Foreign relations of Canada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

St Edward's Crown with maple leaves.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Canada
Government
Can-vote-stub.svg Canadian politics portal

The foreign relations of Canada are Canada's relations with other governments and peoples. Britain was the chief foreign contact before World War II. Since then Canada's most important relationship, being the largest trading relationship in the world, is with the United States.[1] However, Canadian governments have traditionally maintained active relations with other nations, mostly through multilateral organizations such as the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, La Francophonie, the Organization of American States, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

History

Colonial era

The British North American colonies which today constitute modern Canada had no control over their foreign affairs until the achievement of responsible government in the late 1840s. Up to that time, wars, negotiations and treaties were carried out by the British government to settle disputes concerning the colonies over fishing and boundaries and to promote trade. Notable examples from the colonial period include the Nootka Convention, the War of 1812, the Rush–Bagot Treaty, the Treaty of 1818, the Webster–Ashburton Treaty, and the Oregon Treaty. Before the granting of responsible government, British diplomats handled foreign affairs and had the goal of achieving British goals, especially peace with the United States; domestic Canadian interests were secondary. The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 signaled an important change in relations between Britain and its North American colonies. In this treaty, the Canadas were allowed to impose tariff duties more favourable to a foreign country (the U.S.) than to Britain, a precedent that was extended by new tariffs in 1859, 1879 and 1887, despite angry demands on the part of British industrialists that these tariffs be disallowed by London.[2]

Dominion of Canada: 1867

Soon after Confederation, the first prime minister Sir John A. Macdonald appointed Sir John Rose as his lobbyist in London. When Alexander Mackenzie became prime minister, he sent George Brown to represent Canada in Washington during British-American trade talks. After the Conservative Party came back to power in 1878, the government sent Alexander Galt to London, as well as to France and Spain. Although the British government was concerned about this nascent Canadian diplomacy, it finally consented to giving Galt the formal title of High Commissioner in 1880. A trade commissioner was appointed to Australia in 1894. As High Commissioner, Charles Tupper helped negotiate an agreement with France in 1893 but it was countersigned by the British ambassador as the Queen's official representative to France. Meanwhile, in 1882 the province of Quebec made its first of many forays into the international community by sending a representative, Hector Fabre to Paris in 1882.[3]

Canada's responses to international events elsewhere were limited at this time. During 1878 tensions between Britain and Russia, for example, Canada constructed a few limited defences but did little else. By the time of the British campaign in Sudan of 1884–85, however, Canada was expected to contribute troops. Since Ottawa was reluctant to become involved, the Governor General of Canada privately raised 386 voyageurs at Britain's expense to help British forces on the Nile river. By 1885, many Canadians offered to volunteer as part of a potential Canadian force, however the government declined to act. This stood in sharp contrast to Australia (New South Wales), which raised and paid for its own troops.[4]

The first Canadian commercial representative abroad was John Short Larke. Larke became Canada's first trade commissioner following a successful trade delegation to Australia led by Canada's first Minister of Trade and Commerce, Mackenzie Bowell.[5]

The Alaska boundary dispute, simmering since the US purchased Alaska from Russia of 1867, became critical when gold was discovered in the Canadian Yukon during the late 1890s. Alaska controlled all the possible ports of entry. Canada argued its boundary included the port of Skagway, held by the U.S.. The dispute went to arbitration in 1903, but the British delegate sided with the Americans, angering Canadians who felt the British had betrayed Canadian interests to curry favour with the U.S.[6][7]

In 1909, Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier reluctantly established a Department of External Affairs and the positions of Secretary and Under-Secretary of State for External Affairs, largely at the urging of the Governor-General Earl Grey and James Bryce, the British ambassador in Washington, who estimated that three-quarters of his embassy's time was devoted to Canadian-American matters.

Laurier signed a reciprocity treaty with the U.S. that would lower tariffs in both directions. Conservatives under Robert Borden denounced it, saying it would integrate Canada's economy into that of the U.S. and loosen ties with Britain. The Conservative party won the Canadian federal election, 1911.[8]

World Wars

Due to Canada's important contributions to the British war effort in 1914–18, Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden insisted that Canada be treated as a separate signatory to the Treaty of Versailles. In 1920 Canada became a full member of the League of Nations, and acted independently of London. It was elected to the League Council (governing board) in 1927. It did not play a leading role, and generally opposed sanctions or military action by the League. The League was virtually defunct by 1939.[9]

The government operated a Canadian War Mission in Washington, 1918 to 1921, but it was not until William Lyon Mackenzie King became Prime Minister in 1921 that Canada seriously pursued an independent foreign policy. In 1923, Canada independently signed the Halibut Treaty with the United States at Mackenzie King's insistence – the first time Canada signed a treaty without the British also signing it. In 1925, the government appointed a permanent diplomat to Geneva to deal with the League of Nations and International Labour Organization. Following the Balfour Declaration of 1926, King appointed Vincent Massey as the first Canadian minister plenipotentiary in Washington (1926), raised the office in Paris to legation status under Philippe Roy (1928), and opened a legation in Tokyo with Herbert Marler as envoy (1929).

Canada achieved legislative independence with the enactment of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, although British diplomatic missions continued to represent Canada in most countries throughout the 1930s.

In the 1930s, the Mackenzie King government strongly supported the appeasement policy of the Chamberlain government in London toward Nazi Germany.[10][11]

After the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Canada rapidly expanded its diplomatic missions abroad. While Canada hosted two major Allied conferences in Quebec in 1943 and 1944, neither Prime Minister Mackenzie King nor senior generals and admirals were invited to take part in any of the discussions.[12]

1945-1957

The Canadian Institute of International Affairs (CIIA) has long been the intellectual center of foreign policy thinking. Its current name is "Canadian International Council". Under businessman Edgar Tarr, 1931 to 1950, the CIIA went beyond the original neutral and apolitical research role. Instead it championed Canadian national autonomy and sought to enlarge the nation's international role, while challenging British imperialism. Numerous diplomats attended its conferences and supported its new mission. Canada's foreign policy moved away from imperialism and toward the sort of anti-colonialism promoted by the United States. CIIA leaders and Canadian officials worked to encouraged nationalist forces in India, China, and Southeast Asia that sought to reject colonial rule and Western dominance.[13]

Diplomats reminiscing about the postwar era stress the outsized role of Lester B. Pearson; they fondly call the 1940s and 1950s a "golden era" of Canadian foreign policy. It certainly stood apart from the embarrassing isolationism of the 1930s, which James Eayrs called a low, dishonest decade."[14] However, the Golden Era tag has been challenged as a romantic exaggeration. Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, working closely with his Foreign Minister Louis St. Laurent, handled foreign relations 1945-48 in cautious fashion. Canada lent and donated over $2 billion to Britain to help it rebuild (by purchasing Canadian exports). It was elected to the UN Security Council. It helped design NATO. However, Mackenzie King rejected free trade with the United States,[15] and decided not to play a role in the Berlin airlift.[16] Canada had been actively involved in the League of Nations, primarily because it could act separately from Britain. It played a modest role in the postwar formation of the United Nations, as well as the International Monetary Fund. It played a somewhat larger role in 1947 in designing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.[17] Ties with Great Britain gradually weakened, especially in 1956 when Canada refused to support the British and French invasion of Egypt in order to seize the Suez Canal. Liberal Lester B. Pearson as External Affairs Minister (foreign minister) won the Nobel Peace Prize for organizing the United Nations Emergency Force in 1956 to resolve the Suez Canal Crisis.[18]

From 1939 to 1968, foreign policy was based on close relationships with the United States, especially in trade and defense policy, with Canada an active member of NATO as well as a bilateral partner with the United States in forming a northern defense against Soviet bombers. In 1950-53, Canada sent troops to the Korean War in defense of South Korea.[19]

For Lester Pearson, cultural differences, Francophonee versus Anglophone, could perhaps be narrowed by involvement in world affairs. Canadians could gain a broader, more cosmopolitan, more liberal outlook. A sense of national identity, built on the middle size nation thesis, was possible. Perhaps international commitment would produce a sense of purpose and thereby unite Canadians.[20]

There were voices on both left and right that Warned against being too close to the United States. Few Canadians listened before 1957. Instead, there was wide consensus on Canadian foreign and defense policies 1948 to 1957. Bothwell, Drummond and English state:

That support was remarkably uniform geographically and racially, both coast to coast and among French and English. From the CCF on the left to the Social Credit on the right, the political parties agreed that NATO was a good thing, and communism a bad thing, that a close association with Europe was desirable, and that the Commonwealth embodied a glorious past.[21]

However the consensus did not the last. By 1957 the Suez crisis alienated Canada from both Britain and France; politicians distrusted American leadership, businessmen questioned American financial investments; and intellectuals ridiculed the values of American television and Hollywood offerings that all Canadians watched. "Public support for Canada's foreign policy big came unstuck. Foreign-policy, from being a winning issue for the Liberals, was fast becoming a losing one."[22]

Since 1957

Peacekeeping

The success of the Suez peacekeeping mission led Canadians to embrace peacekeeping as a suitable role for a middle-sized country, looking for a role, and having high regards for the United Nations. This led to sending a peacekeeping force to Cyprus in 1964, when two NATO members, Greece and Turkey were at swords' point over ethnic violence in the historic British colony. The Canadians left in 1993 after 28 were killed and many wounded in the operation. Peacekeeping help was needed in the Belgian Congo in 1960-64, after Belgium pulled out. There were numerous other small interventions. Canada took a central role in the International Control Commission (ICC), which tried to broker peace in Vietnam in the 1960s.[23] In 1993 violent misbehavior by Canadian peacekeeping forces in Somalia shocked the nation.[24][25]

Relations with US and others

Progressive Conservative John Diefenbaker (1957-1963) tried to improve relations with Britain even as it was trying to enter the European Common Market, which would greatly weaken its historic ties with Canada. US President Dwight Eisenhower took pains to foster good relations with Diefenbaker. That led to approval of plans to join the United States in what became known as NORAD, an integrated air defence system, in mid-1957. Relations with President John Kennedy were much less cordial. Diefenbaker opposed apartheid in the South Africa and helped force it out of the Commonwealth of Nations. His indecision on whether to accept Bomarc nuclear missiles from the United States led to his government's downfall.[26]

The Vietnam War (1964-1975) was very unpopular in Canada, which provided only minimal diplomatic support and no military participation. Liberal Lester B. Pearson as Prime Minister (1963-1968) avoided any involvement in Vietnam.[27] Foreign affairs was not high on his agenda, as he concentrated on complex internal political problems.[28]

Under Liberal Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau (1968-1979 and 1980-1984) foreign policy was much less important than internal unity. There were multiple new approaches, some of which involved standing apart from the United States. Trudeau recognized communist China shortly before the United States did,[29] improved relationships with the Soviet Union, and cut back on contributions to NATO. While not cutting back on trade with the United States, he did emphasize improved trade with Europe and Asia. By his third year in office, however, Trudeau launched a new initiatives, emphasizing Canada's role as a middle power with the ability to engage in active peacekeeping operations under the auspices of the United Nations.[30] Foreign aid was expanded, especially to the non-white Commonwealth. Canada joined most of NATO in imposing sanctions on Russia for its invasion of Afghanistan in 1979-80.[31] President Ronald Reagan took office in Washington in 1981, and relationships cooled.[32] However when Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990, Canada joined most of NATO and sending troops to the Persian Gulf war.[33]

Although Canada remained part of NATO, a strong military presence was considered unnecessary by 1964, and funding was diverted into peacekeeping missions. Only 20,000 soldiers were left. Andrew Richter calls this, "Forty years of neglect, indifference, and apathy."[34]

Québec started operating its own foreign policy in the 1960s, so that in key countries Canada had two separate missions with diverging priorities.[35]

Administration

In 1982, responsibility for trade was added with the creation of the Department of External Affairs and International Trade. In 1995, the name was changed to Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade.

Canada has often carried out its foreign policy through coalitions and international organizations, and through the work of numerous federal institutions.[36] Under the aegis of Canadian foreign policy, various departments and agencies conduct their own international relations and outreach activities. For example, the Canadian Forces and the Department of National Defence conduct defence diplomacy in support of national interests, including through the deployment of Canadian Defence Attachés,[37] participation in bilateral and multilateral military forums (e.g., the System of Cooperation Among the American Air Forces), ship and aircraft visits, military training and cooperation,[38] and other such outreach and relationship-building efforts.

There are two major elements of Canadian foreign relations, Canada-US relations and multilateralism.

Greg Donaghy, of Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs, argues:

Since taking power in 2006, Prime Minister Harper's government has clearly abandoned the liberal internationalism that had so often characterized Ottawa's approach to world affairs, replacing it with a new emphasis on realist notions of national interest, enhanced capabilities, and Western democratic values.[39][relevant? ]

Canada's international relations are the responsibility of the Department of Global Affairs, which is run by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, a position currently held by Chrystia Freeland. Traditionally the Prime Minister has played a prominent role in foreign affairs decisions. Foreign aid, formerly delivered through the Canadian International Development Agency, has been administered by DFATD since March 2013.[40]

Foreign aid

Former Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton at the Haiti Ministerial Preparatory Conference addressing earthquake relief in Montreal, January 25, 2010

Canada's foreign aid was administered by the Canadian International Development Agency, which provided aid and assistance to other countries around the world through various methods. In March 2013 CIDA ceased to exist when it was folded into DFAIT, creating DFATD.[40] The strategy of the Canadian government's foreign aid policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while also providing assistance in response to foreign humanitarian crises. However a growing focus on development, defense, and diplomacy in recent decades has produced a concentration of foreign aid funding to countries determined to be security risks to Canadian policy. For example, in 2004-2005 the largest recipients of Canada's official developmental assistance were Afghanistan and Iraq, two nations in conflict with the United States of America and its allies at the time. The structural emphasis on security and industry development has contributed to a fixed foreign policy that generally fails to consider global health and international social and economic inequalities.[41]

In addition, although Canada’s foreign aid policies has been molded with the intentions to be in accordance to the Millennium Development Goals, its focus on human security has slowly shifted away as new policy developments arose. The foreign aid provided by the country became less "people-centered" and less health-related. Canada’s contributions have been quite inconsistent with regards to human security, which indicates that the reputation that the country has built throughout the years, in fact, exceeds the country’s actual record. Canada’s contributions internationally have been detrimental and crucial but it needs redirecting back to its original goals.[41]

Federalism and foreign relations

The provinces have a high level of freedom to operate internationally, dating from Quebec's first representative to France in 1886, Hector Fabre. Alberta has had representatives abroad, starting with Alberta House in London (37 Hill Street), since 1948, and British Columbia around 25 years before that.[42] By 1984, Quebec had offices in ten countries including eight in the United States and three in other Canadian provinces while Ontario had thirteen delegations in seven countries.[43] Most provincial governments have a ministry of international relations, both Quebec and New Brunswick are members of La Francophonie (separately from the federal delegation), Alberta has quasi-diplomatic offices in Washington (currently staffed by former cabinet minister Gary Mar). Provincial premiers were always part of the famous Team Canada trade missions of the 1990s. In 2007, Quebec premier Jean Charest proposed a free trade agreement with the European Union.

Provinces have always participated in some foreign relations, and appointed agents general in the United Kingdom and France for many years, but they cannot legislate treaties. The French-speaking provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick are members of la Francophonie, and Ontario has announced it wishes to join.[citation needed] Quebec has pursued its own foreign relations, especially with France. Alberta opened an office in Washington, D.C., in March 2005 to lobby the American government, mostly to reopen the borders to import of Canadian beef. With the exception of Quebec, none of these efforts undermine the ability of the federal government to conduct foreign affairs.[citation needed]

Bilateral relations

Africa

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Algeria 1962 See Algeria-Canada relations

Algeria is Canada's top trading partner in Africa.

 Angola 1978 See Embassy of Angola in Ottawa
 Burkina Faso
  • Burkina Faso has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada has an embassy in Ouagadougou.
 Cameroon
  • Cameroon has a high commission in Ottawa.
  • Canada has a high commission in Yaoundé.
 Cape Verde 1976

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1976.[44]

  • Canada is accredited to Cape Verde from its embassy in Dakar, Senegal.
  • Cape Verde is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Chad
  • Canada is accredited to Chad from its embassy in Khartoum, Sudan and has an honorary consulate in N'Djamena.
  • Chad has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Comoros 1977
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1977.[45]
  • Canada is accredited to the Comoros from its high commission in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
  • Comoros is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • Both countries are full members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.
 Côte d'Ivoire 1962 See Canada–Ivory Coast relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Abidjan.
  • Côte d'Ivoire has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo See Canada–Democratic Republic of the Congo relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Kinshasa.
  • DR Congo has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Egypt 1954 See Canada–Egypt relations

Both countries established embassies in their respective capitals in 1954.

  • Canada has had an embassy in Cairo.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.
 Ethiopia 1956 See Canada–Ethiopia relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Addis Ababa.
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Ghana
  • Canada has a high commission in Accra.
  • Ghana has a high commission in Ottawa.
 Guinea-Bissau 1975

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1975.

  • Canada is accredited to Guinea-Bissau from its embassy in Dakar, Senegal.
  • Guinea-Bissau is accredited to Canada from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York City, United States.
 Kenya 1965 See Canada–Kenya relations
  • Canada has a High Commission in Nairobi.
  • Kenya has a high commission in Ottawa.
 Lesotho 1966 See Canada–Lesotho relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1966.[46]
  • Canada accredited to Lesotho from its high commission in Pretoria, South Africa.[46]
  • Lesotho has a high commission in Ottawa[46] and an honorary consulate in Maseru.[47]
  • Both countries are full members of Commonwealth of Nations.
 Madagascar 1965 See Canada–Madagascar relations
 Malawi 1973
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1973.[50]
  • Canada is accredited to Malawi from its high commission in Maputo, Mozambique.
  • Malawi is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Mali 1978 See Canada–Mali relations
  • Mali's embassy in Ottawa was opened in 1978. Canada's embassy opened in Bamako in 1995. Mali also operates honorary consulates in Vancouver, British Columbia, Calgary, Alberta, Montreal, Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec and Fredericton, New Brunswick.
  • Canada has donated one billion dollars (US$, 2007) in bilateral development aid to Mali between 1962 and 2007, ranking it Mali's fifth-largest bilateral donor. Canada's development work in Mali has been chiefly in the railways, telecommunications and hydroelectricity sectors, in the management of government decentralization, in education and health.
  • Canada has contributed 9% towards the cost of the regional peace-keeping school, École de maintien de la paix Alioune Blondin Beye de Bamako, and has provided Canadian trainers to the school.
  • Two industrial, open-pit gold mines in Mali, Sadiola and Yatela, are partly owned by Canadian mining company IAMGOLD Corporation, and financed in part by Canada's public pension funds. Together, they contributed to one-half of Mali's industrial gold production during 1996–2007.
  • In 2005, there were 73 Canadian-owned mining properties in Mali. At least thirteen junior Canadian mining companies held exploration licences in Mali in 2009.
  • Over the period 2001–2005, Canadian mining assets in Mali represented 31% of Mali's total stock of foreign direct investment.
  • Malian-Canadian immigrants made up 0.0027% of the Canadian population in 2006.
 Morocco 1956
  • Canada has an embassy in Rabat.[51]
  • Morocco has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.[52]
  • Both countries are full members of the Francophonie.
  • There are 100,000 people of Moroccan descent living in Canada.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Morocco
 Mozambique See Canada–Mozambique relations
  • Canada has a high commission in Maputo.
  • Mozambique is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Namibia See Canada–Namibia relations
  • Canada is accredited to Namibia from its embassy in Pretoria, South Africa.
  • Namibia is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Nigeria 1960-10-01
  • Canada has a high commission in Abuja and a deputy high commission on Lagos.[53]
  • Nigeria has a high commission in Ottawa.[54]
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • Jerome Iginla, Hockey player; father is Nigerian, mother is Canadian.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Nigeria
 Rwanda
  • Canada has a high commission in Kigali.
  • Rwanda has a high commission in Ottawa.
 Senegal 1962 See Canada–Senegal relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Dakar.[55]
  • Senegal has an embassy in Ottawa.[56]
 South Africa 1939 See Canada–South Africa relations

Canada established diplomatic relations with numerous countries, including South Africa, as World War II broke out.

  • Canada has a high commission in Pretoria.
  • South Africa has a high commission in Ottawa.
 South Sudan 2011-07-09
  • Canada currently has no true diplomatic relations with South Sudan and does not have an embassy in Juba. Although Canada has a non resident embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.
  • Canada recognized South Sudan's independence on 9 July 2011.
 Sudan
  • Canada has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Swaziland 1968

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1968.[57]

 Tanzania
  • Canada has a high commission in Dar-es-Salaam.
  • Tanzania has a high commission in Ottawa.
 Tunisia 1957
  • Since May 1966, Canada has an embassy in Tunis.
  • Since September 1969, Tunisia has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate in Montreal.
  • Both countries are full members of the Francophonie.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Tunisia
  • Tunisian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Canada (in French only)
 Zambia 1964
  • Canada has an office of the High Commission located in Lusaka.
  • Zambia's High Commission to Canada is in Ottawa.

Canada currently has a development assistance program in Zambia, which is focused on the health sector to provide Zambians with equal access to quality health care. Canada and Zambia are currently in the process of negotiating a Foreign Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement.[58]

 Zimbabwe 1980
  • Canada has an embassy in Harare
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Ottawa.

Americas

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 1940-04 See Argentina–Canada relations

Canada’s first ambassador to Buenos Aires, began his assignment in 1945. In 2011 Canada's largest imports were decorative items gold, wines and Iron and steal pipes.[59] Canada's largest exports to Argentina were Energy-related products; telephones sets, and fertilizers.[59] Bilateral trade in 2014 was $2.19 billion.[60] Both countries are members of the Organization of American States and the Cairns Group.

  • Argentina has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-genes in Montreal and Toronto.
  • Canada has an embassy in Buenos Aires.
 Antigua and Barbuda 1981
  • Antigua and Barbuda is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States and has a consulate-general in Toronto.
  • The Canadian High Commission in Bridgetown, Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda.[61]
 Bahamas 1973
  • The Canadian High Commission in Kingston, Jamaica is accredited to the Bahamas. Canada has an honorary consul in Nassau.
  • The Bahamas is represented by their High Commission in Ottawa.[62]
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with the Bahamas
 Barbados 1966-11-30 See Barbados–Canada relations

In 1907, the Government of Canada opened a Trade Commissioner Service to the Caribbean region located in Bridgetown, Barbados. Following Barbadian independence from the United Kingdom in November 1966, the Canadian High Commission was established in Bridgetown, Barbados in September 1973. There is a Barbadian High Commission in Ottawa and a Barbadian Consulate in Toronto. The relationship between both nations today partly falls within the larger context of Canada–Caribbean relations.

 Belize 1981-09-21
  • Belize is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
  • Canada is accredited to Belize from its embassy in Guatemala, City, Guatemala.
 Bolivia
  • Bolivia has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada has an embassy in La Paz.
 Brazil 1941-05 See Brazil–Canada relations
 Chile 1941 See Canada–Chile relations

Since 1997 Canada and Chile's trade relations have been governed by the Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement, Chile's first full free trade agreement and Canada's first with a Latin American nation.[63]

  • Canada has an embassy in Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
 Colombia 1953-01 See Canada–Colombia relations
 Costa Rica 1961
  • Canada has an embassy in San José.
  • Costa Rica has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada funds Costa Rica's migrant services agency ACAI.
 Cuba 1945 See Canada–Cuba relations

Canada has maintained consistently cordial relations with Cuba, in spite of considerable pressure from the United States, and the island is also one of the most popular travel destinations for Canadian citizens. Canada-Cuba relations can be traced back to the 18th century, when vessels from the Atlantic provinces of Canada traded codfish and beer for rum and sugar. Cuba was the first country in the Caribbean selected by Canada for a diplomatic mission. Official diplomatic relations were established in 1945, when Emile Vaillancourt, a noted writer and historian, was designated Canada's representative in Cuba. Canada and Mexico were the only two countries in the hemisphere to maintain uninterrupted diplomatic relations with Cuba following the Cuban Revolution in 1959.

  • Canada has an embassy in Havana and honorary consuls in Varadero and Guardalavaca.
  • Cuba has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates in Montreal and Toronto.
 Dominica 1979
  • Canada is accredited to Dominica from its high commission in Bridgetown, Barbados.
  • Dominica is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C, United States.
 Dominican Republic 1954
  • Canada has an embassy in Santo Domingo.
  • Dominican Republic has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Ecuador 1960
  • Canada has an embassy in Quito.
  • Ecuador has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
 El Salvador 1961
  • Canada has an embassy in San Salvador.
  • El Salvador has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
 Grenada 1974-02-07 See Grenada–Canada relations
  • Canada is accredited to Grenada from its high commission in Bridgetown, Barbados.
  • Grenada is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C, United States.
 Guatemala 1961
  • Canada has an embassy in Guatemala City.
  • Guatemala has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.
 Guyana 1964 See Canada–Guyana relations
 Haiti 1954 See Canada–Haiti relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Port-au-Prince.
  • Haiti has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.
 Honduras 1961
  • Canada has an embassy in Tegucigalpa.
  • Honduras has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.
 Jamaica 1962 See Canada–Jamaica relations
  • Since 4 March 1963, Canada has a high commission in Kingston.
  • Jamaica has a high commission in Ottawa.
 Mexico 1944-01 See Canada–Mexico relations

Despite the fact that historic ties between the two nations have been coldly dormant, relations between Canada and Mexico have positively changed in recent years; seeing as both countries brokered the North American Free Trade Agreement. Although on different sides of the Cold War spectrum (Canada was a member of NATO while Mexico was in the Non-Aligned Movement, the two countries were still allies in World War II.)

 Nicaragua 1961
  • Canada has an embassy in Managua.
  • Nicaragua is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Panama 1961 See Canada–Panama relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Panama City.[68]
  • Panama has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates general in Montreal and Toronto.[69]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization of American States.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Panama
 Paraguay 1961
  • Canada is accredited to Paraguay from its embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina and maintains an honorary consul in Asunción.
  • Paraguay has an embassy in Ottawa.[70]
  • Both countries are full members of the Cairns Group and the Organization of American States.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Paraguay
  • Paraguayan Ministry of Foreign Relations about relations with Canada
 Peru 1940 See Canada–Peru relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Lima.[71]
  • Peru has an embassy in Ottawa and three consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
  • Both countries are full members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, of the Cairns Group and of the Organization of American States.
  • The Canadian government announced in February 2009 that it was adding Peru to its list of preferred countries to receive foreign aid. This list includes 18 countries and the West Bank and Caribbean.[72]
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade about the relation with Peru
  • Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Relations about the relation with Canada (in Spanish only)
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983-09-19
  • Canada is accredited to Saint Kitts and Nevis from its high commission in Bridgetown, Barbados.
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C, United States and has a consulate-general in Toronto.
 Saint Lucia 1979-02-22
  • Canada is accredited to Saint Lucia from its high commission in Bridgetown, Barbados.
  • Saint Lucia is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C, United States and has a consulate-general in Toronto.
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979-10-27
  • Canada is accredited to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines from its high commission in Bridgetown, Barbados.
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C, United States.
 Suriname November 1975
  • Canada is accredited to Suriname from its embassy in Georgetown, Guyana and maintains an honorary consulate in Paramaribo.
  • Suriname is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Trinidad and Tobago 1962-08-31 See Canada-Trinidad and Tobago Relations
  • Canada has a high commission in Port of Spain.
  • Trinidad and Tobago has a high commission in Ottawa.
 United States 1927-02-18 See Canada–United States relations

Relations between Canada and the United States span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. The most serious breach in the relationship was the War of 1812, which saw an American invasion of then British North America and counter invasions from British-Canadian forces. The border was demilitarized after the war and, apart from minor raids, has remained peaceful. Military collaboration began during the World Wars and continued throughout the Cold War, despite Canadian doubts about certain American policies. A high volume of trade and migration between the U.S. and Canada has generated closer ties, despite continued Canadian fears of being overwhelmed by its neighbour, which is ten times larger in population, wealth and debt.[73]

Canada and the United States are currently the world's largest trading partners, share the world's longest shared border,[74] and have significant interoperability within the defense sphere.

 Uruguay 1953-01 See Canada–Uruguay relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Montevideo.
  • Uruguay has an embassy in Ottawa, and consulates general in Montreal and Toronto, and an honorary consul in Vancouver.
 Venezuela 1953-01 See Canada–Venezuela relations

In February 1948 there was a Canadian consulate-general in Caracas and a Venezuelan consulate-general in Montreal. In that year the Venezuelan Consul General, on behalf of the government of Venezuela, made a rapprochement with Canada in order to open direct diplomatic representations between the two countries;[75] but the Canadian government delayed the opening of a diplomatic mission in Venezuela because of the lack of enough suitable personnel to staff a Canadian mission in Venezuela and the impossibility of Canada beginning a representation in Venezuela in that year without considering a policy of expansion of Canadian representation abroad.[76]

In the interest of protecting Canadian trade with Venezuela and considering the difficulties for business in being without a Canadian representation in Caracas, Canada was pushed to accept the Venezuelan offer of exchanging diplomatic missions.[77] Finally Canada elevated the former office of the Canadian Consulate General in Caracas to the category of embassy in 1953.[78]

On the other hand, Venezuela established an embassy in Canada in 1952.[79] Since then there have been good commercial relations between the two countries, especially in technology, oil and gas industry, telecommunications and others.

  • Canada has an embassy in Caracas.
  • Venezuela has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.

Asia

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Afghanistan 1960s
1968 (officially)
See Afghanistan–Canada relations

The Canadian government announced in February 2009 that it was adding Afghanistan to its list of preferred countries to receive foreign aid.[72]

  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada has an embassy in Kabul.

See also: War in Afghanistan, Embassy of Canada in Kabul, List of Canadian ambassadors to Afghanistan

 Armenia 1992 See Armenia–Canada relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Moscow, Russia and maintains an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
 Azerbaijan 1992 See Azerbaijan–Canada relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada is accredited to Azerbaijan from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
 Bangladesh See Bangladesh–Canada relations
  • Bangladesh has a high commission in Ottawa.
  • Canada has a high commission in Dhaka.
 Brunei 1984-05-07 See Brunei–Canada relations
 China 1970-10-13 See Canada–China relations

Since 2003, China has emerged as Canada's second largest trading partner, passing Britain and Japan. China now accounts for approximately six percent of Canada's total world trade. According to a recent study by the Fraser Institute, China replaced Japan as Canada's third-largest export market in 2007, with CA$9.3 billion flowing into China in 2007. Between 1998 and 2007, exports to China grew by 272 percent, but only represented about 1.1 per cent of China's total imports. In 2007, Canadian imports of Chinese products totaled C$38.3 billion. Between 1998 and 2007, imports from China grew by almost 400 percent.[80] Leading commodities in the trade between Canada and China include chemicals, metals, industrial and agricultural machinery and equipment, wood products, and fish products.[81]

 Georgia 1992-07-23
  • Canada is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey and maintains an honorary consul in Tbilisi.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about the relations with Georgia
  • Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relations with Canada
 India 1947-08-15 See Canada–India relations

In 2004, bilateral trade between India and Canada was at about C$2.45 billion.[82] However, India's Smiling Buddha nuclear test led to connections between the two countries being frozen, with allegations that India broke the terms of the Colombo Plan.[83] Although Jean Chrétien and Roméo LeBlanc both visited India in the late 1990s, relations were again halted after the Pokhran-II tests.[83]

  • Canada has a high commission in New Delhi and has a consulate-general in Mumbai.
  • India has a high commission in Ottawa and consulates-general in Toronto and Vancouver.
 Indonesia 1952 See Canada–Indonesia relations
 Iran 1955 ended 2012 See Canada–Iran relations

Canadian-Iranian relations date back to 1955, up to which point the Canadian Consular and Commercial Affairs in Iran was handled by the British Embassy. A Canadian diplomatic mission was constructed in Tehran in 1959 and raised to embassy status in 1961. Due to rocky relations after the Iranian Revolution, Iran did not establish an embassy in Canada until 1991 when its staff, which had been living in a building on Roosevelt Avenue in Ottawa's west end, moved into 245 Metcalfe Street in the Centretown neighbourhood of Ottawa which was upgraded to embassy status, however in 2012. Canada severed all diplomatic ties with Iran in regard to Iran's treatment of human rights.

  • Canada has an interest section in Tehran.
  • Iran has an interest section in Ottawa.
 Iraq 1961-02 to 1991-12
2005-06
See Canada and the Iraq War, Embassy of Iraq in Ottawa
  • Canada has an embassy in Baghdad.
  • Iraq has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Israel 1950 See Canada–Israel relations

At the United Nations in 1947, Canada was one of the thirty-three countries that voted in favour of the creation of a Jewish homeland. Canada delayed granting de facto recognition to Israel until December 1948, and finally gave full de jure recognition to the new nation on 11 May 1949, only after it was admitted into the United Nations (UN). A week later, Avraham Harman became Israel's first consul general in Canada. In September 1953, the Canadian Embassy opened in Tel Aviv and Israeli Ambassador to Canada, Michael Comay, was appointed, although a non-resident Canadian Ambassador to Israel was not appointed until 1958.

 Japan 1928-12 See Canada–Japan relations

The two countries enjoy an amicable companionship in many areas; diplomatic relations between both countries officially began in 1950 with the opening of the Japanese consulate in Ottawa. In 1929, Canada opened its Tokyo legation, the first in Asia;[86] and in that same year, Japan its Ottawa consulate to legation form.[87]

 Kazakhstan 1992 See Canada–Kazakhstan relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Astana and a consulate in Almaty.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate in Toronto.
  • Canada has designated Kazakhstan as a priority emerging market for bilateral trade.[88]
 Kuwait
  • Canada has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Kyrgyzstan 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992.[89]

  • Canada is accredited to Kyrgyzstan from its embassy in Astana, Kazakhstan.
  • Kyrgyzstan is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Lebanon 1954 See Canada–Lebanon relations

Canada established diplomatic relations with Lebanon in 1954, when Canada deployed "Envoy Extraordinaire" to Beirut. In 1958, Canada sent its first ambassador. The embassy was closed in 1985 and reopened in January 1995. Lebanon opened a consulate in Ottawa in 1946. A consulate-general replaced the consulate in 1949, and it was upgraded to full embassy status in 1958.

  • Canada has an embassy in Beirut.[90]
  • Lebanon has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Montreal.[91]
 Malaysia 1957-08-31[92] See Canada–Malaysia relations
  • Canada has a High Commission in Kuala Lumpur
  • Malaysia has a High Commission in Ottawa.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • Canada's trade relationship with Malaysia includes commerce across several sectors.[93]
 Mongolia 1973-11-30 See Canada–Mongolia relations
  • Canada is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Ulaanbaatar.
  • Mongolia has an embassy in Ottawa.

Though Canada and Mongolia established diplomatic ties in 1973, ad hoc linkages and minor activities occurred between the two countries mainly through the Canada-Mongolia Society, which disbanded in 1980. When Mongolia formed a democratic government in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Canada began to support Mongolia with donor activities through the International Development Research Centre, Canadian International Development Agency and several non-governmental organizations.[94]

 North Korea 2001-02-06 to 2010-03-26 See Canada–North Korea relations

Canada and North Korea share very little trade due to the destabilizing element North Korea has caused in the Asia Pacific region. Canada is represented by the Canadian Ambassador resident in Seoul, and North Korea is represented through its office at the UN in New York City.

 Pakistan 1947-08-15 See Canada–Pakistan relations
  • Canada has a high commission in Islamabad and consulate in Karachi.
  • Pakistan has a high commission in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • The value of the bilateral trade relationship between Pakistan and Canada was close to C$694 million in 2007.[95]
  • There are an estimated 300,000 Pakistanis living in Canada.[96]

See also Pakistani Canadian, High Commission of Pakistan in Ottawa

 Philippines 1949
 Qatar See Canada–Qatar relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Saudi Arabia 1973-05 See Canada–Saudi Arabia relations

Saudi Arabia is Canada's second largest trade partner among the seven countries of the Arabian Peninsula,[99] totalling more than $2 billion in trade in 2005,[100] nearly double its value in 2002, trade totaled $3.8 in 2014.[101] Canada chiefly imports petroleum, and oil from Saudi Arabia, while The largest exporting good are such as cereals, railway/tramway equipment; machinery equipment and paper in 2010.[102]

 Singapore 1965-12-15 See Canada–Singapore relations
  • Canada has a high commission in Singapore.[103]
  • Singapore is represented in Canada through its embassy to the United Nations in New York City and through a consulate-general in Vancouver.
  • Both countries are full members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Singapore
 South Korea 1963-01-14[104] See Canada–South Korea relations
  • Canadian soldiers participated in the defense of South Korea during the Korean War.
  • Canada has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
  • Both countries are full members of the APEC, the OECD and the G20.
 Taiwan 1949-1970 official
1991-quasi-official
 Tajikistan 1992

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992.

  • Canada is accredited to Tajikistan from its embassy in Astana, Kazakhstan.
  • Tajikistan is accredited to Canada from it embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Thailand 1947 See Canada-Thailand relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Bangkok and a consulate in Chiang Mai.[110]
  • Thailand has an embassy in Ottawa, consulates general in Toronto, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton and Montreal, and Thai Trade Centre Offices in Vancouver and Toronto.[111]
  • Both countries are full members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and Canada is a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum.
  • Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Thailand
 Turkey 1944 See Canada–Turkey relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Ottawa and honorary consuls general in Halifax, Montreal, Saskatoon, Calgary and Edmonton.

The recognition of the Armenian Genocide by the Canadian parliament has soured relations between the two countries.[112]

Canada-Turkey bilateral merchandise stood at $2.3 billion in 2012. Turkey is Canada's 34th largest trade partner. Canadian merchandise exports to Turkey were $850 million in 2012, and consisted mainly of oils (not crude), minerals, iron/steel and vegetables.[113]

 United Arab Emirates See Canada–United Arab Emirates relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Abu Dhabi and a consulate-general in Dubai.
  • United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Toronto.
 Vietnam 1973-08-21 See Canada-Vietnam relations
 Yemen 1975-12 (North Yemen)
1976-05 (South Yemen)
1989-09 (united Yemen)
  • Canada is represented in Yemen by its embassy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
  • Yemen has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Yemen

Europe

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 1987-09-10 See Albania–Canada relations
  • The Canadian embassy in Rome is accredited to Albania. Canada has an honorary consul in Tirana.
  • Albania is represented by their embassy in Ottawa.[115]
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Albania
 Andorra 1995
  • Canada is represented in Andorra by its embassy in Spain.
  • Andorra is represented in Canada by its embassy in New York. It also has a consulate in Montreal.
  • Both states are members of La Francophonie.
 Austria
  • Austria has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada has an embassy in Vienna.
 Belarus
  • Belarus has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada is accredited to Belarus from its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.
 Belgium 1939-01 See Belgium–Canada relations
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina have an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada is accredited to Bosnia and Herzegovina from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary.
 Bulgaria
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Toronto.[117][118]
  • Canada has an honorary consul in Sofia, and is represented through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) for diplomatic matters. Both countries are members of NATO.
  • Canadian Foreign Affairs and International Trade Office about the relations with Bulgaria
 Croatia 1993-04-14
 Cyprus 1960-08-16 See Canada–Cyprus relations

Canadian bilateral political relations with Cyprus stemmed initially from Cypriot Commonwealth membership at independence in 1960 (that had followed a guerrilla struggle with Britain). These relations quickly expanded in 1964 when Canada became a major troop contributor to UNFICYP. The participation lasted for the next 29 years, during which 50,000 Canadian soldiers served and 28 were killed. In large measure Canadian relations with Cyprus continue to revolve around support for the ongoing efforts of the UN, G8 and others to resolve the island's divided status.

  • Canada has an honorary consul in Nicosia.
  • Cyprus has a high commission in Ottawa.
 Czech Republic 1993 See Canada–Czech Republic relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Prague.
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal and Toronto and honorary consuls (in Calgary, Vancouver and Winnipeg).
 Denmark 1949-10-14 See Canada–Denmark relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Copenhagen.[121]
  • Denmark has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate general in Toronto.[122]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the Arctic Council.
  • There are more than 200,000 Canadians with Danish ancestry.
  • Recent issues between Canada and Denmark involve the claim of Hans Island.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Denmark
 Estonia 1922
Office of the Embassy of Canada to Estonia in Tallinn
  • Canada recognised Estonia in 1922 and re-recognised Estonia on 26 August 1991.
  • Canada is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Riga (Latvia) and an honorary consul in Tallinn.
  • Estonia has an embassy in Ottawa and four honorary consuls (in Montreal, Vancouver, and two in Toronto).[123]
  • There are around 22,000 Canadians of Estonian descent.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Estonia
  • Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Canada
 Finland 1947-11-21
 France 1882 See Canada–France relations

In the 2007 and 2008, French President Nicolas Sarkozy,[124] Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and Quebec Premier Jean Charest[125] all spoke in favour of a Canada – EU free trade agreement. In October 2008, Sarkozy became the first French President to address the National Assembly of Quebec. In his speech he spoke out against Quebec separatism, but recognized Quebec as a nation within Canada. He said that, to France, Canada was a friend, and Quebec was family.[124]

 Germany See Canada–Germany relations
  • Until 2005 Canada's embassy was in Bonn, but in April 2005 a new embassy opened in Berlin. Canada also operates consulates in Munich, Düsseldorf and Hamburg.
  • The provinces of Ontario and Alberta have representatives in Germany, co-located in the consulates. Quebec runs a stand-alone bureau in Munich, with an "antenne culturelle" office in Berlin.
  • In addition to its embassy in Ottawa, Germany maintains consulates in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Additional diplomats responsible for specialized files are also accredited from Washington.
  • See also: Embassy of Canada in Berlin, Embassy of Germany in Ottawa
 Greece 1937 See also Canada–Greece relations
 Holy See 1969 See Canada–Holy See relations

Although the Roman Catholic Church has been territoriality established in Canada since the founding of New France in the early 17th century, Holy See–Canada relations were only officially established under the papacy of Paul VI in the 1960s.

  • Canada has an embassy in Rome accredited to the Holy See.
  • Holy See has an apostolic nunciature in Ottawa.
 Hungary 1964 See Canada–Hungary relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Budapest.[128]
  • Hungary has an embassy in Ottawa, a consulate general in Toronto and six honorary consuls (in Calgary, Edmonton, Montreal, Winnipeg and two in Vancouver).[129][130][131]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Hungary
 Iceland 1942 See Canada–Iceland relations
  • Iceland's first honorary consulate was established in Winnipeg, Manitoba in 1942. In May 2001, Iceland opened an embassy in Ottawa and upgrade its Winnipeg mission to an official consulate.[132][133]
  • In November 2001, Canada opened an embassy in Reykjavík, before then it was represented by their embassy in Oslo (Norway) and an honorary consul in Reykjavík.[134]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and of the Arctic Council.
  • Canada Foreign Affairs and International Trade Ministry about relations with Iceland
 Ireland 1929-12-28 See Canada–Ireland relations

Canada and Ireland enjoy friendly relations, the importance of these relations centres on the history of Irish migration to Canada. Roughly 4 million Canadians have Irish ancestors, or approximately 14% of Canada's population.

 Italy 1947 See Canada–Italy relations
 Kosovo 2009-04-07 See also International reaction to the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence

Canada recognized Kosovo on 18 March 2008.[139]

  • Canada is accredited to Kosovo from its embassy in Zagreb, Croatia.
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Latvia 1921 See Canada–Latvia relations
  • Canada re-recognized Latvia’s independence on 26 August 1991. Restored relations on 3 September 1991.
  • Canada has an embassy in Riga.
  • Latvia has an embassy in Ottawa and honorary consuls in Quebec City and Toronto.
 Lithuania 1921
  • Canada has an embassy office in Vilnius, but that reports to the embassy in Riga (Latvia).[140]
  • Lithuania has an embassy in Ottawa and honorary consuls in Montreal and Vancouver.[141]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and of NATO.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Lithuania
  • Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list bilateral treaties with Canada in Lithuanian only
 Luxembourg
  • Canada is represented in Luxembourg through its embassy in Brussels (Belgium)and an honorary consul in Luxembourg City.[142]
  • Luxembourg is represented in Canada through its embassy in Washington, D.C. (USA), and honorary consuls (in Calgary, Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver).[143]
  • Canada often deals with Luxembourg in tandem with Belgium.[citation needed]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and of NATO.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade about the relation with Luxembourg
 Macedonia 1995
  • The Republic of Macedonia and Canada established diplomatic relations on 4 July 1996. In September 2007, Canada decided to recognize Macedonia under its constitutional name, the "Republic of Macedonia", for bilateral purposes.
  • Canada is accredited to Macedonia from its embassy in Belgrade, Serbia.
  • Macedonia has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Toronto.
 Malta 1964
  • Canada is accredited to Malta from its embassy in Rome, Italy and maintains an honorary consul in Valletta.
  • Malta is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States. The Ambassador of Malta to the United States also serves as High Commissioner of Malta to Canada.
  • Malta has a consulate general in Toronto and honorary consuls (in Quebec City and St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador).[144]
  • Canada hosts a large Maltese immigrant community.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Malta
 Moldova 1992
  • Canada is accredited to Moldova from its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Ottawa.
 Monaco 1926
  • Canada is accredited to Monaco from its embassy in Paris, France, and maintains an honorary consulate in Monaco.
  • Monaco is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States, and maintains honorary consulates in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
 Netherlands 1939-01 See Canada–Netherlands relations
  • Canada has an embassy in The Hague.
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Ottawa, and consulates general in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.
 Norway 1942 See Canada–Norway relations
 Poland 1935 See Canada–Poland relations
  • The Canada-Poland diplomatic relationship goes back from the first bilateral agreement, a Convention on Merchant Shipping, which was signed in 1935.
  • Canada has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates general (in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver).
  • There are over 800,000 Polish-Canadians living in Canada.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO and OECD.
 Portugal 1946 See Canada–Portugal relations
  • Canada has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.
 Romania 1967-04-03 See Canada–Romania relations
 Russia 1942-06-12 See Canada–Russia relations

Canada and Russia benefit from extensive cooperation on trade and investment, energy, democratic development and governance, security and counter-terrorism, northern issues, and cultural and academic exchanges.

  • Canada has an embassy in Moscow.
  • Russia has an embassy in Ottawa and consulates-general in Montreal and Toronto
 Serbia
  • Canada has an embassy in Belgrade.[147]
  • Serbia has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate general in Toronto and honorary consuls (in Montreal and Vancouver).[148][149]
  • There are around 150,000 people of Serbian descent living in Canada.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Serbia
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Canada
 Slovakia 1993-01-01
  • Canada is accredited to Slovakia from its embassy in Prague, Czech Republic.[150]
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Ottawa.[151]
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  • There are around 100,000 people of Slovak descent living in Canada.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign affairs and Trade about the relation with Slovakia
 Slovenia
  • Canada recognized Slovenian independence in January 1992, and established diplomatic relations a year later.
  • Canada is accredited to Slovenia from its embassy in Budapest, Hungary, and through an honorary consul in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Toronto.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.[152]
  • There are more than 35,000 Slovenes who live in Canada.
  • Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade about relations with Slovenia
 Spain 1935 See Canada–Spain relations
 Sweden See Canada–Sweden relations

Both countries have strong commitments to peacekeeping, UN reform, development assistance, environmental protection, sustainable development, and the promotion and protection of human rights.[dubious ] In additional, there are more than 300,000 Canadians of Swedish descent.[157]

  Switzerland 1945
  • The first Swiss consulate opened in Montreal in 1875.
  • Canada has an embassy in Bern and a United Nations mission in Geneva.[158]
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Ottawa, and consulates general (in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver) and honorary consuls (in Calgary, Halifax, Quebec City and Winnipeg).[159]
  • Both countries are full members of the Francophonie.
  • Canadian Foreign Affairs and International Trade Department about relations with Switzerland
  • Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Canada
 Ukraine 1992 See Canada–Ukraine relations, Embassy of Ukraine in Ottawa

Diplomatic relations were established between Canada and Ukraine on 27 January 1992.[160] Canada opened its embassy in Kiev[161] In April 1992, and the Embassy of Ukraine in Ottawa opened in October of that same year,[162] paid for mostly by donations from the Ukrainian-Canadian community. Ukraine opened a consulate general in Toronto in 1993[162][163] and announced plans to open another in Edmonton in 2008.[164]

The main bilateral agreement signed between the two governments is the joint declaration of the "Special Partnership" between the two countries signed in 1994 and renewed in 2001.[162]

  • Canada has an embassy in Kiev and a consulate in Lviv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Ottawa and a consulate-general in Toronto.
 United Kingdom 1880 See Canada–United Kingdom relations

London and Ottawa enjoy cooperative and intimate contact, which has grown deeper over the years; the two countries are related through history, the Commonwealth of Nations, and their sharing of the same Head of State and monarch.

Oceania

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Australia 1939-09-12 See Australia–Canada relations
 Fiji 1970-10-10
  • Canada is accredited to Fiji from its high commission in Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Fiji is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Micronesia 1998-03-03
  • Canada is accredited to Micronesia from its high commission in Canberra, Australia.
  • Micronesia is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 New Zealand 1942 See Canada–New Zealand relations

New Zealand and Canada have a longstanding relationship that has been fostered by both countries' shared history and culture, by their membership the Commonwealth of Nations and links between residents of both countries. The two countries have a common Head of State, currently Queen Elizabeth II. New Zealand and Canada also have links through business or trade relations, the United Nations, the Commonwealth and mutual treaty agreements. New Zealand-Canada relations are important to both countries.

 Papua New Guinea
  • Canada is accredited to Papua New Guinea from its high commission in Canberra, Australia.
  • Papua New Guinea is accredited to Canada from its embassy in Washington, D.C., United States.
 Samoa
  • Canada is accredited to Samoa from its high commission in Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Samoa is accredited to Canada from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York City, New York.
 Solomon Islands 7 July 1978
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 July 1978.[165]
  • Canada is accredited to the Solomon Islands from its high commission in Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Solomon Islands is accredited to Canada from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York City, New York.
  • Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
 Tonga
  • Canada is accredited to Tonga from its high commission in Wellington, New Zealand.
  • Tonga is accredited to Canada from its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in New York City, New York.

Other bilateral and plurilateral relations

One important difference between Canadian and American foreign policy has been in relations with communist governments. Canada established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China (13 October 1970) long before the Americans did (1 January 1979). It also has maintained trade and diplomatic relations with communist Cuba, despite pressures from the United States.

Arms Control

Countries on the Canadian Automatic Firearms Country Control List

Canadian Government guidance for export controls on weapons systems is published by Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada.[166][167] Automatic Firearms Country Control List, comprises a list of approved export nations which include as of 2014; (Albania, Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States).

Selected dates of diplomatic representation abroad

Multilateralism

Constable Lorant Haged, Royal Canadian Mounted Police and instructor at the leadership and management course, looks at a target after the Afghan National Police (ANP) ceased fire at a 9mm familirization range Dec. 3. The ANP are attending a six-month Leadership and Management course where they will also take a criminal Investigation course, leadership and mangagement classes and Rule of Law. The intent of the school is teach the ANP officers and leaders at an advanced level of training that will help them become more effective in running police sub-stations.

Canada is and has been a strong supporter of multilateralism. The country is one of the world's leading peacekeepers, sending soldiers under the U.N. authority around the world.[168] Canadian former Minister of Foreign Affairs and subsequent Prime Minister, Lester B. Pearson, is credited for his contributions to modern international peacekeeping, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957.[169] Canada is committed to disarmament, and is especially noted for its leadership in the 1997 Convention in Ottawa on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines.[170]

In the last century Canada has made efforts to reach out to the rest of the world and promoting itself as a "middle power" able to work with large and small nations alike. This was demonstrated during the Suez Crisis when Lester B. Pearson mollified the tension by proposing peacekeeping efforts and the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force. In that spirit, Canada developed and has tried to maintain a leading role in UN peacekeeping efforts.[171]

Canada has long been reluctant to participate in military operations that are not sanctioned by the United Nations, such as the Vietnam War or the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, but does join in sanctioned operations such as the first Gulf War, Afghanistan and Libya. It participated with its NATO and OAS allies in the Kosovo Conflict and in Haiti respectively.

Despite Canada's track record as a liberal democracy that has embraced the values of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Canada has not been involved in any major plan for Reform of the United Nations Security Council; although the Canadian government does support UN reform, in order to strengthen UN efficiency and effectiveness.[172]

Canada hosted the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City.

Canada is working on setting up military bases around the world, while reducing aid and diplomatic efforts.[173][174] In the late 90s, Canada actively promoted the notion of human security as an alternative to business-as-usual approaches to foreign aid. However, by invoking the "three Ds" (defense, diplomacy, and development) as the fundamental basis for Canadian foreign policy, and then implementing this in a manner that conforms more to military security and trade interests, Canada has successfully distanced itself from the humanitarian objectives of foreign aid, with the human security goal far from being achieved. [175] Under the Harper government, emphasis on promoting Canada's military presence internationally has included an effort to rebrand Canada historically as a "warrior nation", in large measure to counter the image of only supporting peacekeeping and multilateralism.[176]

Canada–Asia relations

In 1985 the Parliament of Canada passed an Act to create the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada, a think-tank focusing on Canada-Asia relations, in order to enhance Canada-Asia relations. Canada also seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC). In addition, Canada is an active participant in discussions stemming from the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and has been an active member, hosting the OAS General Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000.

Canada–Caribbean relations

Many Caribbean Community countries turn to Canada as a valued partner.[177] Canadians, particularly Canadian banks, played an important economic role in the development of former British West Indies colonies. Efforts to improve trade have included the idea of concluding a free trade agreement to replace the 1986 bilateral CARIBCAN agreement. At various times, several Caribbean countries have also considered joining Canadian Confederation as new provinces or territories, although no Caribbean nation has implemented such a proposal.

Canada–Commonwealth of Nations

Canada maintains close links to the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms, with which Canada has strong historic ties and shares a monarch. It also remains a member of the Commonwealth.

Canada–European Union relations

Canada–Latin American relations

In recent years Canadian leaders have taken increasing interest in Latin America.[citation needed] Canada has had diplomatic relations with Venezuela since January 1953 and the relations are based on mutual commercial interests, especially in technology, oil and gas industry, telecommunications and others. Canada has an ongoing trade dispute with Brazil.[citation needed]

International organizations

Canada is a member of the following organizations:[178]

Relations with international groups

Organization Main article Mission of Canada Heads of mission from Canada
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization Canada–NATO relations Mission of Canada to the North Atlantic Council (Brussels) List of Canadian ambassadors to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
 Organization of American States Canada–Latin America relations Mission of Canada to the Organization of American States (Washington, D.C.) List of Canadian ambassadors to the Organization of American States
 United Nations Canada and the United Nations Mission of Canada to: the UN in New York, the UN in Geneva, the UN in Nairobi,
UNESCO in Paris, the FAO in Rome, the ICAO in Montreal
List of Canadian ambassadors to the United Nations

Organizations with headquarters in Canada

Major treaties signed in Canada

Territorial and boundary disputes

Secretary Kerry Chats With Arctic Council Chairman Leona Aglukkaq, Nunavut Territory Premier Peter Taptuna, and Northwest Territory Premier Robert McLeod in Iqaluit, Canada

Canada and the United States have negotiated the boundary between the countries over many years, with the last significant agreement having taken place in 1984 when the International Court of Justice ruled on the maritime boundary in the Gulf of Maine. Likewise, Canada and France had previously contested the maritime boundary surrounding the islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, but accepted a 1992 International Court of Arbitration ruling.

Remaining disputes include managed maritime boundary disputes with the US (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, Machias Seal Island).

Arctic disputes

A long-simmering dispute between Canada and the U.S. involves the issue of Canadian sovereignty over the Northwest Passage (the sea passages in the Arctic).[citation needed] Canada’s assertion that the Northwest Passage represents internal (territorial) waters has been challenged by other countries, especially the U.S., which argue that these waters constitute an international strait (international waters). Canadians were incensed when Americans drove the reinforced oil tanker Manhattan through the Northwest Passage in 1969, followed by the icebreaker Polar Sea in 1985, both without asking for Canadian permission.[citation needed] In 1970, the Canadian government enacted the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, which asserts Canadian regulatory control over pollution within a 100-nautical-mile (190 km) zone. In response, the Americans in 1970 stated, "We cannot accept the assertion of a Canadian claim that the Arctic waters are internal waters of Canada.... Such acceptance would jeopardize the freedom of navigation essential for United States naval activities worldwide." A compromise was reached in 1988, by an agreement on "Arctic Cooperation," which pledges that voyages of American icebreakers "will be undertaken with the consent of the Government of Canada." However the agreement did not alter either country’s basic legal position. Essentially, the Americans agreed to ask for the consent of the Government of Canada without conceding that they were obliged to. In January 2006, David Wilkins, the American ambassador to Canada, said his government opposes Stephen Harper's proposed plan to deploy military icebreakers in the Arctic to detect interlopers and assert Canadian sovereignty over those waters. [179]

Also, there is a dispute with Denmark over the sovereignty of the uninhabited Hans Island and surrounding waters in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland.

Along with other nations in the Arctic Council, Canada, Sweden, Iceland, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Russia, the maritime boundaries in the far north will be decided after countries have completed their submissions, due in 2012. Russia has made an extensive claim based on the Russian position that everything that is an extension of the Lomonosov Ridge should be assigned to Russia.[180][181] Their submission had been rejected when first submitted by the United Nations in 2001.[182] The regions represent some of the most extreme environments on Earth yet there is a hope for hypothetically commercially viable oil and gas deposits.

See also

References

  1. ^ ""A Unique and Vital Relationship" between Cybelle and the US". Canadainternational.gc.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  2. ^ Ian Robertson (2008). Sir Andrew Macphail: The Life and Legacy of a Canadian Man of Letters. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 90.
  3. ^ Garth Stevenson (1997). Ex Uno Plures: Federal-Provincial Relations in Canada, 1867-1896. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 96.
  4. ^ Roy MacLaren (2011). Canadians on the Nile. UBC Press. p. 171.
  5. ^ History of Canada-Australia relations Archived 30 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ Farr, D.M.L. (4 March 2015). "Alaska Boundary Dispute". The Canadian Encyclopedia (online ed.). Historica Canada. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  7. ^ John A. Munro, "English-Canadianism and the Demand for Canadian Autonomy: Ontario's Response to the Alaska Boundary Decision, 1903," Ontario History 1965 57(4): 189-203.
  8. ^ Ellis, L. Ethan (1939). Reciprocity, 1911: A Study in Canadian-American Relations. Yale University Press.
  9. ^ Anique H. M. van Ginneken (2006). Historical Dictionary of the League of Nations. p. 54.
  10. ^ Norman Hillmer (1999). Pearson: The Unlikely Gladiator. p. 22.
  11. ^ Ritchie Ovendale, Appeasement and the English-Speaking World: Britain, the United States, the Dominions, and the Policy of Appeasement (1975)
  12. ^ J. L. Granatstein, "Happily on the Margins: Mackenzie King and Canada at the Quebec Conferences," in David B. Woolner, ed., The Second Quebec Conference Revisited: Waging War, Formulating Peace: Canada, Great Britain, and the United States in 1944-1945 (1998) pp 49-64.
  13. ^ Priscilla Roberts, "Tweaking the Lion's Tail: Edgar J. Tarr, the Canadian Institute of International Affairs, and the British Empire, 1931–1950." Diplomacy & Statecraft 23.4 (2012): 636-659.
  14. ^ James Eayrs, "'A Low Dishonest Decade': Aspects of Canadian External Policy, 1931–1939," in Hugh L. Keenleyside et al., The Growth of Canadian Policies in External Affairs (1960) pp 59–80.
  15. ^ C. P. Stacey, Canada and the Age of Conflict: A History of Canadian External Policies. Volume 2, 1921–1948: The Mackenzie King Era (1982) pp 420-22.
  16. ^ Hector Mackenzie, "Golden Decade (s)? Reappraising Canada's International Relations in the 1940s and 1950s." British Journal of Canadian Studies 23.2 (2010): 179-206.
  17. ^ Don Munton and John Kirton, eds. Cases and Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy Since World War II (1992) pp 2-18.
  18. ^ Munton and Kirton, eds. Cases and Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy (1992) pp 58-77
  19. ^ Munton and Kirton, eds. Cases and Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy (1992) pp 27-42, 46-57.
  20. ^ Robert Bothwell; Ian M. Drummond; John English. Canada Since 1945: Power, Politics, and Provincialism. p. 373.
  21. ^ Robert Bothwell; Ian M. Drummond; John English (1989). Canada Since 1945: Power, Politics, and Provincialism. U of Toronto Press. p. 131.
  22. ^ Bothwell et al., p. 131
  23. ^ Michael K. Carroll, Pearson's Peacekeepers: Canada and the United Nations Emergency Force, 1956-67 (2009)
  24. ^ Sherene Razack, "From the 'clean snows of Petawawa': The violence of Canadian Peacekeepers in Somalia." Cultural Anthropology 15.1 (2000): 127-163.
  25. ^ J.L. Granatstein, "The End of Peacekeeping?' Canada's History (Oct/Nov 2012) 92#5 44-51.
  26. ^ Soloman Gabriel, Foreign Policy of Canada: A Study in Diefenbaker's Years (1987).
  27. ^ Munton and Kirton, eds. Cases and Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy (1992) pp 135-62.
  28. ^ John English The Worldly Years: Life of Lester Pearson 1949–1972 (2011).
  29. ^ Munton and Kirton, eds. Cases and Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy (1992) pp 227-36.
  30. ^ Laurence Cros, "The Narrative of Canada as a Peacekeeping Nation since the 1990s: Permanence and Evolution of a National Paradigm." International Journal of Canadian Studies 52 (2015): 83-106.
  31. ^ Munton and Kirton, eds. Cases and Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy (1992) pp 286-98.
  32. ^ J.L. Granatstein, and Robert Bothwell, Pirouette : Pierre Trudeau and Canadian foreign policy (1990).
  33. ^ Munton and Kirton, eds. Cases and Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy Since World War II (1992) pp 382-93.
  34. ^ Andrew Richter, "Forty Years of Neglect, Indifference, and Apathy," in Patrick James et al. eds. (2006). Handbook of Canadian Foreign Policy. Lexington Books. pp. 51–82.
  35. ^ Greg Donaghy and Neal Carter, "'There Are No Half countries': Canada, La Francophonie, and the Projection of Canadian Biculturalism, 1960-2002," in James, ed. (2006). Handbook of Canadian Foreign Policy. pp. 133–64.
  36. ^ For example, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police International Peace Operations Branch <http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/po-mp/index-eng.htm> or deployments of personnel by the Correctional Service of Canada <http://www.international.gc.ca/media/aff/news-communiques/2010/333.aspx>
  37. ^ "Canadian Defence Attaché Network". Outcan.forces.gc.ca. 22 July 2010. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  38. ^ For example, through the Military Training and Cooperation Program and its ancillary activities "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2011.
  39. ^ "Introduction by Greg Donaghy" (June 2014)
  40. ^ a b Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. [1].
  41. ^ a b Spiegel, J.M., and R. Huish. 2009. Canadian foreign aid for global health: Human security opportunity lost. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal 15 (3):60-84. doi:10.1080/11926422.2009.9673492
  42. ^ http://douglassocialcredit.com/resources/resources/alf_hooke_ch16.pdf
  43. ^ Elliot J. Feldman and Lily Gardner Feldman. "The Impact of Federalism on the Organization of Canadian Foreign Policy". Publius (Vol. 14, No. 4, Federated States and International Relations (Autumn, 1984)): 33–59.
  44. ^ [2]
  45. ^ [3]
  46. ^ a b c [4]
  47. ^ [5]
  48. ^ High Commission of Canada in South Africa
  49. ^ Embassy of Madagascar in Canada Archived 22 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  50. ^ [6]
  51. ^ "Canadian embassy in Rabat". Rabat.gc.ca. 17 December 2009. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  52. ^ "Moroccan embassy in Ottawa". Ambamaroc.ca. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  53. ^ "Canadian high commission in Abuja". Canadainternational.gc.ca. 2009-12-17. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  54. ^ "Nigerian high commission in Ottawa". Nigeriahcottawa.com. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  55. ^ Embassy of Canada in Senegal
  56. ^ Embassy of Senegal in Ottawa (in French)
  57. ^ a b c [7]
  58. ^ "Canada-Zambia relations". Canadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2013-11-07.
  59. ^ a b "Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada Argentina". Parliament of Canada. Library of Parliament (Canada). Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  60. ^ "Embassy of Canada to Argentina and Paraguay". Canada International. Government of Canada. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  61. ^ "Canada - Antigua and Barbuda Relations". Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  62. ^ "Canada - Bahamas Relations". Retrieved 2012-12-14.
  63. ^ Parraguez, Maria-Luisa (26 March 2008). "Chile's Foreign Policy towards North America". Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA.
  64. ^ "Guyana's population at risk" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  65. ^ Guyana’s exports to Canada enjoyed mixed blessings in last five years
  66. ^ "Welcome to the website of the Embassy of Canada in Mexico". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  67. ^ "Embassy of Mexico in Canada". Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  68. ^ "Canadian embassy in Panama City". Canadainternational.gc.ca. 2009-12-17. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  69. ^ "Panamean embassy in Ottawa". Embassyofpanama.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  70. ^ "Paraguayan embassy in Ottawa". Embassyofparaguay.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  71. ^ Canadian embassy in Lima
  72. ^ a b Alexander Panetta, "Canada limits main foreign aid recipients to 20 countries", Canada East website. Retrieved 3 March 2009.
  73. ^ James Tagg reports that Canadian university students have a profound fear that "Canadian culture, and likely Canadian sovereignty, will be overwhelmed." Tagg, "'And, We Burned down the White House, Too': American History, Canadian Undergraduates, and Nationalism," The History Teacher, Vol. 37, No. 3 (May, 2004), pp. 309–334 in JSTOR; J. L. Granatstein. Yankee Go Home: Canadians and Anti-Americanism (1997).
  74. ^ "The world's longest border". Retrieved 1 April 2008.
  75. ^ Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada Documents on Canadian External Relations. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  76. ^ Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada Documents on Canadian External Relations. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  77. ^ Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada Documents on Canadian External Relations. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  78. ^ The Canadian Embassy in Venezuela Bilateral Relations Archived 3 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  79. ^ Embassy of Venezuela in Canada "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 December 2007. Retrieved 18 December 2007.. Retrieved 18 December 2007.
  80. ^ Canada’s Economic Relations with China Archived 6 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  81. ^ "China becomes Canada's 2nd-largest trade partner". Chinadaily.com.cn. 2007-12-15. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  82. ^ "India Canada Trade Relations". Maps of India. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
  83. ^ a b "India-Canada Trade & Economic Relations". FICCI. Archived from the original on 25 May 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
  84. ^ Canadian embassy in Jakarta
  85. ^ "Indonesian embassy in Ottawa". Indonesia-ottawa.org. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  86. ^ Ambassade du Japon au Canada: 80ième anniversaire des relations diplomatiques nippo-canadiennes. Archived 1 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  87. ^ Foreign Ministry of Japan: Episodes in Japan-Canada Relations.
  88. ^ "Canada". Embassy of Canada Bilateral Relations. Government of Canada.
  89. ^ [8]
  90. ^ Embassy of Canada in Lebanon
  91. ^ Embassy of Lebanon in Canada
  92. ^ "High Commission of Canada to Malaysia". Government of Canada. Retrieved 2013-01-09.
  93. ^ "Canada-Malaysia Relations". Government of Canada. Retrieved 2013-01-09.
  94. ^ Nelles, Wayne (December 2000). "Mongolian-Canadian Education, Training and Research Cooperation: A Brief History, 1973–2000". Canadian and International Education. 29 (2): 91. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007.
  95. ^ "Introduction" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  96. ^ "Canada-Pakistan Relations". Canadainternational.gc.ca. 2009-07-03. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  97. ^ "Canadian embassy in Manila". Canadainternational.gc.ca. 2009-12-17. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  98. ^ "Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines". Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  99. ^ "Canada-Saudi Arabia Relations". Canada International. Government of Canada. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  100. ^ "Canada-saudi arabia relations". Canadian Government. 9 May 2007. Archived from the original on 11 March 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2009.
  101. ^ "Fact Sheet; Saudi Arabia". Canada International. Government of Canada. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  102. ^ "Canadian Trade and Investment Activity: Canada-Saudi Arabia". Parliament of Canada. Library of Parliament; Canada. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  103. ^ Canadian a high commission in Singapore
  104. ^ "Countries and Regions". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  105. ^ [9]
  106. ^ Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Canada OFFICIAL WEBSITE
  107. ^ Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Vancouver OFFICIAL WEBSITE Archived 17 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  108. ^ Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Toronto OFFICIAL WEBSITE
  109. ^ TAITRA overseas offices
  110. ^ "Embassy of Canada in Bangkok". Thailand.gc.ca. 2009-12-17. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  111. ^ Royal Thai Embassy in Ottawa Archived 1 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  112. ^ "Canada-Turkey relations". 2014-07-13.
  113. ^ "Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  114. ^ Canadian embassy in Hanoi
  115. ^ "Canada – Albania Relations". Retrieved 2012-12-14.
  116. ^ "Welcome Page | Page d'accueil". Dfait-maeci.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  117. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Ottawa Archived 2 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  118. ^ "Bulgarian consulate in Toronto". Bgconsultor.com. 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  119. ^ Canadian embassy in Zagreb
  120. ^ "Croatian embassy in Ottawa". Ca.mfa.hr. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  121. ^ Canadian embassy in Copenhagen
  122. ^ "Danish embassy in Ottawa". Ambottawa.um.dk. 2008-01-14. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  123. ^ "Estonian embassy in Ottawa". Estemb.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  124. ^ a b Gazette, The (18 October 2008). "Sarkozy professes love for Quebec and Canada". Canada.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  125. ^ Paul Wells (2007-07-30). "Canada and Quebec Unite on EU Free Trade Accord". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2011-01-31.
  126. ^ "Greek embassy in Ottawa". Greekembassy.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  127. ^ Canadian embassy in Athens
  128. ^ Canadian embassy in Budapest
  129. ^ "Hungarian embassy in Ottawa". Mfa.gov.hu. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  130. ^ Hungarian consulate in Toronto Archived 4 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  131. ^ "Hungarian honorary consulate in Vancouver". Hungarianconsulatebc.com. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  132. ^ "Iceland embassy in Ottawa". Iceland.org. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  133. ^ "Iceland Consulate General in Winnipeg". Iceland.org. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  134. ^ Canada embassy in Reykjavík
  135. ^ "Canadian embassy in Rome". International.gc.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  136. ^ "Italian embassy in Ottawa". Ambottawa.esteri.it. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  137. ^ "Italian general consulates in Toronto". Constoronto.esteri.it. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  138. ^ "Italian general consulates in Vancouver". Consvancouver.esteri.it. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  139. ^ "Canada joins international recognition of Kosovo". Canadian Foreign Ministry. 18 March 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2008.
  140. ^ "Canadian embassy office in Vilnius". International.gc.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  141. ^ "Lithuanian embassy in Ottawa". Ca.mfa.lt. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  142. ^ "Canadian embassy in Brussels (also accredited to Luxembourg)". International.gc.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  143. ^ Luxembourg embassy in Washington (also accredited to Canada) Archived 22 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  144. ^ "Sorry. The page you are looking for does not exist" (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  145. ^ Canadian embassy in Bucharest Archived 27 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  146. ^ "Romanian Consulate General in Toronto". Romaniacanada.com. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  147. ^ "Canadian embassy in Belgrade". International.gc.ca. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  148. ^ "Serbian embassy in Ottawa". Serbianembassy.ca. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  149. ^ "Serbian general consulate in Toronto". Gktoronto.com. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  150. ^ "Canadian embassy in Prague (also accredited to Slovakia)". Canada.cz. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  151. ^ "Slovak embassy in Ottawa". Ottawa.mfa.sk. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  152. ^ "Slovenian embassy in Ottawa". Ottawa.embassy.si. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  153. ^ Embassy of Canada in Madrid
  154. ^ Embassy of Spain in Ottawa
  155. ^ Consulate-General of Spain in Montreal
  156. ^ Consulate-General of Spain in Toronto
  157. ^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories". 2.statcan.ca. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  158. ^ "Canadian embassy in Bern". Bern.gc.ca. 2009-12-17. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  159. ^ "Swiss embassy in Ottawa". Eda.admin.ch. 2011-01-25. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  160. ^ For a detailed discussion of Canada's early diplomatic engagement with Canada, see Bohdan Kordan, "Canadian Ukrainian Relations: Articulating the Canadian Interest," in L. Hajda, ed. (1996), Ukraine in the World: Studies in the International Relations and Security Structure of a Newly Independent State. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  161. ^ The capital of Ukraine (commonly "Kiev" in English) is officially recognized by both the Canadian and Ukrainian governments as Kyiv in all English communications (although not in French).
  162. ^ a b c "Embassy of Ukraine in Canada – Political Affairs". Mfa.gov.ua. Retrieved 2011-06-03.
  163. ^ Embassy of Ukraine in Canada – Political Affairs,
  164. ^ Edmonton, The (20 December 2007). "Edmonton Journal". Canada.com. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  165. ^ [10]
  166. ^ http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-91-575/page-2.html#h-1
  167. ^ http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/PDF/SOR-91-575.pdf
  168. ^ "The history of Canadian peacekeeping". CBC. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  169. ^ "Biography - Lester Bowles Pearson". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  170. ^ "Disarmament - Anti-Personnel Landmines Convention". The United Nations Office at Geneva. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  171. ^ "Canada and International Peace Efforts". Veterans Affairs Canada. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  172. ^ "United Nations Reform". Government of Canada. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
  173. ^ Payton, Laura. "Canada considering international bases: MacKay." CBC News, 2 June 2011.
  174. ^ Noormohamed, Taleeb. "How Harper's Foreign Policy is Failing Canada." The Tyee, 2 June 2011.
  175. ^ Jerry M. Spiegel & Robert Huish (2009): Canadian foreign aid for global health: Human security opportunity lost, Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 15:3, 60–84.
  176. ^ McKay, I., & Swift, J. (2012). Warrior Nation: Rebranding Canada in an Age of Anxiety. Between the Lines.
  177. ^ Staff writer. "Carrington: lauds Canada as 'special friend' of region". Stabroek Newspaper. In brief remarks at the signing, Secretary-General Carrington expressed appreciation to the Government of Canada for its support, and pointed out that over the years "Canada had proven to be a "special friend" of the Caribbean at the regional and bilateral levels." "Our relations with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) have grown to the extent that "it is now considered to be a highly valued international development partner for the region." Among the many important areas in which CIDA has provided grant assistance to the region has been that of trade and competitiveness, a most vital area as the region seeks to secure its place in the international economic and trading arena," the release quoted the Secretary-General as saying.
  178. ^ "CIA World Factbook - Canada". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2011-03-10.
  179. ^ Matthew Carnaghan, Allison Goody, "Canadian Arctic Sovereignty" (Library of Parliament: Political and Social Affairs Division, 26 January 2006) at [11]; 2006 news at [12]
  180. ^ "Russia's Arctic Claim Backed By Rocks, Officials Say". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
  181. ^ "Russia Plants Underwater Flag, Claims Arctic Seafloor". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
  182. ^ "Staking claim to the Arctic is top priority for Russia, envoy says". CBC News. 12 February 2009.

Further reading

  • Bernstein, Alan (June 2013). "Science Diplomacy as a Defining Role for Canada in the Twenty-First Century". Science & Diplomacy. 2 (2).
  • Bothwell, Robert. Canada and the United States (1992)
  • Boucher, Jean-Christophe. "Yearning for a progressive research program in Canadian foreign policy." International Journal 69.2 (2014): 213-228. online commentary H-DIPLO
  • Bow, Brian J.; Patrick Lennox (2008). An independent foreign policy for Canada?: challenges and choices for the future. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-9634-0.
  • Bugailiskis, Alex, and Andrés Rozental, eds. Canada Among Nations, 2011-2012: Canada and Mexico's Unfinished Agenda (2012) further details
  • Carnaghan, Matthew, Allison Goody, "Canadian Arctic Sovereignty" (Library of Parliament: Political and Social Affairs Division, 26 January 2006)
  • Chapnick, Adam, and Christopher J. Kukucha, eds. The Harper Era in Canadian Foreign Policy: Parliament, Politics, and Canada’s Global Posture (UBC Press, 2016).
  • Eayrs, James. In Defence of Canada. (5 vols. University of Toronto Press, 1964–1983) the standard history
  • Fox, Annette Baker. Canada in World Affairs (Michigan State University Press, 1996)
  • Froese, Marc D (2010), Canada at the WTO: Trade Litigation and the Future of Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 978-1-4426-0138-3
  • Glazov, Jamie. Canadian Policy Toward Khrushchev's Soviet Union (2003).
  • Granatstein, J. L., ed. Canadian foreign policy : historical readings (1986), excerpts from primary sources and scholars online free
  • Holloway, Steven Kendall (2006). Canadian foreign policy: defining the national interest. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 1-55111-816-5.
  • Hampson, Fen Osler, and James A. Baker. Master of Persuasion: Brian Mulroney's Global Legacy (2018)
  • Hawes, Michael K., and Christopher John Kirkey, eds. Canadian Foreign Policy in a Unipolar World (Oxford UP, 2017).
  • Hillmer, Norman and Philippe Lagassé. Justin Trudeau and Canadian Foreign Policy: Canada Among Nations 2017 (2018)
  • Holmes John W. The Shaping of Peace: Canada and the Search for World Order. (2 vols. University of Toronto Press, 1979, 1982)
  • Irwin, Rosalind (2001). Ethics and security in Canadian foreign policy. UBC Press. ISBN 978-0-7748-0863-7.
  • James, Patrick, Nelson Michaud, and Marc O'Reilly, eds. Handbook of Canadian foreign policy (Lexington Books, 2006), essays by experts; 610pp excerpt
  • James, Patrick. Canada and Conflict (Oxford University Press, 2012) H-DIPLO online reviews June 2014
  • Kirk, John M. and Peter McKenna; Canada-Cuba Relations: The Other Good Neighbor Policy UP of Florida, 1997).
  • Kirton, John and Don Munton, eds. Cases and Readings in Canadian Foreign Policy Since World War II (1992) 24 episodes discussed by experts
  • Kohn, Edward P. This Kindred People: Canadian-American Relations and the Anglo-Saxon Idea, 1895–1903 (2005)
  • Kukucha, Christopher J. "Neither adapting nor innovating: the limited transformation of Canadian foreign trade policy since 1984." Canadian Foreign Policy Journal (2018): 1-15.
  • McCormick, James M. "Pivoting toward Asia: Comparing the Canadian and American Policy Shifts." American Review of Canadian Studies 46.4 (2016): 474-495.
  • McCullough, Colin, and Robert Teigrob, eds. Canada and the United Nations: Legacies, Limits, Prospects (2017).
  • Melnyk, George. Canada and the New American Empire: War and Anti-War University of Calgary Press, 2004, highly critical
  • Miller, Ronnie. Following the Americans to the Persian Gulf: Canada, Australia, and the Development of the New World Order (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1994)
  • Molot, Maureen Appel. "Where Do We, Should We, Or Can We Sit? A Review of the Canadian Foreign Policy Literature", International Journal of Canadian Studies (Spring-Fall 1990) 1#2 pp 77–96.
  • Paris, Roland. "Are Canadians still liberal internationalists? Foreign policy and public opinion in the Harper era." International Journal 69.3 (2014): 274-307. online
  • Perras, Galen Roger. Franklin Roosevelt and the Origins of the Canadian-American Security Alliance, 1933–1945: Necessary, but Not Necessary Enough (Praeger Publishers, 1998)
  • Reid, Escott. Time of Fear and Hope: The Making of the North Atlantic Treaty, 1947–1949 (McClelland and Stewart, 1977.)
  • Rochlin, James. Discovering the Americas: The Evolution of Canadian Foreign Policy towards Latin America (University of British Columbia Press, 1994)
  • Stacey, C. P. Canada and the Age of Conflict: Volume 1: 1867-1921 (1979), a standard scholarly history
  • Stacey, C. P. Canada and the Age of Conflict, 1921–1948. Vol. 2. (University of Toronto Press, 1981), a standard scholarly history
  • Stairs Denis, and Gilbert R. Winham, eds. The Politics of Canada's Economic Relationship with the United States (University of Toronto Press, 1985)
  • Stevenson, Brian J. R. Canada, Latin America, and the New Internationalism: A Foreign Policy Analysis, 1968–1990 (2000)
  • Thompson, John Herd; Randall, Stephen J (2008). Canada and the United States: Ambivalent Allies. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-2403-5.
  • Wilson, Robert R. and David R. Deener; Canada-United States Treaty Relations (Duke University Press, 1963)

Primary Sources

  • Arthur E. Blanchette (1994). Canadian foreign policy, 1977-1992: selected speeches and documents. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. ISBN 978-0-88629-243-0.
  • Arthur E. Blanchette (2000). Canadian foreign policy, 1945-2000: major documents and speeches. Dundurn Press Ltd. ISBN 978-0-919614-89-5.
  • Riddell, Walter A. ed. Documents on Canadian Foreign Policy, 1917–1939 Oxford University Press, 1962 806 pages of documents

External links

  • Foreign Affairs Canada – Heads of Posts List
  • Embassy: Canada's Foreign Policy Newsweekly
  • Canada's place in world affairs
  • Foreign Affairs Canada – Canada and the World: A History a history of Canadian foreign policy.
  • Foreign Affairs Canada – Country and Regional Information a summary of Canada's relations with each foreign government as well as some international regions and organizations
  • Canada at the Group of 8
  • "H-Diplo Roundtable on Patrick James. Canada and Conflict" (June 2014)
  • Global Affairs Canada Treaties ruling relations Argentina and Canada
  • Canadian Encyclopedia entry on Globalization
  • Global Affairs Canada Canadian Foreign Affairs and International Trade Office about relations with Argentina
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Foreign_relations_of_Canada&oldid=868845225"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_Canada
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Foreign relations of Canada"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA