Feroz Khan Noon

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Sir
Feroz Khan Noon
ملک فیروز خان نون

KCSI, KCIE, OStJ
Malik Feroz Khan Noon.jpg
Feroz Khan (1893–1970)
7th Prime Minister of Pakistan
In office
16 December 1957 – 7 October 1958
President Iskander Mirza
Preceded by I.I. Chundrigar
Succeeded by Nurul Amin
(Appointed in 1971)
Minister of Defence
In office
16 December 1957 – 7 October 1958
Deputy Akhter Husain
(Secretary of Defence)
Preceded by Mumtaz Daultana
Succeeded by Ayub Khuhro
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
12 September 1956 – 7 October 1958
Deputy Sikandar Ali Baig
(Foreign Secretary)
Preceded by Hamidul Huq Choudhury
Succeeded by Manzur Qadir
Chief Minister of Punjab
In office
3 April 1953 – 21 May 1955
Governor
Preceded by M. Daultana
Succeeded by A.H. Khan Dasti
Governor of East Bengal
In office
31 March 1950 – 31 March 1953
Chief Minister Nurul Amin
Preceded by Frederick Chalmers Bourne
Succeeded by Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman
Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations
In office
1945 – September 1946
Monarch George VI
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Preceded by Secretariat created
Succeeded by Samarendranath Sen
British Representative to the Pacific War Council
In office
1944–1945
Monarch George VI
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Preceded by Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar
Succeeded by Digvijaysinhji Ranjitsinhji
Minister of Labour in Viceroy's Executive Council
In office
1941–1944
Preceded by B. N. Mitra
Succeeded by Jagjivan Ram
High Commissioner of India to the United Kingdom
In office
1937 – 29 December 1941
Viceroy Earl of Willingdon
Preceded by B. N. Mitra
Succeeded by Azizul Haque
Provincial Minister of Local Government, Health, and Education
In office
1927–1936
Governor
President of the Republican Party
In office
1956 – 7 October 1958
Vice President Iskander Mirza
Preceded by Party established
Succeeded by Party disestablished
Personal details
Born Malik Feroze Khan Noon
(1893-05-07)7 May 1893
Hamoka, Khushab District Punjab, British India
(Present-day, Sargodha, Punjab in Pakistan)
Died 9 December 1970(1970-12-09) (aged 77)
Nurpur Noon, Sargodha District, Punjab, Pakistan
Cause of death Cardiac arrest
Resting place Nurpur Noon cemetery
Citizenship British Raj British India
(1893–47)
 Pakistan
(1947–70)
Political party Muslim League
(1921–57; 1962–70)
Republican Party
(1957–58)
Spouse(s) Victoria Rikhy Noon
(m. 1945)
Alma mater Oxford University
(BA in Hist.)
Awards Order of the Indian Empire Ribbon.svgOrder of the Indian Empire
Ord.Stella.India.jpgOrder of the Star of India
Order of St John (UK) ribbon -vector.svgOrder of St. John
Website Feroze Khan
Official website

Sir Malik Feroz Khan Noon (Urdu: ملک فیروز خان نون‎; May 7, 1893 – December 9, 1970[1]), KCSI, KCIE, OStJ, best known as Feroze Khan, was the seventh Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity on 16 December 1957 until being removed when President Iskandar Ali Mirza imposed martial law on 8 October 1958.

Trained as a barrister in England, Feroze Khan served as an Indian diplomat in the United Kingdom before serving as a military adviser over the issues pertaining to Indian Army to the Prime Minister Winston Churchill's war ministry from the India Office.[1]

Feroze was one of the leading Founding Fathers of Pakistan who helped negotiating and establishing the federation of a nation-state resulted in a successful constitutional movement led under Muhammad Ali Jinnah on 14 August of 1947.

Biography

Early life and education in England

Feroz Khan was born in small village, named Hamoka, located in Khushab District, in Punjab in India on 7 May 1893.:79[2] He hailed from an elite aristocrat and landowner that was very well known for their wealth and had reputation in social circle.:96[3] He belongs to the Noon tribe, a Jatt tribe, which claims Bhatti Rajputs origins who had converted to Sunni principles of Islam long time ago.:333[4]

After his initial schooling, Feroz Khan was educated and went to attend the famed Aitchison College in Lahore before being sent to United Kingdom.:1094[5][6] In 1912, Feroz Khan departed for Great Britain and arrived in England, initially aiming to attend the Oxford University.[1] The India Office made arrangement for him to stay with an English family of Rev. Lloyd, living in Ticknall in south of England.[1] Feroz initially applied at the Balliol College with his application was rejected.[1] Rev. Lloyd then helped him to gain admission at the Wadham College of Oxford University.[1] Feroz stayed with Lloyd's family until 1913, and had closed relationship until he permanently moved to Oxford to live in student hostels.[1]

At the Wadham College, Feroz studied History and Farsi, graduating with the BA degree in History in 1916.:73[7] Firoz Khan was a keen football player and played collegiate hockey for Isis Club.[1]

During his college years in Wadham College, Firoz went to the United States in a prospect of pursuing the higher education from the American universities but returned to Oxford.:72-73[7] Firoz Khan interacted with very few Indian students based on his father's advice who wanted him to learnt the English culture, and did not attend any Indian culture festivals in college as he devoted his time for his studies.[1]

In 1916, Firoz moved to London to sit in a law examination and qualified as Barrister-at-Law from the Inner Temple in 1917, eventually returning to India.:74[7][8]

Political career

Law practice and legislative career in India

After returning to India in September 1917, Firoz began practicing law at the District Court in Sargodha and later moved as an advocate at the Lahore High Court, establishing his reputation and practiced the civil law until 1927.:109[7]:1094[5][8]

In 1920–21, Firoz Khan decided to entered in the national politics and was elected for the Punjab Legislative Assembly on the platform of the Unionist Party.:76-77[9] During this time, he formed close acquaintanceship with Jogendra Singh.:77[9] From 1927 until 1931, Firoz joined the cabinet of Governor of Punjab, Malcolm Hailey and held the portfolio of provincial ministry of local government until 1930.:141[10]

From 1931 until 1936, Firoz joined the cabinets of Governors Geoffrey Fitzhervey de Montmorency, Sikandar Hyatt, and Herbert William Emerson where he held provincial portfolios of ministries of health and education.:13[11]

In December 1932, Feroze Khan was appointed as an Officer of the Venerable Order of Saint John.[12] In 1933, Feroze Khan was knighted in the 1933 New Year Honours List.[13] He was appointed as knight commander with a Order of the Indian Empire (KCIE) in the 1937 Coronation Honours List[14] and appointed as Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India (KCIS) in October 1941.[15]

Diplomatic career: World War II and Pakistan Movement

In 1936, Firoz Khan Noon resigned from his public service, tendering his resignation to Governor Emerson when he was offered to be appointed as the High Commissioner of India to the United Kingdom.:13[11][1]

Over the issue of Immigration Act of 1924 in the United States, the British government directed Firoz Khan to Washington D.C. where was accompanied by Nevile Butler of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1941 to address issue of American exploration in Baluchistan and the MFN status between the United States and the United Kingdom in light of Anglo-American trade treaty signed in 1938.:39-49[16] Feroz showed great reluctance to grant American petroleum companies the access to Baluchistan due to limitation of Indian government's difficulty in maintaining control with remote areas adjacent with Iran and Afghanistan especially when Indians were being barred from entering the United States.:41-42[16]

After the start of the World War II in 1939, Feroz Khan, who had pro-British views, supported the British war efforts against the Axis powers, lobbying for deployment of the Indian Army in Africa and Middle East.:410[17] In 1940, he supported the Egyptian plans of establishing the grand mosque in London, providing strong advocacy for this cause.[18] During the height of the nonviolent anti-British movement in India, Feroze Khan played a crucial role at the British government by having convinced Prime Minister Churchill of Indian Muslims support for the British Empire's control over the India.:121[19]

In 1941, Feroze Khan left his diplomatic post when he was named to join the Churchill cabinet by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, appointing first as his military adviser from the Secretary of State for India of India Office on the affairs of the Indian Army.:243[20]:355[21] Feroze later joined the Viceroy's Executive Council's cabinet as a labour minister, and played a crucial role in advising against the independence of India, without addressing Jinnah and other leaders' push for Muslim question.:38-39[22]:58-59[23][8]

In 1944–45, Prime Minister Churchill appointed Feroze Khan in the War Department, leading his own department alongside with A.R. Mudaliar that provided the representation of India in the Pacific War Council.:395-396[24][25] In 1945, Feroze Khan was appointed as Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations, attending the first session in San Francisco, California in the United States.:613[26]

In 1946, Feroze joined the Muslim League under its President Muhammad Ali Jinnah.[6] During this time, he merged his faction of his faction of the Unionist Party into the Muslim League, and garnered the public support for the cause of Pakistan amid the opposition from the Khizar Hayat Tiwana who wanted to remain as Premier of the Punjab of Punjab of India.:144-145[27]

During the general elections held in 1946–47, Feroze Khan's merging of the Unionist Party into the Muslim League played a crucial and decisive role in favor of Muslim League sweeping the Punjab by landslide votes during the general elections.:70[28]

Public service in Pakistan

Governorship of East Bengal and Chief Minister of Punjab

In 1947, Feroze Khan retained his constituency and became MNA of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, following the establishment of Pakistan as a result of the partition of India by the United Kingdom.:613[26]

On October 1947, Governor-General Muhammad Ali Jinnah appointed him as a special envoy and dispatched him to Saudi Arabia and the Islamic world to introduce Pakistan and explain the reasons of its creation, to familiarize the Muslim countries with its internal problems and to get the moral and financial support from the brother countries.[6] Feroze Khan performed the role assigned to him in a successful manner.[6]

In 1950, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan removed from the Foreign ministry, appointing him as the Governor of East Bengal.[6] However, he was less interested in politics of East Bengal, and had focused towards the provincial politics of Punjab in Pakistan, contesting with the Mumtaz Daultana for the post of Chief Ministership of Punjab.[6] He had little interest in strengthening the political program of the Muslim League in Bengal and offered no political action when the popular language movement took place in 1950-51.[8] On 25 July 1952, Feroze Khan returned to Punjab in Pakistan and left the post to Abdur Rahman Siddiqui until returning to the post on 10 November 1952.[29] Feroz Khan left Dhaka to become the Chief Minister of Punjab on 26 March 1953.[8]

After the religious riots in Lahore that resulted in M. Dultana's resignation, Feroze Khan was finally achieved his gaol when he convinced Prime Minister K. Nazimuddin to appoint him as the third Chief Minister of Punjab.:26[30]

Foreign ministry in Coalition administration

In 1955, Chief Minister Firoze Khan partied away from the Muslim League when he went onto to help establish the Republican Party, supporting the cause of the One Unit that laid establishment of West and East wings of Pakistan.[6] He took over the party presidency of the Republican Party, and joined the coalition of the three-party government composing of the Awami League, the Muslim League, and the Republican Party that endorsed the Iskander Mirza for the presidency.[6] He had been ideologically very closed to President Iskander Mirza, and was appointed in the coalition cabinet of Prime Minister Huseyn Suhrawardy.[6]

In 1956-57, Feroz Khan attempted to held talks with India over the issue of Kashmir on West and insurgency in Eastern India but was unable to make any breakthrough with India.:contents[31]

Prime Minister of Pakistan (1957-58)

After the resignations of Awami League's H.S. Suhrawardy and Muslim League's I.I. Chundrigar, Feroze Khan was the last candidate from the three-party coalition government, and started his support for the premiership on a conservative-republican agenda.[32][6]

Feroze Khan successfully forged an alliance with Awami League, National Awami Party, Krishak Sramik Party, and the parliamentary groups in the National Assembly that allowed him to form the government as its Prime Minister.[33]

On 16 December 1957, Feroze Khan took an oath from the Chief Justice M. Munir and formed a coalition government.[33] During this time, Prime Minister Feroze Khan entered in complicated but successful negotiation with Muscat and Oman for the accession of Gwadar for the price of US$3 million (US$25,503,380.28 in current value), which was annexed into the federation of Pakistan on 8 September 1958.:53[34]:282[7][35][36][37]

Feroze Khan's ability to annex the Gwadar into the federation and settlement of political issues in the country generally threatened President Iskandar Mirza who had seen him as an obstacle in his way of obtaining absolute power.[6] Prime Minister Feroze Khan tried reaching a compromise on the issue over the Kashmir with India.[38]

Prime Minister Feroze Khan had not endorsed the presidential reelection of President Mirza as the three party coalition had been negotiating their own president to replace Mirza in 1958.[39] On the midnight of 7/8 October 1958, President Mirza imposed the martial law against his own party's government, effectively dismissing his own appointed Prime Minister to usurp the political power in his own hand.[8]

Later and personal life, and death

After the martial law in 1958, Feroze Khan seek retirement from the national politics and found himself as a political writer. Feroze Khan authored five books on history of India and issues pertaining to law and politics in Pakistan. His bibliography included:

  • Wisdom From Fools, published in 1940 by Rai Sahib Co.[40]
  • India, published in 1941 by Penns in the rocks press by W. Collins.[41]
  • Scented Dust, published in 1965 by Ferozsons[42]
  • Kashmir, published in 1957 by UNSC.[43]
  • From Memory, published in 1966 by Ferozsons.

Feroze Khan was married to Victoria Rikhy Noon, an Austrian, who was also a prominent politician and social worker.[2][8] Feroze Khan died on 7 December 1970 in his ancestral village of Nurpur Noon, Sargodha District, where he is buried.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Open University. "Making Britain :Firoz Khan Noon | Making Britain" (html). www.open.ac.uk. London, UK: Making Britain. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  2. ^ a b D, Phyllis Irwin M.; Irwin, Phyllis (2010). "§Sir Feroz Khan". Dr. Memsaab: Stories of a Medical Missionary Mom (google books) (1st ed.). Birmingham, UK: AuthorHouse. p. 150. ISBN 9781452025391. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  3. ^ Mandal, U. C. (1997). "Indian Bureaucratic Tradition in India". Bureaucracy Growth And Devel (google books). New Delhi, India: Sarup & Sons. p. 255. ISBN 9788185431840. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  4. ^ Kamra, Sukeshi (2002). "Appendice C". Bearing Witness: Partition, Independence, End of the Raj (google books). Calgary, UK.: University of Calgary Press. p. 395. ISBN 9781552380413. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  5. ^ a b Churchill, Winston; Gilbert, Martin (1993). The Churchill War Papers: The ever-widening war, 1941 (google books). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 1800. ISBN 9780393019599. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Staff writers, editors (1 June 2003). "Feroz Khan Noon: Former Prime Minister of Pakistan" (html). www.storyofpakistan.com. Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan: Nazaria-i-Pakistan Trust. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Noon, (Sir Malik) Firoz Khan (1966). From Memory (google books). Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan: Ferozsons. p. 304. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Jafar, Abu. "Noon, Malik Firoz Khan". en.banglapedia.org. Banglapedia. Retrieved 2016-11-14. 
  9. ^ a b Malhotra, S. L. (1979). From civil disobedience to quit India: Gandhi and the freedom movement in Punjab and Haryana, 1932-1942. New Delhi, India: Publication Bureau, Panjab University. p. 189. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  10. ^ Cell, John W.; Cell, John Whitson (2002). "§Hailey: The Governor of Punjab (1927-1930)". Hailey: A Study in British Imperialism, 1872-1969 (google books). Cambridge, Uk: Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 9780521521178. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  11. ^ a b Korson, J. Henry (1974). "§The Peoples' Party vs. Punjab's Feudalism". Contemporary Problems of Pakistan (google books). U.S.: Brill Archive. p. 150. ISBN 9004039422. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  12. ^ London Gazette, 3 January 1933
  13. ^ London Gazette, 2 January 1933
  14. ^ London Gazette, 11 May 1937
  15. ^ London Gazette, 10 October 1941
  16. ^ a b Malik, Iftikhar H. (1991). "§American Encounters in Sub-continent". Us-South Asian Relations 1940-47: American Attitudes Toward The Pakistan Movement (google books). New York: Springer. p. 310. ISBN 9781349212163. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  17. ^ Current Biography Yearbook. H. W. Wilson Co. 1958. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  18. ^ Nasta, Susheila (2013). "§The Struggle to create Muslim space: 1910—1940". India in Britain: South Asian Networks and Connections, 1858-1950 (google books). London, UK.: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 210. ISBN 9780230392717. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  19. ^ Toye, Richard (2017). "§Churchill and the Islam". Winston Churchill: Politics, Strategy and Statecraft (google books). Indiana, U.S.: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 207. ISBN 9781474263863. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  20. ^ Dockter, Warren (2015). "The Middle East and India During World War II". Churchill and the Islamic World: Orientalism, Empire and Diplomacy in the Middle East (google books). London, UK: I.B.Tauris. p. 401. ISBN 9780857737144. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  21. ^ Venkataramani, M. S.; Shrivastava, B. K. (1983). Roosevelt, Gandhi, Churchill: America and the last phase of India's freedom struggle. New Delhi, India: Radiant Publishers. p. 412. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  22. ^ Hess, Gary R. (1971). America encounters India, 1941-1947. Johns Hopkins Press. ISBN 9780801812583. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  23. ^ Hope, Ashley Guy (1968). America and Swaraj: The U.S. Role in Indian Independence. Public Affairs Press. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  24. ^ Ray, Jayanta Kumar (2007). "Armies and Wars". Aspects of India's International Relations, 1700 to 2000: South Asia and the World (google books) (1st ed.). Mumbai, India: Pearson Education India. p. 590. ISBN 9788131708347. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  25. ^ http://filestore.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pdfs/large/cab-65-50.pdf page 28, 48 of the pdf
  26. ^ a b Lentz, Harris M. (2014). "§Sir Feroze Khan". Heads of States and Governments Since 1945 (1st ed.). Washington, DC: Routledge. p. 1000. ISBN 9781134264902. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  27. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (1994). "§Centre and Province: Simla and the Elections of 1947". The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan (google books). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 300. ISBN 9780521458504. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  28. ^ Mohiuddin, Yasmeen Niaz (2007). "§Geography and History of Pakistan". Pakistan: A Global Studies Handbook (google books). New York, U.S.: ABC-CLIO. p. 400. ISBN 9781851098019. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  29. ^ "Siddiqui, Abdur Rahman – Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 2016-11-14. 
  30. ^ Mahmud, Syed (1958). A nation is born. Karachi, Pakistan: Feroz Printing Works. p. 607. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  31. ^ Pandey, Sudhakar (2015). GOVIND BALLABH PANT. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. ISBN 9788123026466. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  32. ^ Javaid, Omar (5 January 2017). "Book Review: The Accidental Prime Minister". www.geo.tv. Geo News. Geo TV. Retrieved 23 January 2018. 
  33. ^ a b et.al., staff readers (1 June 2003). "Malik Feroz Khan Noon Becomes Prime Minister". Story Of Pakistan. Nazaria-i-Pakistan Trust (PM). Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  34. ^ Akbar, Malik Siraj (2011). The Redefined Dimensions of Baloch Nationalist Movement (google books). Xlibris Corporation. p. 251. ISBN 9781456895334. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  35. ^ "Gwadar's Accession to Pakistan". Pakistan Defence. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  36. ^ Choudhry, Dr. Shabir (16 December 2016). "CPEC - A potential threat to turn Gilgit-Baltistan a battleground - II - Northlines" (html). Northlines. London, UK: Northlines. Retrieved 23 January 2018. 
  37. ^ "Gwadar's Accession to Pakistan". Pakistan Defence. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  38. ^ Salahuddin, Syed (15 May 2010). "Consensus on Kashmir". DAWN.COM. DAWN.COM. Retrieved 23 January 2018. 
  39. ^ Mazari, Sherbaz Khan (1999). A Journey to Disillusionment. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195790764. Retrieved 25 January 2018. 
  40. ^ Noon, Hon'ble Malik Sir Firoz Khan (1940). WISDOM FROM FOOLS. Rai Sahib M. 
  41. ^ Noon, Firoz Khan (1941). India (First Edition edition ed.). Pub. for Penns in the rocks press by W. Collins. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  42. ^ Noon, Malik Firoz Khan (1965). Scented dust (2nd edition ed.). Ferozsons. p. 493. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 
  43. ^ Noon, Malik Firoz Khan. Kashmir: Statement of the foreign minister of Pakistan Malik Firoz Khan Noon to the Security Council of the United Nations on the India-Pakistan question on January 30th, 1957. Retrieved 22 January 2018. 

External links

  • Noon and Border Dispute TIME MAGAZINE
  • Noon warns America
  • Chronicles Of Pakistan
  • "Malik Feroz Khan Noon message to Nation on Transfer of Gawadar to Pakistan (07-09-1958).wmv" (.wmv). www.youtube.com. Islamabad, Pakistan: Radio Pakistan. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2018. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Frederick Chalmers Bourne
Governor of East Bengal
1950–1953
Succeeded by
Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman
Preceded by
Mumtaz Daultana
Chief Minister of Punjab
1953–1955
Succeeded by
Abdul Hamid Khan Dasti
Preceded by
Hamidul Huq Choudhury
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1956–1958
Succeeded by
Manzur Qadir
Preceded by
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar
Prime Minister of Pakistan
1957–1958
Succeeded by
Nurul Amin
Preceded by
Mumtaz Daultana
Minister of Defence
1957–1958
Succeeded by
Muhammad Ayub Khuhro
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