Fidonisy-class destroyer

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Fidonisy-classDDs.jpg
Fidonisy-class destroyers maneuvering in close formation
Class overview
Name: Fidonisy class
Builders: Naval Shipyard, Nikolayev
Operators:
Preceded by: Derzky class
Succeeded by: Opytny
Cost: 2.2 million rubles each
Built: 1915–1924
In commission: 1916–1956
Planned: 20
Completed: 8
Cancelled: 12
Lost: 7
Scrapped: 1
General characteristics (Fidonisy as built)
Type: Destroyer
Displacement:
  • 1,326 long tons (1,347 t) (normal)
  • 1,745 long tons (1,773 t) (full load)
Length: 92.51–93.26 m (303 ft 6 in–306 ft 0 in)
Beam: 9.05–9.07 m (29 ft 8 in–29 ft 9 in)
Draught: 3.2–3.81 m (10 ft 6 in–12 ft 6 in)
Installed power:
Propulsion: 2 shafts; 2 steam turbines
Speed: 31 knots (57 km/h; 36 mph)
Range: 1,850 nmi (3,430 km; 2,130 mi) at 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph)
Complement: 136
Armament:
General characteristics (1943)
Displacement: 1,760 t (1,730 long tons) full load
Armament:

The Fidonisy class, also known as the Kerch class, were a group of eight destroyers built for the Black Sea Fleet of the Imperial Russian Navy during World War I. They participated in World War I, the Russian Civil War, and World War II.

Design and description

In early 1914, several months before the beginning of World War I, the construction of a third series of eight destroyers based on Novik for the Black Sea Fleet was proposed by the Naval Ministry in response to a perceived strengthening of the Ottoman Navy. This was approved by Nicholas II on 24 June after the destroyers had received names in honor of the victories of Admiral Fyodor Ushakov on 16 June.[1] The Fidonisy-class ships were ultimately built as an improved version of the Derzky class with an additional 102-millimetre (4 in) gun. Naval historian Siegfried Breyer considered the class to be the least successful of Novik's successors.[2]

The ships had an overall length of 92.51–93.26 metres (303 ft 6 in–306 ft 0 in), had a beam of 9.05–9.07 metres (29 ft 8 in–29 ft 9 in), and a draught of 3.2–4.04 m (10.5–13.3 ft) at deep load.[3] They normally displaced 1,326 long tons (1,347 t) and 1,745 long tons (1,773 t) at full load.[2] Their crew consisted of 136 officers and ratings.[4]

They were powered by two Parsons direct-drive steam turbines, each driving one propeller shaft,[1] using steam provided by five Thornycroft boilers that operated at a pressure of 17 kg/cm2 (1,667 kPa; 242 psi)[4] and a temperature of 205 °C (401 °F).[5] The turbines, rated at 29,000 shaft horsepower (22,000 kW), were intended to give a maximum speed of 33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph), although they reportedly averaged about 27 knots (50 km/h; 31 mph) in service.[2] The destroyers carried a maximum of 330 tonnes (320 long tons) of fuel oil although the ships varied widely in their endurance, ranging from 1,560 nautical miles (2,890 km; 1,800 mi) at 18.5 knots (34.3 km/h; 21.3 mph) (Nezamozhnik) to 2,050 nmi (3,800 km; 2,360 mi) at 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph) (Zheleznyakov).[6]

The Fidonisy class were armed with four 60-calibre 102 mm Pattern 1911 Obukhov guns, one on the forecastle and three aft; one of these latter guns was superfiring over the other two.[7] Anti-aircraft armament varied between ships. The first four ships were completed either with a pair of 40-millimetre (1.6 in) "pom-pom" guns or 57-millimetre (2.2 in) Hotchkiss guns. The second batch of four were fitted with a single 76-millimetre (3 in) Lender gun.[6] The ships were also armed with a dozen 450-millimetre (17.7 in) torpedo tubes in four triple mounts amidships and could carry 80 mines.[8]

Ships

The ships were ordered on 17 March 1915[1] and all eight were built in the Russud Shipyard in Nikolaev.[2]

Ship Name in Soviet service Laid down Launched Completed Fate
Feodosiya (Феодониси) then Fidonisy (Фидониси) Not applicable 29 October 1915[2] 31 May 1916[2] 28 May 1917[2] Scuttled, 16 June 1918[2]
Gadzhibey (Гаджибей) 2 February 1915[2] 27 August 1916[2] 11 September 1917[9]
Kaliakria (Калиакрия) Dzerzhinsky (Дзержинский) 29 October 1915[2] 14 August 1916[10] 30 October 1917[9] Scuttled, 18 June 1918
Salvaged, 4 October 1925
Sunk, 13 May 1942[10]
Kerch (Керчь) Not applicable 31 May 1916[2] 27 June 1917[2] Scuttled, 16 June 1918[2]
Korfu (Корфу) Petrovsky (Петровский) then Zheleznyakov (Железняков) then PKZ-62 (ПКЗ-62) 23 June 1916[9] 10 October 1917[11] 10 June 1925[12] Transferred to Bulgaria, 1947
Returned, 1949
Scrapped, 1957
Levkas (Левкас) Shaumyan (Шаумян) 23 May 1916[9] 10 December 1925[12] Sunk, 10 April 1942[11]
Tserigo (Цериго) Not applicable 1915[9] 21 March 1917[11] 1918[11] Interned in Bizerte, French Tunisia, with Wrangel's fleet and scrapped, 1924[11]
Zante (Занте) Nezamozhny (Незаможный) then Nezamozhnik (Незаможник) May 1916[9] 7 November 1923[12] Scuttled, February 1920
Salvaged, 7 September 1920[10]
Sunk as a target, early 1950s

Service

Only Fidonisy was completed in time to participate in combat, helping to sink some Turkish sailing ships in October 1917, before the navy ceased offensive operations against the Central Powers in response to the Bolshevik Decree on Peace in early November before a formal Armistice was signed the next month.[13]

References

  1. ^ a b c Verstyuk & Gordeev, p. 100
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Breyer, p. 64
  3. ^ Apalkov, p. 136
  4. ^ a b Apalkov, p. 137
  5. ^ Platonov, p. 149
  6. ^ a b Verstyuk & Gordeev, p. 116
  7. ^ Breyer, pp. 64–65
  8. ^ Budzbon 1984, p. 311
  9. ^ a b c d e f Verstyuk & Gordeev, p. 101
  10. ^ a b c Likachev, p. 49
  11. ^ a b c d e Breyer, p. 119
  12. ^ a b c Breyer, p. 171
  13. ^ Greger, pp. 64–65

Bibliography

  • Apalkov, Yu. V. (1996). Боевые корабли русского флота 8.1914-10.1917 гг.; справочник [Directory of Russian Navy Warships, August 1914–October 1917] (in Russian). St. Petersburg: Intek. ISBN 5-7559-0018-3.
  • Breyer, Siegfried (1992). Soviet Warship Development: Volume 1: 1917–1937. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-604-3.
  • Budzbon, Przemysaw (1984). "Russia". In Gardiner, Robert & Gray, Randal. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 291–325. ISBN 0-85177-245-5.
  • Budzbon, Przemysaw (1980). "Soviet Union". In Chesneau, Roger. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946. Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press. pp. 318–346. ISBN 0-85177-146-7.
  • Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4.
  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7.
  • Greger, René (1972). The Russian Fleet, 1914–1917. Shepperton, UK: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0255-X.
  • Hill, Alexander (2018). Soviet Destroyers of World War II. New Vanguard. 256. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-2256-7.
  • Likachev, Pavel Vladimirovich (2005). Эскадренные миноносцы типа «Новик» в ВМФ СССР 1920-1955 гг [Novik-class Destroyers in the Soviet Navy 1920-1955] (in Russian). Samara, Russia: ISTFLOT. ISBN 5-98830-009-X.
  • Platonov, Andrey Vitalevich (2002). Энциклопедия советских надводных кораблей 1941—1945 [Encyclopedia of Soviet Warships 1941–1945] (in Russian). Saint Petersberg: Poligon. ISBN 5-89173-178-9.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two (Third Revised ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
  • Verstyuk, Anatoly & Gordeyev, Stanislav (2006). Корабли Минных дивизий. От "Новика" до "Гогланда" [Torpedo Division Ships: From Novik to Gogland] (in Russian). Moscow: Voennaya Kniga. ISBN 5-902863-10-4.
  • Whitley, M. J. (1988). Destroyers of World War 2. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-326-1.
  • Yakubov, Vladimir & Worth, Richard (2008). Raising the Red Banner: A Pictorial History of Stalin's Fleet. Gloucestershire, UK: Spellmount. ISBN 978-1-86227-450-1.

Further reading

  • Watts, Anthony J. (1990). The Imperial Russian Navy. London: Arms and Armour. ISBN 0-85368-912-1.

External links

  • Media related to Gadzhibey class destroyer at Wikimedia Commons
  • Fidonisy class on navypedia.org
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