Field Artillery Branch (United States)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Field Artillery
USA - Army Field Artillery Insignia.png
Field Artillery branch insignia, featuring two crossed field guns
Active Created 17 November 1775
Country  United States of America
Branch  United States Army
Type Combat arms
Home station Fort Sill, Oklahoma, United States
Nickname(s) King of Battle
God of War
Red Leg
Patron Saint Barbara
Branch colors Scarlet and Brass

The Field Artillery Branch of the United States Army was founded on 17 November 1775 by the Continental Congress, which unanimously elected Henry Knox "Colonel of the Regiment of Artillery". The regiment formally entered service on 1 January 1776. Artillery of all types was part of the Artillery Corps until 1901, when the Corps was split into battery-sized units, called companies at the time, of Field Artillery and Coast Artillery. In 1907 the Artillery Corps was reorganized into the Field Artillery and the Coast Artillery Corps.[1] Although presently Field Artillery and Air Defense Artillery are separate branches, both inherit the traditions of the Artillery branch.

Mission statement

The mission of the Field Artillery is to destroy, defeat, or disrupt the enemy with integrated fires to enable maneuver commanders to dominate in unified land operations.[2]

History

The Field Artillery is one of the Army's combat arms, traditionally one of the three major branches (with Infantry and Armor). It refers to those units that use artillery weapons systems to deliver surface-to-surface long range indirect fire. Indirect fire means that the projectile does not follow the line of sight to the target. Mortars are not field artillery weapons; they are organic to infantry units and are manned by infantry personnel.

The term field artillery is to distinguish from the Air Defense Artillery, and historically, from the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps (or Coastal Defense Artillery), a branch which existed from 1901–1950. In 1950, the two branches were unified and called simply Artillery, until Air Defense Artillery was made into a separate branch in 1968. The insignia of the Field Artillery branch is a pair of crossed field guns (19th-century-style cannons) in gold, and dates back to 1834.

The officially stated mission of the Field Artillery is to destroy, defeat, or disrupt the enemy with integrated fires to enable maneuver commanders to dominate in unified land operations.

The home of the Field Artillery and the Field Artillery School are at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

Captain Harry S Truman in 1918—the only "redleg" to become President

Field artillery is called the "King of Battle". Conflicts in the 20th century saw artillery become exponentially more effective as indirect fire methods were introduced immediately prior to World War I. During World War I and World War II, field artillery was the single highest casualty-producing weapons system on any battlefield.

Members of the Field Artillery are referred to as "redlegs" because during the American Civil War they were distinguished by scarlet stripes down the legs of their uniform pants. The use of colors to distinguish branches of the United States Army dates to 1851. Branch colors are found on the shoulder straps of officers wearing the blue dress uniform and on branch of service scarves authorized for wear with a variety of uniforms.[3]

Redlegs have often been used as infantry during both the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. While field artillery units have often performed admirably as infantry and accomplishing infantry missions, such use has led to atrophy of essential field artillery specific skills and tasks.[4]

Chief of Field Artillery

From 1920 to 1942, the Field Artillery corps was led by a branch chief who held the rank of major general.[5] This was in keeping with the Army's other major branches, including infantry, cavalry, and coast artillery.[6] Each chief was responsible for planning and overseeing execution of training, equipping, and manning within his branch.[6] From 1903 to 1908, one Chief of Artillery oversaw both field artillery and coast artillery.[6] After 1908, one general served as Chief of Coast Artillery.[6] After 1920, the Chief of Coast Artillery was joined by the Chief of Field Artillery.[6] The branch chief positions were eliminated in 1942, and their functions consolidated under the commander of the Army Ground Forces as a way to end inter-branch rivalries and enable synchronized and coordinated activities as part of World War II's combined arms doctrine.[7]

The Chiefs of Artillery included:

  1. Brigadier General Wallace F. Randolph, 1903-1904
  2. Brigadier General John P. Story, 1904-1905
  3. Brigadier General Samuel M. Mills, 1905-1906
  4. Brigadier General Arthur Murray, 1906-1908

The Chiefs of Field Artillery were:

  1. Major General William J. Snow, 1920-1927
  2. Major General Fred T. Austin, 1927-1930
  3. Major General Harry G. Bishop, 1930-1934
  4. Major General Upton Birnie Jr., 1934-1938
  5. Major General Robert M. Danford, 1938-1942

Publications

The professional journal of the Field Artillery is published at Fort Sill. Known as the Field Artillery Journal in 1911, it went through many name changes through Field Artillery in 1987. The journal merged with Air Defense Artillery in 2007 to become Fires.[8]

Current

The U.S. Army employs five types of field artillery weapons systems:

Organization

In 1789 after the Revolution there was only one battalion of four companies of artillery. In 1794 a "Corps of Artillerists and Engineers" was organized, which included the four companies of artillery then in service and had sixteen companies in four battalions. In 1802 there was a reduction of the army. The Artillery were separated from the Engineers and the former formed into one regiment of 20 companies. In 1808 a regiment of ten companies called the "Light Artillery" was formed. In 1812 two more regiments were added.

In 1821 four regiments were created from existing units on the following lines.

In 1901 the regimental organization of the US Army artillery was abolished, more companies were added, and given numerical designations.

  • 126 companies of heavy (coast) artillery
  • 30 companies of light (field) artillery

In 1907 the Coast Artillery Corps was established as a separate branch, and the Field Artillery re-established regiments officially, although provisional regiments had existed since 1905.[9]

In 1916 Congress enacted the National Defense Act and 15 more regiments were authorized.

In 1917, following the American entry into World War I, the numbers from 1 through 100 were reserved for the Regular Army, from 101 through 300 for the National Guard, and 301 and above for the National Army. Under this system the 1st through 21st and 76th through 83d were organized in the Regular Army; the 101st through 151st, in the National Guard; and, the 25th through 75th, 84th and 85th, and the 301st through 351st in the National Army. Field Artillery Brigades, numbered 1st through 24th, 51st through 67th, and 151st through 172d, were also organized, with each brigade typically commanding three regiments; each division had one of these artillery brigades.[10]

A 1918 expansion added the 22d Field Artillery Regiment through the 39th Field Artillery Regiment with some exceptions, notably Philippine Scouts units.

The Coast Artillery Corps constantly reorganized the numbered companies until 1924, but during World War I created 61 artillery regiments from the numbered companies, for service (or potential service) with the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF); the 30th through 45th Artillery Brigades were also created to command groups of these regiments.[11] These regiments operated almost all US-manned heavy and railway artillery on the Western Front, and were designated, for example, 51st Artillery (Coast Artillery Corps (CAC)). Most of these were disbanded immediately after the war. In 1924 the Coast Artillery Corps adopted a regimental system, and numbered companies were returned to letter designations. (In order to promote some esprit-de-corps, the first 7 regiments were linked to the original 7 regiments of artillery). In late 1944 the Coast Artillery regiments were reorganized as battalions, which themselves were mostly disbanded in April 1945, with personnel transferred to the local Harbor Defense Commands. 977 Coast Artillery units were created before the branch's demise in 1950.[12][13]

In 1943 an Army-wide (except infantry) reorganization created numerous serially numbered battalions, and most regiments were broken up into battalions. Also during World War II a new designation was applied to some units, the "Armored Field Artillery Battalion". A number of "Field Artillery Groups" were also created during the war.[14]

The Army Anti-Aircraft Command ARAACOM was created July 1950, and in 1957, ARAACOM was renamed to US Army Air Defense Command (USARADCOM). A new system, the U.S. Army Combat Arms Regimental System, or CARS, was adopted in 1957 to replace the old regimental system. CARS uses the Army's traditional regiments as parent organizations for historical purposes, but the primary building blocks are divisions, and brigades became battalions. Each battalion carries an association with a parent regiment, even though the regimental organization no longer exists. In some brigades several numbered battalions carrying the same regimental association may still serve together, and tend to consider themselves part of the traditional regiment when in fact they are independent battalions serving a brigade, rather than a regimental, headquarters.

In 1968 the Air Defense Artillery Branch (United States Army) was split from the artillery.

The CARS was replaced by the U.S. Army Regimental System (USARS) in 1981. On 1 October 2005, the word "regiment" was formally appended to the name of all active and inactive CARS and USARS regiments. So, for example, the 1st Cavalry officially became titled the 1st Cavalry Regiment.

During the Cold War the Field Artillery was responsible for all mobile ballistic missile weapons systems, including the Lance and Pershing II ballistic missiles.

Military Occupational Specialties

The Field Artillery consists of a number of one commissioned officer, one warrant officer and six enlisted specialties, which all work together to form the Field Artillery team.

AOC 13A: Field Artillery Officer

MOS 131A: Field Artillery Warrant Officer

MOS 13B: Cannon Crew Member

Cannon Crewmember General Job Duties

  • Wire and radio communications
  • Identify target locations
  • Operate self-propelled howitzers, ammunition trucks and other vehicles
  • Participate in reconnaissance operations[15]

Cannon Crewmember Major Duties by Skill Level

Skill Level I

  • Integral member of a crew that operates high technology cannon artillery weapon systems.
  • Loads and fires howitzers.
  • Sets fuse and charge on a variety of munitions, including high explosive artillery rounds, laser guided projectiles, DPICM, and rocket assisted projectiles.
  • Uses computer generated fire direction data to set elevation of cannon tube for loading and firing.
  • Employs rifles, machine guns, and grenade and rocket launchers in offensive and defensive operations.
  • Drives and operates heavy and light wheeled trucks and tracked vehicles.
  • Transports and manages artillery ammunition.
  • Participates in reconnaissance operations to include security operations and position preparation.
  • Operates in reduced visibility environments with infrared and starlight enhancing night vision devices and other equipment.
  • Coordinates movement into position.
  • Camouflages position area.
  • Communicates using voice and digital wire and radio equipment.
  • Uses critical combat survival skills to operate in a hostile environment.
  • Maintains operational readiness of vehicles and equipment.[16]

Skill Level 2

  • Supervises handling, transportation, accountability, and distribution of ammunition.
  • Assists section chief in supervision of howitzer operations, maintenance, and training. Lays weapon for direction, conducts bore sighting, and basic periodic tests.
  • Supervises the operation, loading, and maintenance of the Field Artillery Ammunition Support Vehicle.[17]

Skill Level 3

  • Directs and supervises movement emplacement of the howitzer section.
  • Supervises and directs the construction, camouflage, and defense of the section position. Trains, instructs, and supervises section personnel in cannon gunnery procedures and firing.
  • Responsible for the verification of safe firing data.
  • Supervises the handling, storage, accountability, and distribution of ammunition.
  • Supervises the performance of operator, crew, and organizational maintenance on section vehicles.[18]

Skill Level 4

  • Assists platoon leader in the planning, preparation, and execution of collective training activities of the platoon.
  • Conducts battery/platoon reconnaissance, selection, occupation, and defense of position areas.
  • Supervises firing battery personnel engaged in firing battery operations, maintenance, and training.
  • Lays the unit for direction of fire and verifies safe operations before and during firing. Supervises battalion ammunition trains operations.
  • Reviews, consolidates, and prepares technical, personnel, and administrative reports covering firing battery element activities.[19]

Qualifications

Qualifications for initial award of MOS 13B, Cannon Crewmember:

  • PULHES: 222221
  • Physical Demands Rating: very heavy
  • Required ASVAB Score: FA: 93
  • Enlistment Bonus: None
  • Security Clearance: None
  • U.S. Citizenship: Not Required
  • AIT Length / Location: 5 weeks, 4 days at Ft Sill, Oklahoma[20]

Skill Identifiers

  • (1) P5-Master Fitness Trainer.
  • (2) U6-Field Artillery Weapons Maintenance.
  • (3) 2S-Battle Staff Operations (skill level 3 and above).
  • (4) 4A-Reclassification Training.[21]


MOS 13F: Fire Support Specialist

MOS 13J: Fire Control Specialist

MOS 13M: Multiple Launch Rocket System Crewmember

MOS 13R: Field Artillery Radar Operator

MOS 13Z: Field Artillery Senior Sergeant

Regardless of previous MOS, all field artillery NCOs are merged in MOS 13Z, Field Artillery Senior Sergeant, upon promotion to Master Sergeant, paygard E8. 13Z NCOs serve as field artillery battery first sergeants, primary staff (S2 and S3) NCOs in field artillery battalions, field artillery brigades, and division artilleries, and as fire support staff section NCOs at brigade combat teams and higher echelons.

Notable redlegs

See also

References

  1. ^ Smith, Bolling W.; Gaines, William C., Coast Artillery Organization: A Brief Overview at the Coast Defense Study Group website
  2. ^ ADRP 3-09 - Fires (PDF). Official Department of the Army Publications and Forms - Doctrine and Training Publications (C1 ed.). United States Department of Army. 8 February 2013. pp. 1–3. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  3. ^ Army Regulation 670-1
  4. ^ Sean MacFarland, Michael Shields, and Jeffrey Snow, “White Paper: The King and I: The Impeding Crisis in Field Artillery’s ability to provide Fire Support to Maneuver Commander (np:np): memo sent to the Chief of Staff of the Army, 2007. 1.
  5. ^ Taylor, John E.; Andrews, Patricia (1962). Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Chiefs of Arms. Westminster, MD: Heritage Books. pp. 2–3. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Chiefs of Arms, pp. 2-3.
  7. ^ Cameron, Robert S. (2008). Mobility, shock, and firepower: The Emergence of the U.S. Army's Armor Brahcn, 1917-1945. Washington, DC: Center of Military History, United States Army. p. 472. ISBN 978-0-16-079417-9. 
  8. ^ "Fires". United States Field Artillery. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  9. ^ http://www.history.army.mil/html/books/OH_of_FA/CMH_60-16-1.pdf McKenney, Janice E. The Organizational History of Field Artillery, 1775–2003 (CMH Pub 60-16). Army Lineage Series. Washington: Center of Military History, 2007: 100-101.
  10. ^ Rinaldi, pp. 124-150
  11. ^ Rinaldi, pp. 157-165
  12. ^ Berhow, pp. 423-500
  13. ^ Stanton, pp. 434-510
  14. ^ Stanton, pp. 339-424
  15. ^ Goarmy.com
  16. ^ army.com
  17. ^ army.com
  18. ^ army.com
  19. ^ army.com
  20. ^ http://www.army-portal.com
  21. ^ http://www.armyenlist.com
  22. ^ http://digitaledition.qwinc.com/publication/?i=161091 - last visited 13 September 2013
  • Berhow, Mark A., Ed. (2004). American Seacoast Defenses, A Reference Guide, Second Edition. CDSG Press. ISBN 0-9748167-0-1. 
  • Rinaldi, Richard A. (2004). The U. S. Army in World War I: Orders of Battle. General Data LLC. ISBN 0-9720296-4-8. 
  • Stanton, Shelby L. (1991). World War II Order of Battle. Galahad Books. ISBN 0-88365-775-9. 

Further reading

  • Ewing, David (1975). Field Artillery, 1954–1973. Department of the Army. 
  • Historical register and dictionary of the United States Army, from ..., Volume 1 By Francis Bernard Heitman [1]
  • http://historicalresources.net/ResearchTools/M728.pdf (Page 8)
  • http://www.history.army.mil/html/forcestruc/lineages/branches/fa/default.htm

External links

  • Ike Skelton Combined Arms Research Library
  • The Organizational History of Field Artillery from 1775 to 2003
  • The short film Weapons of the Field Artillery (1965) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
  • Morris Swett Digital Collections at the Field Artillery School at Fort Sill
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Field_Artillery_Branch_(United_States)&oldid=809045437"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_Artillery_Branch_(United_States)
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Field Artillery Branch (United States)"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA