Federal republic

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A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.[1] At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen".

In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the federal government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, common matters relating to security and defence, and monetary policy are usually handled at the federal level, while matters such as infrastructure maintenance and education policy are usually handled at the regional or local level. However, views differ on what issues should be a federal competence, and subdivisions usually have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. A federal republic is thus best defined in contrast to a unitary republic, whereby the central government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. This more decentralized structure helps to explain the tendency for more populous countries to operate as federal republics.[2] Most federal republics codify the division of powers between orders of government in a written constitutional document.

The political differences between a federal republic and other federal states, especially federal monarchies under a parliamentary system of government, are largely a matter of legal form rather than political substance, as most federal states are democratic in structure if not practice with checks and balances. However, some federal monarchies, such as the United Arab Emirates are based upon principles other than democracy.

Contemporary

Federal state Official name and style Subdivisions Head of state
 Argentina Argentine Republic Provinces and one autonomous city President
 Austria[3] Republic of Austria States President
 Bosnia and Herzegovina[4] Bosnia and Herzegovina Entities, Cantons and one federal District Collective presidency
 Brazil[5] Federative Republic of Brazil Municipalities, States and one federal district[6] President
 Ethiopia[7] Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Regions President
 Germany[8] Federal Republic of Germany States President
 India[9] Republic of India States and territories President
 Mexico[10] United Mexican States States and one autonomous entity President
   Nepal[11] Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal Provinces President
 Nigeria[12] Federal Republic of Nigeria States and one federal territory President
 Pakistan[13] Islamic Republic of Pakistan Provinces President
 Russia[14] Russian Federation Federal subjects President
  Switzerland[15] Swiss Confederation Cantons Federal council
 United States[16] United States of America States, one federal district and several territories President
 Venezuela[17] Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela States, one capital district and federal dependencies President

Historic

Federation Official name and style Period Subdivisions
 Dutch Republic Republic of the Seven United Netherlands 1581–1795 Provinces
 Haiti State of Haiti 1806–1811
 Great Colombia Republic of Colombia
United States of Colombia
1819–1831
1863–1886
States
 Haiti Unification of Hispaniola 1822–1844
Federal Republic of Central America United Provinces of Central America
Federal Republic of Central America
1823–1838
Mexico United Mexican States 1824–1835
The Confederacy Confederate States of America 1861–1865 States
 China Republic of China 1912–1949[18] Provinces
Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus 1917–1920
1989–2000
Republics
 Germany German Reich 1919–1933 States
 East Germany German Democratic Republic 1949–1952 States
 Russian SFSR Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
(Russian Federation from 25 December 1991)
19171993 Federal subjects
 Soviet Union Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1922–1991 Republics
 Yugoslavia[19] Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1945–1992 Republics
 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
 Serbia and Montenegro
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
1992–2003
2003–2006
Republics
 Burma Union of Burma 1948–1962 States
 Indonesia Republic of the United States of Indonesia 1949–1950[20] States
 Cameroon Federal Republic of Cameroon 1961–1972
 South Africa Federal Republic of South Africa 1961–1994
 Czechoslovakia[19] Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
1969–1990
1990–1992
Republics
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.svg Turkish Cyprus Turkish Federated State of Cyprus 1975–1983 Districts

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "republic". 
  2. ^ Forum of Federations: [1], Schram, Sanford. Handbook of Federal Countries: United States, pg 373–391, 2005.
  3. ^ CIA World Factbook: Austria, 14 May 2009
  4. ^ CIA World Factbook: Bosnia and Herzegovina, 14 May 2009
  5. ^ CIA World Factbook: Brazil, 14 May 2009
  6. ^ "http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Constituicao/Constitui%C3%A7ao.htm". www.planalto.gov.br. Retrieved 2018-05-04.  External link in |title= (help)
  7. ^ CIA World Factbook: Ethiopia, 14 May 2009
  8. ^ CIA World Factbook: Germany, 14 May 2009
  9. ^ CIA World Factbook: India, 14 May 2009
  10. ^ CIA World Factbook: Mexico, 14 May 2009
  11. ^ CIA World Factbook: Nepal, 14 May 2009
  12. ^ CIA World Factbook: Nigeria, 14 May 2009
  13. ^ CIA World Factbook: Pakistan, 14 May 2009
  14. ^ "Text of the Russian constitution in English". Constituteproject.org. 
  15. ^ CIA World Factbook: Switzerland, 14 May 2009
  16. ^ CIA World Factbook: United States, 14 May 2009
  17. ^ CIA World Factbook: Venezuela, 14 May 2009
  18. ^ Government continued as a unitary state on sovereignty undetermined Taiwan.
  19. ^ a b The CIA World Factbook officially dated October 15, 1991
  20. ^ The states lived on until a final treaty in 1956 in which Republic of South Maluku and the State of Eastern Sumatra agreed to devolve into the Republic of Indonesia.[citation needed]

External links

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