentina from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
 Belize 1981

Both countries established diplomatic relations in September, 1981[5].

 Brazil

Ghana and Brazil maintain a special relationship and Brazil has an embassy in Ghana and Ghana has an embassy in Brasília.

 Canada
  • Canada has a High Commission in Accra.
  • Ghana has a High Commission in Ottawa.
 Chile
  • Chile has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana is accredited to Chile from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
 Colombia 1988

Ghana and Colombia's diplomatic relations dated back to 1988 but it remained dormant until July 2013 when Colombia opened its embassy in Accra. Colombia helps Ghana by providing assistance on building capacity of the Ghana Police Service, Immigration Service and the Narcotics Control Board on cybersecurity and drug trafficking.[6]

  • Colombia has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana is accredited to Colombia from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
 Cuba
  • Cuba has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Havana.
 Guyana 14 May 1979
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on May 14, 1979[7].
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Jamaica See Ghana–Jamaica relations
  • Ghana is accredited to Jamaica from its embassy in Havana, Cuba.
  • Jamaica is accredited to Ghana from its high commission in Abuja, Nigeria.
 Mexico 1961 See Ghana–Mexico relations

Ghana and Mexico established diplomatic relations in 1961. Soon afterwards, both nations opened embassies in each other's capitals, respectively. In 1972, Ghana closed its embassy in Mexico City. Mexico closed its embassy in Accra in 1980.[8] Mexico re-opened its embassy in Ghana in 2013.

 Peru
  • Ghana is accredited to Peru from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  • Peru has an embassy in Accra
 United States See Ghana–United States relations

The United States is among Ghana's trading partners. The Office of the President of Ghana worked closely with the U.S. Embassy in Accra to establish an American Chamber of Commerce to continue to develop closer economic ties in the private sector. Major U.S. companies operating in the country include ACS, CMS Energy, Coca-Cola, S.C. Johnson, Ralston Purina, Star-Kist, A.H. Robins, Sterling, Pfizer, IBM, 3M, Motorola, Stewart & Stevenson, PriceWaterhouseCoopers, and National Cash Register (NCR). Several U.S. firms recently made or are considering investments in Ghana, primarily in gold mining, wood products, and petroleum. U.S. mining giant Newmont entered Ghana's mining sector in 2004 and intends to invest up to $1 billion. In late 1997, Nuevo Petroleum concluded an oil exploration agreement accounting for one of Ghana's offshore mineral rights zones. Several other U.S. oil companies also are engaged in offshore exploration.

  • Ghana has an embassy in Washington, D.C.
  • United States has an embassy in Accra.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 29 May 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 29 May 1992.

 Bangladesh See Bangladesh–Ghana relations
  • Bangladesh is accredited to Ghana from its high commission in Abuja, Nigeria.
  • Ghana is accredited to Bangladesh from its high commission in New Delhi, India.
 China See China–Ghana relations

Ghana's relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC) date back to 1960 when President Nkrumah became one of Africa's first leaders to recognise the country. Ghana and the PRC have had close and relatively good relations in that time despite a short period of relatively cold relations after Nkrumah was deposed in 1966.

  • China has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Beijing.
 India See Ghana–India relations
  • Ghana has a high commission in New Delhi.
  • India has a high commission in Accra.
 Indonesia
  • Ghana is accredited to Indonesia from its high commission in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Indonesia is accredited to Ghana from its embassy in Abuja, Nigeria.
 Iran
  • Ghana has an embassy in Tehran.
  • Iran has an embassy in Accra.
 Israel See Ghana–Israel relations
  • Ghana has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
  • Israel has an embassy in Accra.
 Japan
  • Ghana has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Ghana.
 Malaysia See Ghana–Malaysia relations
  • Ghana has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur.
  • Malaysia has a high commission in Accra.
 Pakistan

Pakistan and Ghana enjoy amicable and cordial relations. There has been historical support extended by Pakistan to the African states particularly OIC member states in which Ghana has significant importance. Despite this, there has been a low level of bilateral trade between the two countries. The volume of bilateral trade during 2011 was just $19 million.[11]

  • Ghana is accredited to Pakistan from its embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Pakistan is accredited to Ghana from it high commission Abuja, Nigeria.
 Saudi Arabia
  • Ghana has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Accra.
 Singapore
  • Ghana is accredited to Singapore from its high commission in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Singapore is accredited to Ghana from its Ministry of Foreign Affairs based in Singapore.
 South Korea 14 November 1977
  • Ghana has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Accra.
 Thailand
  • Ghana is accredited to Thailand from its high commission in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Thailand is accredited to Ghana from its embassy in Abuja, Nigeria.
 Turkey
  • Ghana has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Accra.
 Vietnam
  • Ghana is accredited to Vietnam from its high commission in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Vietnam is accredited to Ghana from its embassy in Abuja, Nigeria.

Europe

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Denmark See Denmark–Ghana relations

Denmark has historic relations with Ghana from once possessing Danish Gold Coast.

  • Denmark has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Copenhagen.
 France
  • France has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Paris.
 Germany
  • Germany has an embassy in Accra.
  • Ghana has an embassy in Berlin.
 Italy
  • Ghana has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy has an embassy in Accra.
 Kosovo 23 January 2012

Ghana officially recognized the Republic of Kosovo on 23 January 2012.[12] Ghana and Kosovo later established diplomatic relations on 4 October 2012.[13]

 Malta
  • Ghana has a high commission in Valletta.
  • Malta has a high commission in Accra.
 Poland
  • Ghana is accredited to Poland from its embassy in Berlin, Germany.
  • Poland is accredited to Ghana from its embassy in Abuja, Nigeria.
 Russia See Ghana–Russia relations
 Spain
  • Ghana has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Accra.
 United Kingdom 1 July 1960
  • Ghana has a high commission in London.[14]
  • United Kingdom has a high commission in Accra.[15]

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia
  • Australia has a high commission in Accra.
  • Ghana has a high commission in Canberra.
 New Zealand
  • Ghana is accredited to New Zealand from its high commission in Canberra, Australia.
  • New Zealand is accredited to Ghana from its embassy in Addis, Ababa, Ethiopia.

Ghana and the Commonwealth of Nations

Husband of the Head of the Commonwealth and former Queen of Ghana, Elizabeth II; Prince Philip, meeting with the recipient of the 2008 Chatham House Prize and 10th President of Ghana John Kufuor

Ghana has been a member state of the Commonwealth since independence in 1957, firstly as a Dominion, then as a Commonwealth republic.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Owusu, Maxwell. "Guiding Principles and Objectives". A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.[1]
  2. ^ Owusu, Maxwell. "Burkina". A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.[2]
  3. ^ a b Owusu, Maxwell. "Relations with Immediate African Neighbours". A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.[3]
  4. ^ a b "Impressions of Togo after the 'coup'". 18 February 2005 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  5. ^ [4]
  6. ^ "Ghana, Colombia strengthen bilateral relations with cooperation agreements". graphic.com.gh. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  7. ^ [5]
  8. ^ Gaceta Parlamentaria, Número 3432-III, miércoles 18 de enero de 2012: Ghana (in Spanish)
  9. ^ Embassy of Ghana in the United States
  10. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Ghana
  11. ^ Pakistan-Ghana. thenews.com.pk.
  12. ^ Ghana Republic – the 86th country recognizing the Independence of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kosovo, 2012-01-23
  13. ^ The Republic of Kosovo establishes diplomatic relations with the Republic of Ghana, Embassy of the Republic of Kosovo in the United States, Washington, DC, 2012-10-02
  14. ^ High Commission of Ghana in London
  15. ^ UK High Commission in Accra
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