Fernando Henrique Cardoso

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His Excellency
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
GCTE GCoIISE GColIH GColL GCM
Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1994).jpg
Cardoso in 1994
34th President of Brazil
In office
1 January 1995 – 1 January 2003[1]
Vice President Marco Maciel
Preceded by Itamar Franco
Succeeded by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Minister of Finance
In office
May 19, 1993 – March 30, 1994
President Itamar Franco
Preceded by Eliseu Resende
Succeeded by Rubens Ricupero
Minister of External Relations
In office
October 2, 1992 – May 20, 1993
President Itamar Franco
Preceded by Celso Lafer
Succeeded by Luiz Felipe Lampreia
Joint President of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party
In office
June 25, 1988 – 1989
Co-Presidents
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Franco Montoro
Member of the Federal Senate
from São Paulo
In office
March 15, 1983 – October 5, 1992
Preceded by Franco Montoro
Succeeded by Eva Blay
6th Academic of the 36th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters
Assumed office
September 10, 2013
Preceded by João de Scantimburgo
Personal details
Born Fernando Henrique Cardoso
(1931-06-18) June 18, 1931 (age 86)
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Nationality Brazilian
Political party PSDB
Spouse(s) Ruth Leite
(1953–2008; her death)
Patrícia Kundrát
(2014–present)
Children Paulo Henrique
Luciana
Beatriz
Residence São Paulo
Alma mater University of São Paulo
Occupation Diplomat
Professor
Statesman
Profession Sociologist
Signature
Website http://www.ifhc.org.br/

Fernando Henrique Cardoso (Portuguese: [ferˈnɐ̃dʊ ẽˈhiki karˈdozʊ]; born June 18, 1931), also known by his initials FHC ([ɛfjaɡaˈse]), is a Brazilian sociologist, professor and politician[2] who served as the 34th President of Brazil from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2002.[1] He was the first Brazilian president to be reelected for a subsequent term. An accomplished scholar, Cardoso was awarded in 2000 with the prestigious Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation.[3]

Personal and professional life

Fernando Henrique Cardoso walking hand in hand with his father in the 1930s

Cardoso descends from wealthy Portuguese immigrants. Some were politicians during the Empire of Brazil.[4] He is also of Black African descent, through a Black great-great-grandmother and a mulatto great-grandmother.[5] Cardoso described himself as "slightly mulatto" and allegedly said he has "a foot in the kitchen" (a nod to 19th-century Brazilian domestic slavery).[6][7]

Born in Rio de Janeiro, he lived in São Paulo for most of his life. Cardoso is a widower who was married to Ruth Vilaça Correia Leite Cardoso until her death on June 24, 2008, and has four children.[8] Educated as a sociologist, he was a professor of political science and sociology at the Universidade de São Paulo.[9] and president of the International Sociological Association (ISA), from 1982 to 1986. He is a member of the Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton),[10] an honorary foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and has written several books.

He was also Associate Director of Studies in the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales in Paris, then visiting professor at the Collège de France and later Paris-Nanterre University.[11] He later gave lectures at British and US universities including Cambridge University, Stanford University, Brown University and the University of California, Berkeley.[11] He is fluent in Portuguese, English, French, and Spanish.[11]

After his presidency, he was appointed to a five-year term (2003–2008) as professor-at-large at Brown University's Watson Institute for International Studies, where he is now on the board of overseers. Cardoso is a founding member of the University of Southern California Center on Public Diplomacy's Advisory Board.[citation needed] In February 2005, he gave the fourth annual Kissinger Lecture on Foreign Policy and International Relations at the Library of Congress, Washington DC on "Dependency and Development in Latin America.[12]

In 2005, Cardoso was selected by the British magazine Prospect as being one of the world's top one hundred living public intellectuals.[13][14][15]

Academic career

Cardoso is a well-known professor and intellectual. He earned a bachelor's degree in Social Sciences from Universidade de São Paulo in 1952, from where he also earned a Master's and a Doctorate in Sociology. His doctoral thesis, under the supervision of Florestan Fernandes, examined the institution of slavery in Southern Brazil, critiquing the dominant approach of Gilberto Freyre to the topic through a marxist perspective. It has since become a classic on the subject. Cardoso has also received the Livre-Docência degree in 1963, the most senior level of academic recognition in Brazil, also from Universidade de São Paulo. In 1968, he received the title of Cathedratic Professor, holding the chair of Political Science at Universidade de São Paulo.[9]

As he continued his academic career abroad in Chile and France after the tightening of Brazilian military dictatorship, Cardoso published several books and papers on state bureaucracy, industrial elites and, particularly, dependency theory. His work on dependency would be his most acclaimed contribution to sociology and development studies, especially in the United States.[16] After presiding the International Sociological Association from 1982 to 1986 Cardoso was selected as a Fulbright Program 40th anniversary distinguished fellow and in that capacity was a visiting scholar and lectured at Columbia University on democracy in Brazil.[17] Cardoso currently gives speeches and classes abroad.[18] In June 2013 he was elected as a member of Academia Brasileira de Letras. He said his election was due to recognition for his academic achievements, rather than his political career.[19][20]

Elections

After his return to Brazil, Fernando Henrique engaged with the burgeoning democratic opposition to the régime both as an intellectual and as a political activist. He became Senator from São Paulo for the former Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB) in 1982, substituting as a suplent[clarification needed] the newly-elected governort of São Paulo, Franco Montoro. In 1985, he ran unsuccessfully for mayor of São Paulo against former President Jânio Quadros. Ahead in the polls, he let himself be photographed in the mayor's chair before the elections. Some attribute his loss to this episode.[21]

Elected to the Senate in 1986 for the Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (PMDB), which MDB became after Brazilian re-democratization, he joined a group of PMDB parliamentarians who left that party to found the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) after previously-held PMDB positions shifted to the right after the party became full of politicians who had collaborated with the dictatorship. As Senator, Cardoso took part in the 1987–1988 National Constituent Assembly that drafted and approved Brazil's current Constitution in the wake of the country's re-democratization. In the early stages of the Constituent Assembly's work (from February to March 1987), Cardoso led the committee that drafted the internal rules of procedure, including the procedural rules governing the drafting of the Constitution itself. These Rules of Procedure were adopted by the Assembly and published on March 25, 1987. Until 1992, Cardoso served as Leader of the PSDB in the Senate. From October 1992 to May 1993, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under President Itamar Franco (PMDB

From May 1993 to April 1994, he was Minister of Finance and resigned in April 1994 to launch a presidential campaign. In the October 3 election, he won the presidency on the first round of voting with 54% of the vote, more than twice that of his nearest opponent, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. This is still the largest margin of victory ever recorded in a free election in Brazilian history. After the constitution was amended to allow a president to succeed himself, he won a second term almost as easily in 1998, taking 53% to Lula's 31.7%. To date, he is the only president to win an outright majority of the popular vote, and the only one to win office without a runoff election since the popular elections were reinstated in 1989.

Cardoso was succeeded in 2003 by Lula da Silva, who ran for the fourth time and had come in second on prior attempts. Lula won in the runoff election against the Cardoso-supported candidate, José Serra. Lula's election has been interpreted as resulting from Cardoso's low rates of approval in his second term.

Presidency (1995-2002)

Cardoso with South African President Nelson Mandela at the World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Geneva, Switzerland, May 18, 1998
Cardoso with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow on January 14, 2002.

Cardoso, often nicknamed "FHC", was elected with the support of a heterodox alliance of his own Social Democratic Party, the PSDB, and two right-wing parties, the Liberal Front Party (PFL) and the Brazilian Labour Party (PTB). Brazil's largest party, the centrist Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (PMDB), joined Cardoso's governing coalition after the election, as did the right-wing PPB, the Brazilian Progressive Party, in 1996.

Party loyalty was not always strong, and coalition members did not always vote with the government. Cardoso had difficulty at times gaining support for some of his legislative priorities, even though his coalition held an overwhelming majority of the congressional seats. Nevertheless, many constitutional amendments were passed during his presidency.[clarification needed]

His presidency saw institutional advancements in of human rights, beginning with a national secretariat and a new government programme, discussed with the civil society, to address the issue. On January 8, 1996, his controversial Decree 1775, which created a framework for the clear demarcation of indigenous reservations, which as part of the process opened indigenous territories to counterclaims by adjacent landowners. In 2000, Cardoso demanded the disclosure of some classified military files concerning Operation Condor, a network of South American military dictatorships that kidnapped and assassinated political opponents.[22]

FHC was the first Brazilian President to address the inequality and the enormous gap between rich and poor. He started the following programs: Bolsa Escola, the Auxílio Gás, the Bolsa Alimentação, and the Cartão Alimentação.[23]

His wife, Ruth Cardoso, focused on unifying transfer programs aimed at getting people out of poverty and hunger.[24][25][26] program based on the idea that educating the poor could get them out of poverty.[27]

Cardoso's administration deepened the privatization program launched by president Fernando Collor de Mello. During his first term, several government-owned enterprises in areas such as steel milling, telecommunications and mining, such as Telebras and Companhia Vale do Rio Doce were sold to the private sector, the deepest denationalisation in Brazilian history, amidst a polarized political debate between "neoliberals" and "developmentalists". Ironically, this time Cardoso was against the latter group, generating uproar among former academic colleagues and political allies who accused him of reneging his previous intellectual work. Economists still contend over its long-term effects; research shows that companies sold by the government achieved better profitability as a result of their disengagement from the state.[28]

Fernando Henrique Cardoso, with his wife Ruth Cardoso (right), at the inauguration of Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva on January 1, 2003.

Despite the sale of public assets, the years 1995 to 2002 saw a rise of the total public debt from 30% to 55.5% of GDP. Economists aligned with his government argued that this was due to external factors outside the control of the administration at the time, such as the devaluation of the Brazilian real and the growth of the share of the debt denominated in US dollars.[29] Nevertheless, devaluation of the currency was an instrument of monetary policy used right after his reelection, when the real pegged to the dollar led to a financial crisis that saw the country lose much of its foreign reserve fund and raise its interest rates on government bonds to very high levels as he tried to stabilize the currency under a new free-floating regime. With this economic shift, the greatest achievement of Cardoso - his landmark lowering of inflation - was maintained, but his popularity plummeted.

Given his previous experience as Minister of Foreign Affairs and his prestige as an internationally famous sociologist, he was respected on the world scene, building friendships with such leaders as Bill Clinton and Ernesto Zedillo. Although he was respected abroad, in Brazil he had problems gaining support in Congress for government priorities and among people in general. As a result, major reforms planned by the executive branch, such as changes in the tax system and to social security, were only partially approved and only after long discussion. Although he claiming to still support social democracy, his economic policies led people on the left to identify him with neoliberalism and right-wing politics, terms that often carry a very negative connotation in Latin American political debate and academic circles.

Foreign trips of Cardoso during his presidency.

He also experienced personal problems with former ally Itamar Franco, his predecessor and later became Governor of Minas Gerais, a fierce opponent of his administrative reforms that saw the state lose its capacity to contract debt and forced a reduction of local government spending. Cardoso was also criticized for amending the constitution to his own benefit, allowing him to stay eight years in office. His popularity in his first four years, gained with the success of Plano Real, decreased during his last four years as the currency crisis was followed by lower economic growth and employment rates, greater public debt, growing political dissent and, finally, an energy crisis caused by an unexpected draught[clarification needed] and low levels of investment in appropriate infrastructure. He publicly admitted that he could have done more for public security and for the creation of new jobs, but defended his policies in areas such as health and education.

Post-presidency

Former Presidents (from right), Sarney, Collor and Cardoso, April 2008
Cardoso speaks at the National Congress during a ceremony to mark the 15th anniversary of the Real Plan in July 2009
Cardoso during his induction ceremony at the Brazilian Academy of Letters, September 10, 2013

After stepping down from office, he assumed a position as a senior leader of his party and leading public voice in the opposition to the incumbent Workers' Party, writing extensively on Brazilian politics for newspapers and giving lectures and interviews. Nevertheless, his relatively low popularity rates among the general population have made his legacy a mixed blessing to his political allies, who are somewhat reluctant to embrace it wholeheartedly during elections, especially on topics regarding privatization and social policy. In 2006, he helped the campaign of the PSDB candidate for the Presidency, Geraldo Alckmin, and has reiterated that he does not wish to run for office again.

He dedicates his time to a personal institute which he founded in São Paulo, based on the model of bodies created by former Presidents of the United States, has written two books about his experience as president of Brazil and advocates for relaxation of criminal laws relating to drugs, generating both criticism and praise. He lectures at Brown University about Brazilian economic policy, urban development, and deforestation and has taught as a guest lecturer at Sciences Po in Paris.[30] Also, in 2007 he became a member of the editorial board of the Latin American policy publication Americas Quarterly, for which he is an occasional contributor.[31][32]

Since leaving the Brazilian presidency, Cardoso has been involved in a number of international organisations and initiatives. He is a member of the Club of Madrid and was its president from 2003 to 2006.[33] He has been a member of the Fondation Chirac's honour committee,[34] ever since the Foundation was launched in 2008 by former French president Jacques Chirac to promote world peace. Cardoso is a founding member of Washington D.C.-based think tank The Inter-American Dialogue as well as former chair of the organization's board. He is also a former director of World Resources Institute.[35][36]

Cardoso has a particular interest in drug policy. He served on the Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy and later chaired the Global Commission on Drug Policy.

Cardoso is also a member of The Elders, a group of independent global leaders who work together on peace and human rights issues.[37] In August 2009, he travelled to Israel and the West Bank as the head of an Elders delegation that also included Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Jimmy Carter, Mary Robinson and Desmond Tutu.[38]

In 2013 he became a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

Honours

Foreign honours

Honorary doctorate

  • 1978 Honorary Doctor of Laws, Rutgers University
  • 2001 Honorary Doctor of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel (awarded in São Paulo on 11/18)
  • 2012 Honorary Doctor of Sociology, ISCTE-IUL, Portugal
  • 2016, Honorary Doctor of Laws, Harvard University (awarded in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on May 26, 2016).

Selected works

  • Cardoso, Fernando Henrique (2006) The Accidental President of Brazil, PublicAffairs, ISBN 1-58648-324-2
  • Cardoso, Fernando Henrique (2001) Charting a New Course: The Politics of Globalization and Social Transformation, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 0-7425-0893-5
  • Goertzel, Ted G. (1999) Fernando Henrique Cardoso: Reinventing Democracy in Brazil, Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
  • Cardoso, Fernando Henrique and Faletto, Enzo (1979) "Dependency and Development in Latin America", University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-03193-8

References

  1. ^ a b "Galery of presidents" (in Portuguese). Palácio do Planalto. Retrieved 3 February 2016. 
  2. ^ Margolis, Mac (March 13, 2006). "'Che Guevara in Tweed'". Newsweek International. Retrieved November 11, 2014 – via HighBeam Research. (subscription required)
  3. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Prince of Asturias Foundation. Archived from the original on August 29, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  4. ^ Koifman, Fábio (2002). Presidentes do Brasil: de Deodoro a FHC (in Portuguese). ISBN 8529300807. 
  5. ^ "Afinal, o Brasil é racista ou não?". Jornal da Unicamp (in Portuguese). Universidade Estadual de Campinas. January 2001. Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  6. ^ "Chronology for Afro-Brazilians in Brazil". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2004. Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  7. ^ "FHC nega ter dito que tem um "pé na cozinha"". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  8. ^ Bergamo, Mônica (November 15, 2009). "FHC decide reconhecer oficialmente filho que teve há 18 anos com jornalista". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b "Biography - Fernando Henrique Cardoso" (PDF). Brown University. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2009. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  10. ^ "His Excellency Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Clinton Global Initiative. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c "Fernando Henrique Cardoso's biography on the Harry Walker Agency Speakers' Bureau website". Archived from the original on June 10, 2007. Retrieved April 28, 2007. 
  12. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso Gives Fourth Annual Kissinger Lecture on Feb. 22". News from the Library of Congress. Library of Congress. January 31, 2005. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  13. ^ Cardoso, Fernando Henrique (May 7, 2007). "Brazil's Henrique Cardoso" (Interview). Interview with Riz Khan. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved November 14, 2014 – via Youtube.com. 
  14. ^ "Biografia" (in Portuguese). Instituto Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Archived from the original on April 2, 2009. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  15. ^ President Cardoso's lecture at the Clinton School of Public Service: Democracy Today: The Experience of Latin America (Podcast) Archived July 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ Packenham, Robert A. (1982). "Plus ca Change...: The English Edition of Cardoso and Faletto's Dependencia y Desarrollo en America Latina". Latin American Research Review. 17 (1): 131–151. ISSN 0023-8791. doi:10.2307/2502945 – via JSTOR. (subscription required)
  17. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Fulbright Association. Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  18. ^ Cardoso, Fernando Henrique. "Programa do Jô com Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC)" (Interview) (in Portuguese). Interview with Jô Soares. Archived from the original on January 22, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  19. ^ Silvestre, Edney (June 28, 2013). "Fernando Henrique Cardoso é eleito para Academia Brasileira de Letras". Jornal da Globo (in Portuguese). Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  20. ^ "ABL elege Fernando Henrique Cardoso para a sucessão do jornalista João de Scantimburgo" (in Portuguese). Academia Brasileira de Letras. June 28, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  21. ^ Riding, Alan (March 14, 1988). "Brasilia Journal; Brazil's Professor-Politician: He Stoops to Kisses". The New York Times. Retrieved November 14, 2014. 
  22. ^ Devienne, Gérard (January 1, 2007). "Latin America in the 1970s: "Operation Condor", an International Organization for Kidnapping Opponents". l’Humanité in English. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Fernando Henrique anuncia cadastro único e auxílio-gás". Agência Brasil (in Portuguese). March 5, 2002. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  24. ^ "Ruth Cardoso lançou sementes do Bolsa Família, diz acadêmico". BBCBrasil.com (in Portuguese). British Broadcasting Corporation. June 25, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  25. ^ "Gilberto Dimenstein: Ruth Cardoso é personagem por trás do Bolsa Família". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). June 25, 2008. Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  26. ^ Lamounier, Bolívar (August 9, 2008). "Bolsa-isto, bolsa-aquilo…; alguém aí se lembra de Ruth Cardoso ?". Exame.com (in Portuguese). Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  27. ^ de Janvry, Alain; Finan, Frederico; Sadoulet, Elisabeth; Nelson, Donald; Lindert, Kathy; de la Brière, Bénédicte; Lanjouw, Peter (December 2005). "Brazil’s Bolsa Escola Program: The Role of Local Governance in Decentralized Implementation" (PDF). The World Bank. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 
  28. ^ Anuatti-Neto, Francisco; Barossi-Filho, Milton; Carvalho, Antonio Gledson de; Macedo, Roberto (April–June 2005). "Os efeitos da privatização sobre o desempenho econômico e financeiro das empresas privatizadas". Revista Brasileira de Economia (in Portuguese). 59 (2): 151–175. ISSN 0034-7140. doi:10.1590/s0034-71402005000200001. 
  29. ^ Giambiagi, Fabio; Ronci, Marcio (August 2004). "Fiscal Policy and Debt Sustainability: Cardoso’s Brazil, 1995-2002" (PDF). International Monetary Fund. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  30. ^ "Environment, Development and Democracy: the Brazilian Experience" (PDF). The Watson Institute for International Studies. March 5, 2007. Retrieved November 14, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Editorial Board". Americas Quarterly. Americas Society and Council of the Americas. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  32. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Americas Quarterly. Americas Society and Council of the Americas. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  33. ^ "Cardoso, Fernando Henrique". Club de Madrid. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  34. ^ "Honor Committee". Fondation Chirac. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  35. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". World Resources Institute. Retrieved November 12, 2014. Fernando Henrique Cardoso is no longer on staff at the World Resources Institute. 
  36. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". World Resources Institute. Archived from the original on March 1, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2014. 
  37. ^ "Fernando H. Cardoso". The Elders. Retrieved March 7, 2013. 
  38. ^ "The Elders visit to the Middle East – 25–28 August". The Elders. 21 August 2009. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2013. 
  39. ^ "Semakan Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang, dan Pingat Persekutuan.". 
  40. ^ Slovak republic website, State honours : 1st Class in 2001 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)[better source needed]
  41. ^ Rohter, Larry (May 13, 2012). "Brazil’s Ex-Leader Honored as Scholar". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2014. 
  42. ^ "Library of Congress to Award President Fernando Henrique Cardoso Kluge Prize for Study of Humanity". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 2017-02-15. 

External links

Assembly seats
Preceded by
Franco Montoro
Member of the Federal Senate
from São Paulo

1983–1994
Succeeded by
Eva Blay
Government offices
Preceded by
Celso Lafer
Minister of External Relations
1992–1993
Succeeded by
Luiz Felipe Lampreia (acting)
Preceded by
Eliseu Resende
Minister of Finance
1993–1994
Succeeded by
Rubens Ricupero
Party political offices
Preceded by
Party created
President of the PSDB
1988–1989
Succeeded by
Franco Montoro
Preceded by
Mário Covas
PSDB Party presidential candidate
1994 (Won) and 1998 (Won)
Succeeded by
José Serra
Political offices
Preceded by
Itamar Franco
34th President of Brazil
January 1, 1995 – December 31, 2002
Succeeded by
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
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