Parental leave

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Demonstration for parental leave in the European Parliament.

Parental leave or family leave is an employee benefit available in almost all countries.[1] The term "parental leave" generally includes maternity, paternity, and adoption leave. A distinction between "maternity leave" and "parental leave" is sometimes made- maternity leave as the mother's leave time directly before and after childbirth and parental leave being the time given to care for newborns.[2] In some countries and jurisdictions, "family leave" also includes leave provided to care for ill family members. Often, the minimum benefits and eligibility requirements are stipulated by law.

Unpaid parental or family leave is provided when an employer is required to hold an employee's job while that employee is taking leave. Paid parental or family leave provides paid time off work to care for or make arrangements for the welfare of a child or dependent family member. The three most common models of funding are social insurance/social security (where employees, employers, or taxpayers in general contribute to a specific public fund), employer liability (where the employer must pay the employee for the length of leave), and mixed policies that combine both social security and employer liability.[3]

Parental leave has been available as a legal right and/or governmental program for many years, in one form or another. In 2014, the International Labour Organization reviewed parental leave policies in 185 countries and territories, and found that all countries except Papua New Guinea have laws mandating some form of parental leave.[4] A different study showed that of 186 countries examined, 96% offered some pay to mothers during leave, but only 81 of those countries offered the same for fathers.[5] The United States, Suriname, Papua New Guinea, and a few island countries in the Pacific Ocean are the only countries in the United Nations that do not require employers to provide paid time off for new parents.[6]

Private employers sometimes provide either or both unpaid and paid parental leave outside of or in addition to any legal mandate.

Economic models

Benefits of universal, paid parental leave

Capabilities approach

Jeremiah Carter and Martha Nussbaum have developed a political model known as the Capabilities approach, where basic freedoms and opportunities are included in economic assessments of a country's well-being, in addition to GDP.[7][8] Nussbaum proposed 11 central capabilities as the minimum requirement for a decent society. In Nussbaum's model, states should provide the resources and freedoms to ensure people have the opportunity to achieve a minimum threshold of each central capability. Universal, paid parental leave is an example resource states can provide so people have the option of starting a family while also working; for instance, under capacity 10 (control of one's environment), the state has a responsibility to ensure all people have "the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others."[8]

Income and workforce

Paid parental leave incentivizes labor market attachment for women both before and after birth, affecting GDP and national productivity, as the workforce is larger.[9][10][11][12] Parental leave increases income at the household level, as well, by supporting dual-earner families.[13]

Paid parental leave incentivizes childbirth, which affects the future workforce. It is thus argued that paid parental leave, in contrast to unpaid parental leave, is harmful to children's welfare because in countries with an aging workforce or countries with Sub-replacement fertility, children are born not because the parents want the child and can meet the child's needs but because children are expected to support their parents. Some see children as responsible for supporting all those in older generations in the society (not just the child's specific parents); their earnings are expected not to be saved for the children's own old age, but to be spent on the earlier generations' demand for social security and pensions for which there was inadequate savings.[14][15]

Challenges to universal, paid leave

Statistical discrimination

The neoclassical model of labor markets predicts that if the cost of hiring women of child-bearing years is anticipated to increase (either because the employer is mandated to pay for maternity leave, or because she will be absent from work on public leave), then the "demand" for women in the labor market will decrease. While gender discrimination is illegal, without some kind of remedy, the neoclassical model would predict "statistical discrimination" against hiring women of child-bearing years.[16][17]

Occupational sex segregation

If women take long parental leaves, the neoclassical model would predict that their lifetime earnings and opportunities for promotion will be less than their male or childfree counterparts, or the "motherhood penalty."[18] Women may seek out employment sectors that are "family-friendly" (i.e., with generous parental leave policies), resulting in occupational sex segregation.[19] Nielsen, Simonsen, and Verner examine what the different outcomes for women in Denmark are between the "family-friendly" and the "non-family-friendly" sector.[9] In Denmark, the public sector is "family-friendly" because of its generous leave and employee benefits; workers decide which sector to work on based on their preferences and opportunities. The study found that while in the "family-friendly" sector, there was basically no wage loss related to taking parental leave, women did have consistent earnings loss in the "non-family-friendly" private sector for a 1-year leave.[9]

Cost

Universal, paid parental leave can be privately funded (i.e., corporations are mandated to absorb the cost of paid parental time off as part of employee benefits) or publicly funded (i.e., transferred directly to workers on leave, like unemployment insurance). Concerns about private funding include the statistical discrimination described above as well as the costs to smaller businesses. Datta Gupta, Smith, & Verneer found in 2008 that, while publicly funded parental leave has benefits, it is very expensive to fund and question if it is the most cost-effective use of funds.[citation needed]

Criticism of the 'Father Quota'

Social norms have historically not included child care in the main responsibilities of fathers. However, in some, mainly western, countries, politicians, and social scientists argue for changing the role of the fathers, and the idea of the ‘new father’ has especially been shaped by the Nordic countries. The process enables fathers to rationalize their parenting style and align this with what characterizes good care. Even though the mother’s role as main parent has not changed, male parental leave is claimed by its supporters to transform the traditionally gendered father practices and to create a social morality in relation to partners and children. Some, however, consider that the allegedly positive effects of male parental leave are not supported by research, and warn that it might have negative effects. Norwegian psychology professor Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair believes the father's quota is indefensible from a psychological point of view, and argues that "we must at the very least ask ourselves what the consequences will be when we make a childhood environment that differs from what our species has evolved into." He believes the father's quota is "based on ideology, and only to an extremely limited extent on knowledge," arguing that it is "a social experiment, the effects of which are unknown.".[20] Other psychological perspectives summarise evidence and find that the role of a father in child development is very similar to that of a mother, which conflicts with the idea that greater paternal involvement in childcare could lead to subtantial and potentially dangerous consequences.[21] It also has to be considered that fathers from different classes see their roles alternatively during their paternity leave. Whereas middle class fathers consider themselves as suitable alternative to the mother having the same competencies, working class men see themselves more as supporters during their leave. In consequence middle class fathers mostly use their leave right after the mother returns to work, meanwhile working class fathers do their leave during the mother's leave.[22]

Effects of parental leave

Typically, the effects of parental leave are improvements in prenatal and postnatal care, including a decrease in infant mortality.[23] The effects of parental leave on the labor market include an increase in employment, changes in wages, and fluctuations in the rate of employees returning to work. Leave legislation can also impact fertility rates.[24]

Effects on the labor market

A study in Germany found that wages decreased by 18 percent for every year an employee spends on parental leave.[24] However, after the initial decrease in wages, the employee’s salary rebounds faster than the salary of someone not offered parental leave.[24] A study of California’s leave policy, the first state in the U.S. to require employers to offer paid parental leave, showed that wages did increase.[25]

Parental leave can lead to greater job security.[24] Studies differ in how this helps return to work after taking time off. Some studies show that if a parent is gone for more than a year after the birth of a child, it decreases the possibility that he or she will return.[24] Other studies of shorter leave periods show that parents no longer need to quit their jobs in order to care for their children, so employment return increases.[25]

It does not appear that parental leave policies have had a significant effect on the gender wage gap, which has remained relatively steady since the late 1980s, despite increasing adoption of parental leave policies.[26]

Maternity leave and its effects

In the U.S., while the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 allows for unpaid parental leave, parents often do not utilize this eligibility to its fullest extent as it is unaffordable. As a result, some studies show that the FMLA has had a limited impact on how much leave new parents take.[27] Though specific amounts can vary, having a child (including the cost of high-quality childcare) costs families approximately $11,000 in the first year.[28] These high costs contribute to new mothers in the United States returning to work quicker than new mothers in European countries; approximately one-third of women in the United States return to work within three months of giving birth, compared to approximately five per cent in the UK, Germany, and Sweden,[29] and just over half of mothers in the United States with a child under the age of one work.[30]

There is some evidence that legislation for parental leave raises the likelihood of women returning to their previous jobs as opposed to finding a new job. This rise is thought to fall to between 10% and 17%. Simultaneously, there is a decrease in the percentage of women who find new jobs which falls between 6% and 11%. Thus, such legislation appears to increase how many women return to work post-childbirth by around 3% or 4%.[31]

Additionally, it appears that parental leave policies do allow women to stay home longer before returning to work as the probability of returning to an old job falls in the second month after childbirth before dramatically rising in the third month. Although this legislation thus appears to have minimal effect on women choosing to take leave, it does appear to increase the time women take in leave.[31]

Maternity leave legislation could pose benefits or harm to employers. The main potential drawback of mandated leave is its potential to disrupt productive activities by raising rates of employee absenteeism. With mandated leave for a certain period of time and facing prolonged absence of the mothers in the workplace, firms will be faced with two options: hire a temp (which could involve training costs) or function with a missing employee. Alternatively, these policies could be positive for employers who previously did not offer leave because they were worried about attracting employees who were disproportionately likely to use maternity leave. Thus, there is potential for these policies to correct market failures.[31] A drawback of rising leave at the societal level, however, is the resulting decrease in female labor supply. In countries with a high demand for labor, including many present-day countries with aging populations, a smaller labor supply is unfavorable.[11]

Something important to note for all the research cited above is that the results typically depend on how leave coverage is defined, and whether the policies are for unpaid or paid leave. Policies guaranteeing paid-leave are considered by some to be dramatically more effective than unpaid-leave policies.[27]

For women individually, long breaks in employment, as would come from parental leave, negatively affects their careers. Longer gaps are associated with reduced lifetime earnings and lower pension disbursements as well as worsened career prospects and reduced earnings. Due to these drawbacks, some countries, notably Norway, have expanded family policy initiatives to increase the father's quota and expand childcare in an effort to work towards greater gender equality.[11]

According to a 2016 study, the expansion of government-funded maternity leave in Norway from 18 to 35 months led mothers to spend more time at home without a reduction in family income.[32]

Father spending time with daughter

Paternity leave and its effects

Although parental leave is increasingly granted to fathers, mothers continue to take the majority of guaranteed parental leave.[2] When guaranteed leave is unpaid, research indicates that men's leave usage is unaffected.[33] In Germany, where parental leave is guaranteed for both parents, the financial incentive, alone, was not enough to encourage fathers to take paternal leaves.[34] While uncommon on a worldwide scale some countries do reserve parts of the paid leave for the father, meaning it can't be transferred to the mother and lapses unless he uses it. Among the earliest countries to actively push for increased usage of paternity leave are the Nordic welfare states, starting with Sweden making paternal leave gender neutral in 1974 and soon followed by Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland. These countries lack a unified concept of paternity leave, each imposing different conditions, ratios and timescales, but are regarded as among the most generous in the world.

Partly in an initiative to combat the "Motherhood penalty," Norway in 1993 initiated a policy change to incentivize paternal leave, the so-called "father's quota", and Sweden followed suit in 1995. This means a certain number of parental leave-days can only be used by the father, and are otherwise lost. In countries in which leave entitlements include a father's quota there has been a pronounced impact, with the quota being credited for increasing paternal involvement and challenging gender roles within the family, promoting a more equal division of labor.[11] To evaluate this change, Rønsen & Kitterød looked at the rate and timing of women's return to work after giving birth, and the effect on this of the new parental leave policy. In their 2015 study, Rønsen & Kitterød found women in Norway returned to work significantly faster after the policy change.[35] However, public or subsidized daycare was greatly expanded at the same time, so Rønsen & Kitterød did not find that the "father's quota" was solely responsible for the timing of work entry. But it can be understood to have an effect on division of household labor by gender when both parents can take time to care for a new baby.[11]

Another impact from fathers taking more leaves is that in Norway, it has been shown to have the potential to either decrease or increase the time women take, depending on whether the mother's and father's childcare are seen as substitutes or complements. If substitute goods, mothers are able to return to work sooner as fathers take some of the childcare responsibility. As for the latter, longer leave for fathers can motivate mothers to also stay home.[11]

Fathers tend to use less parental leave than mothers in the United States as well as in other countries where paid leave is available,[27][36] and this difference may have factors other than the financial constraints which impact both parents. Bygren and Duvander,[36] looking at the use of parental leave by fathers in Sweden, concluded that fathers’ workplace characteristics (including the size of the workplace, whether there were more men or women in the workplace, and whether the workplace was part of the private or public sector) influenced the length of parental leave for fathers, as did the presence of other men who had taken parental leave at an earlier point in time. As of 2016 paternity leave accounts for 25% of paid parental leave in Sweden.

Length of leave

Family policy during World War II when women were recruited into the workplace.

In 2013, Joseph, Pailhé, Recotillet, and Solaz published a natural experiment evaluating a 2004 policy change in France.[37] They were interested in the economic effects of full-time, short paid parental leave. Before the reform, women had a mandatory two-month parental leave, and could take up to three years unpaid parental leave with their job guaranteed, though most women only took the two months. The new policy, complément libre choix d'activité (CLCA), guarantees six months of paid parental leave. The authors found positive effects on employment: compared to women in otherwise similar circumstances before the reform, first-time mothers who took the paid leave after the reform were more likely to be employed after their leave, and less likely to stay out of the labor force. The authors point to similar results of full-time, short paid parental leave observed in Canada in 2008 by Baker and Milligan,[38] and in Germany in 2009 by Kluve and Tamm.[39] However, Joseph, et al., also found that wages were lower (relative to women before the reform) for medium- and highly educated women after the leave, which could be because the women returned to work part-time or because of a "motherhood penalty," where employers discriminate against mothers, taking the six-month leave as a "signal" that the woman will not be as good of an employee because of her mothering responsibilities.

Rasmussen conducted analyzed a similar natural experiment in Denmark with a policy change in 1984 where parental leave increased from 14 to 20 weeks.[40] Rasmussen found the increased length of parental leave had no negative effect on women's wages or employment, and in the short-run (i.e., 12 months) it had a positive effect on women's wages, compared to the shorter leave. There was no difference on children's long-term educational outcomes before and after the policy change.

Effects on health and development

A Harvard report cited research showing paid maternity leave “facilitates breastfeeding and reduces risk of infection”[23] but is not associated with changes in immunization rate.[41] This research also found that countries with parental leave had lower infant mortality rates.[23] Returning to work within 12 weeks was also associated with less regular medical checkups.[42] Data from 16 European countries during the period 1969-1994 revealed that the decrease of infant mortality rates varied based on length of leave. A 10-week leave was associated with a 1-2% decrease; a 20-week leave with 2-4%; and 30 weeks with 7-9%.[43] The United States, which does not have a paid parental leave law, ranked 56th in the world in 2014 in terms of infant mortality rates, with 6.17 deaths per every 1,000 children born.[44] The research did not find any infant health benefits in countries with unpaid parental leave.

Paid leave, particularly when available prior to childbirth, had a significant effect on birth weight. The frequency of low birth rate decreases under these policies which likely contributes to the decrease in infant mortality rates as low birth weight is strongly correlated with infant death. However, careful analysis reveals that increased birth weight is not the sole reason for the decreased mortality rate.[41]

According to a 2016 study, the expansion of government-funded maternity leave in Norway from 18 to 35 months had little effect on children's schooling.[32] However, when infants bond and have their needs met quickly by caregivers (mothers, fathers, etc.) they will become confident and be prepared to have healthy relationships throughout their life.[45]

Children whose mothers did not work in the first 9 months were found to be less ready for school at the age of 3 years. The effects of mother's employment appeared to be the most detrimental when employment started between the sixth and ninth month of life. The reasons for this were uncertain, but there is conjecture that there was something unusual for the group of mothers who returned to work in this time period as they represented only 5% of all families studied. Negative impacts in terms of school-readiness were most pronounced when the mother worked at least 30 hours per week. These findings were complicated by many factors, including race, poverty, and how sensitive the mother was considered. The effects were also greater in boys which is explained by the fact that many analysts consider boys more vulnerable to stress in early life.[46]

The same Harvard report also linked paid parental leave and a child’s psychological health. It found that parents with paid parental leave had closer bonds with their children.[23] Based on research of heterosexual couples, a better father’s immersion in the process of raising a child leads to an enhanced child’s development and furthermore improves the relationship between the two parents.[47] In recent years, various OECD countries drew attention to the topic, especially to the time of the parental leave taken by fathers, and concluded that short-term paternal leaves still lead to positive outcomes for the child’s development. However, due to the typically higher income-levels of men, maternal leaves are preferred to paternal leaves since the family forfeits less income when the mother takes a break work.[48]

There are also observable improvements in the mental health of mothers when they are able to return to work later. While the probability of experiencing postpartum depression had no significant statistical change, longer leave (leave over 10 weeks) was associated with decreased severity of depression and decreased number of experienced symptoms. This reduction was, on average, between 5% and 10%.[49]

While studies have shown conflicting results, some research has shown a link between paid parental leave and higher fertility rates. The research looked at women 25–34 years old, who are more likely to be affected by leave legislation. Fertility rates peaked for those between 25-29 and 30-34 across European countries.[24]

Effects on economy

The economic consequences of parental leave policies are subject to controversy. According to a 2016 study, the expansion of government-funded maternity leave in Norway from 18 to 35 months had net costs which amounted to 0.25% of GDP, negative redistribution properties and implied a considerable increase in taxes at a cost to economic efficiency.[32] In the U.S., paid family leave tends to lead to a higher employee retention rate and higher incomes for families.[50] Evidence from selected countries in Western Europe suggests that moderate levels of parental leave can encourage mothers to reenter the work force after having children, promoting national economic development.[51]

Effects on gender equality

Parental leave policies has an impact on gender equality with regards to parenting and is therefore used by various countries as a tool to promote gender equality.[52][53] Many countries/regions have implement paid parental leave policies for both parents, which promotes gender equality, while a minority of countries, like the United States, only have unpaid maternity leave.

When discussing the sources of gender inequality, the lack of men's participation in parenting was rarely considered as a source of gender inequality. Various studies highlights the importance of egalitarian parental leave policies in achieving equal distribution of childcare between parents.[54]Moreover, when discussing parental leave policies, generally the current state of largely maternity leave provided is compared with the absence of parental leave in the past, rather examining and comparing the impact of diverse policies seen in many countries around the world that distributes parental leave differently between both parents.[55]

Symbol for gender equality

Statistics show a positive correlation between maternal only leave policies and women’s employment, but the causation relationship cannot be firmly established.[55] While many believe that maternal leave policies encourage women's participation in the labor force, Anita Nyberg suggests that it is the other way around and that maternal leave policy's development was a response to women's participation in the labor force.[56]

It is generally agreed that men's involvement in childcare at the same level as women is essential for eliminating differences in gender roles. Thus, an increase in the use of parental leave by women (and lack thereof by men) will have a negative impact on gender equality. Inversely, an increase in the use of leave by men will have a positive impact.[55] Transferable leave appear to be fair and equal in theory, since they do not specifically allot childcare to women and even allow the family to choose. In practice, it leads to the majority of women using most of the parental leave.[57]

Through examination of leave policies in twenty-one European countries by describing the existing policy schemes’ duration, payment, and transferability, Carmen Castro-Garcia created the Parental Leave Equality Index (PLEI) which can predict the participation of each parent in raising their children based on their gender, and the existing policy regarding parental leave. [55]His model shows that a policy that provides equal, nontransferable, and well-paid leave for each parent (which no country has at the moment) will best encourage men's and women's equal participation in childcare.[55]

European Union

The European Union recognizes the ability for countries to utilize varying parental leave policies to affect labor force participation, the labor market, maternal health, the work–life balance of parents, and the physical and emotional development of children. And by affecting the work-life balance of parents, it may reduce the barriers to participation of both parents in parenting. More specifically, paternity and parental leave policies are key to encouraging fathers’ involvement in parenting the child.[58][59]

European Union flag

In 2014, the European Parliament concludes that by promoting the uptake of parental leave and paternity leave by fathers, governments can aim to facilitate a more gender-equal distribution of care work, support mothers’ return to the labor market, and to equalize the circumstances in which women and men enter the labor market.[60] And that the uptake of paternity leave and father-specific parental leave also has a positive effect on the work–life balance of families.[60]

Findings by the European Parliament in 2015 found that 18 of the EU-28 countries offer paternity leave, and that the EU-average length is 12.5 days, ranging from one day in Italy to 64 working days in Slovenia.[61] For 23 EU member states, on average only 10 percent of fathers take parental leave, ranging from 0.02 per cent in Greece to 44 per cent in Sweden.[62]

The gender difference in the employment rate is representative of the gender employment gap; filling this gap is an important objective in promoting gender equality and is a part of the Europe 2020 target of an employment rate of 75 per cent for both men and women.[63]The uptake of leave by fathers can reduce the motherhood penalty by enabling mothers to return to the labor market, as illustrated by studies that have shown that the involvement of fathers in childcare has a positive effect on mothers’ full-time employment.[64]

Reduction of the gender pay gap (GPG) is also an important goal for the EU. In 2014 the GPG in the EU-28 was 16.1 percent, which means that for every euro men got paid in the EU, women got paid 83.9 cents.[65] (The GPG exists equally after correction for occupation and education level.[58]) An study done on the gender pension gap estimates the gap to be around 40 percent, which is more than twice the gender pay gap[66].Increased leave uptake by fathers can reduce the length of career interruptions for women, reduce part time work by women and potentially reduce the GPG, all of which are leading causes of the gender pension gap.[67][68]

Nordic Countries

The advancement of gender equality has also been on the political agenda of Nordic countries for decades. Although, all Nordic countries have extended the total leave period, their politics towards father’s quota are different. Iceland and Norway have established equal 3 month quotas for the father. In Sweden 90 days cannot be transferred from one parent to the other—i.e. each parent gets at least 90 days of parental leave, thus the quota applies equally to both parents and is not specifically fathers.[69] The only Nordic country that does not provide fathers with a quota is Denmark. However, the dual earner/dual care model seems to be the direction of all the Nordic countries are moving in the construction of their parental leave systems.[70]

A study done in Norway found that when parental leave is granted for both parents, there is still gender inequality observed in the form of mothers being more likely to have part-time jobs compared to non-mothers.[71] Since, the governments has provided child care support for parents who wants them to encourage mothers to return to full-time jobs earlier, and it is effective to a certain extent.[71]

Germany

Mother spending time with her child

In Germany, original laws tackling gender inequality with respect to parenting date back to 1986 in both Eastern and Western Germany where one parent could take up to two years of leave after the birth of the child with a maximum allowance.[72] A study done in 2006, 97% of the people who took the leave were mothers.[73]

In 2007, declining birth rates and demographic change led to a new law, the "Parenting Benefits and Parental Leave Law" (Bundeselterngeld- und Elternzeit-Gesetz).[73][72] This change in family policy had mainly two aims: to reduce parents' financial loss in the first year after childbirth, and to encourage fathers to actively participate in childcare by taking parental leave.[72][73]

With this shift in paradigm, a better work-life balance and less support for the male breadwinner model was targeted. This was part of a "sustainable family policy" promoted by German unification and European integration with the underlying objective was to raise birth rates by providing financial incentive. [74]

The law's impact was mainly perceived positively with men reporting high motivation to take leave. So far this has not been reflected in official statistics, but Susanne Vogl concludes that if there is a general willingness of men to participate in parental leave the new Parenting Benefits regulations will help facilitate the actual decision to take a leave.[73]

United States

Even though, according to a survey conducted by WorldatWork and Mercer in 2017, 93% of Americans agree that mother should receive paid parental leave, while 85% agree that fathers should receive paid parental leave, as of October 2018, the United States as a whole does not grant paid parental leave to its workforce.[75]

Even though the nation does not have laws granting parental leave, certain states passed laws providing paid workers with such rights. As of July 2018, 6 states(California[76][77], New Jersey[78], Rhode Island[79], New York[80], Washington[81], and Massachusetts[82]) and 1 district (District of Columbia[83]) have enacted laws that grant parental leave as part of state paid family and medical leave insurance laws, with 4 being effective currently. In states without such laws, a small proportion of companies does provide paid parental leave[84][85].

According to Eileen Appelbaum, the lack of parental leave policies results in many low income families struggling to support themselves financially if both parents are off work. As a result, many mothers leave work to take care of her children while the father remains at work, trying to financially support the family best he could.[86][87] This reinforces gender roles and gender inequality.[87]

Australia

Chinese couple getting married.

Australian government provides paid parental leave for both parents, but more for the mother compared to the father.[88] [89][90] Michael Bittman saw that the reason they provide parental leave is unique in that they view children as “public goods”, and therefore, the state is responsible to provide and support the child. [89] But like most places around the world, studies done in Australia shows that the inequality still persists withing the family, and that women spends more time doing unpaid work (like parenting) compared to men.[91]

China

According to a study done by Nan Jia, during the Maoist era, women's full participation in the labor force played a key role in the Chinese government's efforts to advance women's position in society, and to facilitate women's labor force participation, the Chinese government initiated a series of measures to mitigate the work–family conflict that women face during pregnancy and childbirth.[92] These measures included an entitlement to 56 days of paid maternity leave.[92]

In the post-reform era, a series of new regulations have been introduced to protect women's employment and reproductive rights in the new market economy. The Labor Law adopted in 1995 ensured that women and men have equal employment rights and that employers will not lay off women employees or lower their wages for reasons of marriage, pregnancy, maternity leave, or breastfeeding.[93] The Labor Contract Law enacted in 2008 introduced the provision that prohibits employers from unilaterally terminating labor contracts with women employees who are pregnant, give birth, and care for a baby postpartum. Thus, under the Labor Law and Labor Contract Law, women employees are entitled to job-protected maternity leave.[94]

The post-reform era saw further improvements in maternity benefits. The length of paid maternity leave was extended from fifty-six days prior to reform, to ninety days in 1988, and to 98 days in 2012. [95]Most recently in 2016, paid maternity leave is extended to a minimum of 128 days after the long-standing one-child policy was replaced with a policy that encourages each couple to have two children. This latest extension of paid leave aims to increase fertility rates and slow the population aging process.[92] None of the policies directly aim to tackle gender roles and gender inequality, but rather to solve immediate problems the country is facing at the time.

Private parental leave

Some businesses adopt policies that are favorable to workers and public opinion. In their study of maternity leave policies in the United States, Kelly and Dobbin found that public policy surrounding pregnancy as a temporary disability (for instance, California's Family Temporary Disability Insurance program) gave rise to business practices that included maternity leave as a benefit.[84]

Companies are starting to offer paid parental leave as a benefit to some American workers, seeing a profitable aspect of doing so, including: reduced turnover costs, increased productivity from workers, and increased rates of retention among women after childbirth. Some see the increase in paid parental leave as indicative of companies reaching out to women, as more women are working and returning to work after having children, and by doing so these companies generate positive publicity as employers with family-friendly workplaces.[28] Working Mother magazine [3] publishes a list of 100 Best Companies for working mothers each year, a list which is noted not only by the readership of the magazine, but also by corporate America and increasingly by researchers and policy institutes as well.[28] The Institute for Women’s Policy Research[4] issued a report in 2009 encouraging Congress to give federal workers four weeks of paid parental leave.[28] The report cited statistics from the Working Mother 100 Best Company list, using private sector corporations as examples of substantial increase in the retention of new mothers after instituting a longer maternity leave policy. The report also noted that it would take newer workers four years to accrue enough paid leave (sick leave and annual leave) to equal the 12 weeks of unpaid parental leave provided under the FMLA, and that private sector companies which offer paid parental leave have a significant advantage over the federal government in the recruitment and retention of younger workers who may wish to have children.[citation needed]

As of February 2018, multinational companies such as Deloitte, TIAA and Cisco were providing parental-leave regardless of the parent's gender.[85]

Variation in international law

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women introduces "maternity leave with pay or with comparable social benefits without loss of former employment, seniority or social allowances".[96] The Maternity Protection Convention C 183 adopted in 2000 by International Labour Organization requires 14 weeks of maternity leave as minimum condition.[97]

National laws vary widely according to the politics of each jurisdiction. As of 2012, only three countries do not mandate paid time off for new parents: Papua New Guinea, Lesotho, and the United States.[98][99]

Unless otherwise specified, the information in the tables below is gathered from the most recent International Labour Organization reports. Maternity leave refers to the legal protection given to the mother immediately after she gives birth (but may also include a period before the birth), paternity leave to legal protection given to the father immediately after the mother gives birth, and parental leave to protected time for childcare (usually for either parent) either after the maternity/paternity leave or directly immediately after birth (for example when the parent is not eligible for maternity/paternity leave, and/or where the time is calculated until the child is a specific age - therefore excluding maternity/paternity leave - usually such jurisdictions protect the job until the child reaches a specific age.[100]) Others allow the parental leave to be transferred into part-time work time. Parental leave is generally available to either parent, except where specified. Leave marked "Unpaid" indicates the job is protected for the duration of the leave. Different countries have different rules regarding eligibility for leave, and long a parent has to have worked at their place of employment prior to giving birth before they are eligible for paid leave. In the European Union, the policies vary significantly by country - with regard to length, to payment, and to how parental leave relates to prior maternity leave - but the EU members must abide by the minimum standards of the Pregnant Workers Directive and Parental Leave Directive.[101]

Africa

Country Maternity leave (weeks) Maternity leave

(% of pay)

Paternity leave (weeks) Paternity leave (% of pay) Parental leave [For EITHER parent] (weeks) Parental leave (% of pay) Source of payment
Algeria 14[102] 100% <1[103] 100% 0[103] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Angola 13[102] 100% 0[103] N/A 0[103] N/A Social security
Benin 14[102] 100% 2[103] 100% 0[103] N/A Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)
Botswana 12[102] 50% 0[103] N/A 0[103] N/A Employer liability
Burkina Faso 14[102] 100% 2[103] 100% 52[103] Unpaid Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Burundi 12[102] 100% 2+[103] 50% 0[103] N/A Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)
Cameroon 14[102] 100% 2[103] 100% 0[103] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Cape Verde 09[102] 90% 0[103] N/A 0[103] N/A Social security
Central African Republic 14[102] 50% 2[103] 100% 0[103] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Chad 14[102] 100% 2[103] 100% 52[103] Unpaid Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Comoros 14[102] 100% 2[103] 100% 0[103] N/A Employer liability
Congo 15[102] 100% 2[103] 100% 0[103] N/A Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)
Côte d’Ivoire 14[102] 100% 2[103] 100% 0[103] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Democratic Republic of the Congo 14[102] 67% <1[104] 100% 0[104] N/A Employer liability
Djibouti 14[102] 100% <1[104] 100% 0[104] N/A Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)
Egypt 13[102] 100% 0[104] N/A 104 (only mothers)[104] Unpaid Mixed (75% social security; 25% employer liability)
Equatorial Guinea 12[102] 75% 0[104] N/A 0[104] N/A Social security
Eritrea 09[102] Unk 0[104] N/A 0[104] N/A Employer liability
Ethiopia 13[102] 100% 1[104] Unpaid 0[104] N/A Employer liability
Gabon 14[102] 100% 2[104] 100% 0[104] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Gambia 12[102] 100% 0[104] N/A 0[104] N/A Employer liability
Ghana 12[102] 100% 0[104] N/A 0[104] N/A Employer liability
Guinea 14[102] 100% 0[104] N/A 38 (only mothers)[104] Unpaid Mixed (50% social insurance; 50% employer)
Guinea-Bissau 09[102] 100% 0[104] N/A 0[104] N/A Mixed (social security flat rate, employer pays the difference to equal wage)
Kenya 13[105] 100% 2[104] 100% 0[104] N/A Employer liability
Lesotho 12[105] 100% 0[104] N/A 0[104] N/A Employer liability
Libya 14[105] 50% (100% for self-employed women) <1[104] 0[104] N/A Employer (social security for self-employed)
Madagascar 14[105] 100% 2[104] 100% 0[104] N/A Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)
Malawi 08[105] 100% 0[104] N/A 0[104] N/A Employer liability
Mali 14[105] 100% <1[104] 100% 0[104] N/A Social security
Mauritania 14[105] 100% 2[106] 100% 0[106] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Mauritius 12[105] 100% 1[106] 100% 0[106] N/A Employer liability
Morocco 14[105] 100% <1[106] 100% 52 (only mothers)[106] Unpaid Social security
Mozambique 09[105] 100% <1[106] 100% 0[106] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Namibia 12[105] 100% (up to a ceiling) 0[106] N/A 0[106] N/A Social security
Niger 14[105] 100% 0[106] N/A 0[106] N/A Mixed (50% social insurance; 50% employer)
Nigeria 12[105] 50% 0[106] N/A 0[106] N/A Employer liability
Rwanda 12[105] 100% for 6 weeks; 20% remainder <1[106] 100% 0[106] N/A Employer liability
Sao Tome and Principe 09[105] 100% 0[106] N/A 0[106] N/A Social security
Senegal 14[105] 100% 0[106] N/A 0[106] N/A Social security
Seychelles 14[105] Flat rate for 12 weeks; unpaid remainder <1[106] 100% 0[106] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Sierra Leone 12[105] 100% Employer liability
Somalia 14[105] 50% 0[106] N/A 0[106] N/A Employer liability
South Africa 17[105] 60% <1[106] 100% 0[106] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Sudan 08[105] 100% 0[106] N/A 0[106] N/A Employer liability
Swaziland 12[105] 100% for 2 weeks; unpaid remainder 0[106] N/A 0[106] N/A Employer liability
Tanzania 12[105] 100% <1[106] 100% 0[106] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Togo 14[105] 100% 2[107] 100% 0[107] N/A Mixed (maternity: 50% social insurance; 50% employer. Paternity: 100% employer)
Tunisia 04[105] 66.70% <1[107] 100% 0[107] N/A Social security
Uganda 10[108] 100% <1[107] 100% 0[107] N/A Employer liability
Zambia 12[109] 100% 0[107] N/A 0[107] N/A Employer liability
Zimbabwe 14[109] 100% 0[107] N/A 0[107] N/A Employer liability

Americas

Country Maternity leave (weeks) Maternity leave (% of pay) Paternity leave (weeks) Paternity leave (% of pay) Parental leave [For EITHER parent] (weeks) Parental leave (% of pay) Source of payment
Antigua and Barbuda 13[110] 100% for 6 weeks; 60% for 7 weeks 0[111] N/A 0[111] N/A Mixed (60% social security all 13 weeks plus 40% from employer for first 6 weeks)
Argentina 13[110] 100% <1[111] 100% 0[111] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Bahamas 13[110] 100% for 12 weeks; 66.7% for 1 week <1[111] Unpaid 0[111] N/A Mixed (2/3 social security for 13 weeks; 1/3 employer for 12 weeks)
Barbados 12[112] 100% 0[111] N/A 0[111] N/A Social security
Belize 14[112] 100% 0[111] N/A 0[111] N/A Social security
Bolivia 13[112] 95% 0[111] N/A 0[111] N/A Social security
Brazil 17[112] 100% <1[111] 100% 0[111] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
British Virgin Islands 13[112] 67% Social security
Canada (except QC) 15[113] 55% / Up to 80% for low-income families (Up to maximum of $524 per week)[113] 0 N/A 35[113] 55% / Up to 80% for low-income families (Up to maximum of $524 per week)[113] Social security
Canada (Québec) Option 1: 18[114]

Option 2: 15

Option 1: 70% (up to maximum $975 per week)[114]

Option 2: 75% (up to maximum $1046 per week)

Option 1: 5[114]

Option 2: 3

Option 1: 70% (up to maximum $975 per week)[114]

Option 2: 75% (up to maximum $1046 per week)

Option 1: 32[114]

Option 2: 25

Option 1: 7 weeks at 70% (up to maximum $975 per week) + 25 weeks at 55% (up to maximum $767 per week)[114]

Option 2: 75% (up to maximum $1024 per week)

Social security
Chile 24[115] 100% (up to a ceiling) 1[111] 100% 12 (6 only for mothers)[111] 100% (up to a ceiling) Social security
Colombia 14[112] 100% 1+[111] 100% 0[111] N/A Social security
Costa Rica 17[112] 100% 0[111] N/A 0[111] N/A Mixed (50% social security, 50% employer)
Cuba 18[112] 100% 0[111] N/A 39[111] 60% Social security
Dominica 12[112] 60% 0[111] N/A 0[111] N/A Social security
Dominican Republic 12[112] 100% <1[111] 100% 0[111] N/A Mixed (maternity: 50% social security, 50% employer; paternity: employer liability)
Ecuador 12[112] 100% 2[111] 100% 0[111] N/A Mixed (maternity: 75% social security, 25% employer; paternity: employer liability)
El Salvador 12[112] 75% <1[111] 100% 0[111] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Grenada 13[112] 100% for 8 weeks; 65% for remainder 0[116] N/A 0[116] N/A Mixed (65% social security all 13 weeks plus 35% from employer for first 8 weeks)
Guatemala 12[112] 100% <1[116] 100% 0[116] N/A Mixed (maternity: 2/3 social security, 1/3 employer; paternity: employer)
Guyana 13[112] 70% 0[116] N/A 0[116] N/A Social security
Haiti 12[112] 100% for 6 weeks; unpaid remainder 0[116] N/A 0[116] N/A Employer liability
Honduras 12[112] 100% for 10 weeks; unpaid remainder 0[116] N/A 0[116] N/A Mixed (2/3 social security, 1/3 employer)
Jamaica 12[112] 100% for 8 weeks; unpaid remainder 0[116] N/A 0[116] N/A Employer liability
Mexico 12[112] 100% 1[116] 100% 0[116] N/A Social security
Nicaragua 12[112] 100% 0[116] N/A 0[116] N/A Mixed (60% social security, 40% employer)
Panama 14[112] 100% 0[116] N/A 0[116] N/A Social security
Paraguay 12[112] 50% for 9 weeks; unpaid remainder <1[116] 100% 0[116] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Peru 13[112] 100% <1[116] 100% 0[116] N/A Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Puerto Rico 8[112] 100% <1[116] 100% 0[116] N/A Employer liability
Saint Kitts and Nevis 13[117] 65% 0[116] N/A 0[116] N/A Social security
Saint Lucia 13[117] 65% 0[116] N/A 0[116] N/A Social security
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 13[117] 65% Social security
Trindad and Tobago 14[118] N/A 0[116] N/A Mixed (2/3 social security, 1/3 employer)
Uruguay 12[117] 100% <1[116] 100% Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
United States of America 0[119] N/A 0[120] N/A 12 each[120] Unpaid N/A
Venezuela 26[117] 100% 2[116] 100% 0[116] N/A Social security

Asia / Pacific

Country Paid maternity leave Paid paternity leave Unpaid maternity leave Unpaid paternity leave Restrictions
Afghanistan 90 days 100%
Azerbaijan 126 days 100%
Australia 18 weeks at National Minimum Wage (currently AUD$719.35 per week as at Sept 2018[121]) subject to primary caregiver income is paid from the Australian Government in addition to paid parental leave from an employer[122] 2 weeks at National Minimum Wage Up to 52 weeks unpaid shared between the parents Up to 3 weeks of unpaid leave The 52 weeks are shared between the parents and all leave needs to be taken before the baby's first birthday. Australian maternity leave is means tested, whereby no payments are available to families where the primary caregiver has an annual salary above $150,000 per annum.[123][124]
Bahrain 60 days 100%
Bangladesh 16 weeks (8 weeks before delivery and 8 weeks after delivery) 100% In case of third (+) time mother, who has two or more babies alive already.
Cambodia 90 days 50% 10 days special leave for family events
China 98 days 100%
Fiji 84 days Flat rate
Hong Kong 10 weeks 80% 3 days 80%
India 26 weeks 100%. Up to 15 days (3 working weeks) male leave 100% Does not apply to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.[125] Prohibits employers from allowing women to work within six weeks after giving birth.[126] A female employee is eligible only if she worked for the employer at least 80 days during the 12-month period preceding the date of expected delivery.[127] In the case of a stillbirth or miscarriage, six weeks of paid leave is required instead.[127] From the third child onwards, only 12 weeks of paid maternity leave is permitted.[128]
Indonesia 3 months 100% Two days' paid when wife gives birth
Iran 6 months 100% 2 weeks compulsory 100%
Iraq 62 days 100%
Israel 14 weeks 100%, with an additional 12 weeks unpaid. The weeks from 6th to 14th can be taken by the father. Can take the paid leave instead of the mother starting from the 6th week (up to 14 weeks) 1 year
Japan 14 weeks 60% 1 year 1 year When parents take turns, the total period may be extended 2 months (but no longer than 1 year for each parent).[129][130]
Jordan 10 weeks 100%
Korea, Republic of 90 days 100% 1 year (40% of Original Salary, At least $400 At most $1,000 per a month paid by Employment Insurance) until the child is 6 years old Parents who have a child under 6 years old can get 1 year parental leave. The only condition that the employee(s) must satisfy is to have worked for at least 1 year in the company at the time the child is born.
Korea, Democratic People's Republic of 11 weeks[131][130]
Kuwait 70 days 100%
Lao People's Democratic Republic 3 months 70%
Lebanon 10[132] weeks 100% 1 day 100%
Malaysia 60 days 100%
Mongolia 120 days 70%
Myanmar 12 weeks 66.7% Six days of "casual leave" that can be used by fathers to assist their spouses at the time of confinement
Nepal 52 days 100%
New Zealand Paid parental leave will be extended to 22 weeks from July 2018, rising to 26 weeks by 2020, the Labour government has confirmed. The current paid leave provision is 18 weeks, but Labour had pledged to increase it as part of its plan for its first 100 days in government, at a cost of $325m over the next four years.[133] None, plus any share from mother 52 weeks (including paid leave). Can be shared with father. 2 weeks, plus any share from mother If the mother is ordered to start leave early by a doctor, midwife or their employer, maternity leave may be extended beyond 18 weeks to the difference between the date of the order and the expected delivery date, plus 10 weeks.
Oman 14 weeks, 100%; 50 days prior to and 50 days after birth (per Omani Labor Law, Royal Decree No. 35/2003, 26 April 2003).[134]
Pakistan 45 days prior to confinement and 45 days after the confinement under rule 13 of the Revised Leave Rules, 1980. But it is 60 days for Armed Forces Nursing Service (AFNS)100%
Papua New Guinea 0 days 12 weeks
Philippines 60 days 100%, applicable also to miscarriages. 78 days 100% for C-section delivery. 7 days 100% parental leave per year for solo parents until the child is 18, or indefinitely if the child has a disability. Seven days paid paternity leave for married workers. 7 days 100% parental leave per year for solo parents until the child is 18, or indefinitely if the child has a disability. Maternity and paternity leave benefits are up to the 4th pregnancy only.
Qatar 50 days 100% for civil servants
Saudi Arabia 10 weeks 50% or 100% THREE days
Singapore 16 weeks 100% (Singaporean citizen) or 12 weeks 67% (non-Singaporean citizen)[135] 1 week of 100% Government-Paid Paternity Leave for fathers. 1 week of 100% Government-Paid Shared Parental Leave to allow fathers to share 1 week of the working mother’s maternity leave entitlement. (for those covered under Employment Act. Managers earning more than SGD$4,500 a month are covered by terms of employment contract)[136] 16 weeks of Maternity Leave is restricted to married women whose children are Singapore citizens (at least one parent is a Singapore citizen) and has served her employer for at least 90 days before the child's birth.[135]
Solomon Islands 12 weeks 25%
Sri Lanka 12 weeks 100% (84 working days), 84 days 50% 03 days 100% 84 days
Syrian Arab Republic 50 days 70%
Taiwan 8 weeks 100% for more than six months of employment or 50% for less six months of employment 5 days 100%
Thailand 90 days 100% for 45 days paid by employer, then 45 days paid at 50% of wages (to a maximum of 7,500 baht per month) by the Thailand Social Security Fund
United Arab Emirates 45 Days 100% 55 days (total 100 days maternity leave) Maternity leave at 100% pay is subject to the employee having served continuously for not less than one year. The maternity leave shall be granted with half pay if the woman has not completed one year.
Vietnam 4–6 months 100%
Yemen 60 days 100%

Europe and Central Asia

Country Maternity leave

(weeks)

Maternity leave

(% of pay)

Paternity leave (weeks) Paternity leave

(% of pay)

Parental leave [For EITHER parent] (weeks) Parental leave

(% of pay)

Source of payment
Albania 52[110] 80% for 21 weeks; 50% remainder 0[137] N/A 2[137] 100% Mixed (Social security for maternity leave; employer liability for parental leave)
Andorra 16[138] 100% 0[109] N/A 0[109] N/A Social security
Armenia 20[110] 100% 0[137] N/A 156[137] Unpaid Social security
Austria 16[138] 100% 0[109] N/A 104[109] Flat rate Social security
Azerbaijan 18[110] 100% 2[137] Unpaid 156[137] Flat rate Social security
Belarus 18[110] 100% 0[137] N/A 156[137] 80% of minimum wage Social security
Belgium 15[138] 82% for 4 weeks; 75% for remainder (up to ceiling) 2[139] 100% for 3 days; 82% remainder 17[139] Flat rate Mixed (3 days paternity leave employer liability; Social security)
Bosnia and Herzegovina 52[110] 50%-100% 1+[137] 100% 156[137] Unpaid Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Bulgaria 58[140] 90% 2[140] 90% 104[140] flat-rate for 52 weeks; Unpaid reminder Social security
Croatia 58[110] 100% for 26 weeks; flat-rate remainder 2[137] 100% 156[137] Unpaid Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Cyprus 18[138] 75% 0[139] N/A 13[139] Unpaid Social security
Czech Republic 28[138] 70% 0[139] N/A 156[139] Flat rate Social security
Denmark 18[138] 100% 2[139] 100% 32[139] 100% Mixed (social security & employer)
Estonia 62[141] 100% 2[139] 100% 36[139] Unpaid Social security
Finland 18[138] 70% 11[139] 70% (up to a ceiling) plus 26[139] 70% Social security
France 16[138] 70% 2+[139] 100% (up to a ceiling) 156[139] Flat rate Social security
Georgia 18[110] 100% 50[citation needed] Social security
Germany 14[138] 100% 0[142] N/A 156[142] 67% (up to a ceiling) for 52 weeks; unpaid remainder Mixed (social security & employer liability)
Greece 17[138] 100% <1[142] 100% 17 each[142] Unpaid Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Hungary 24[138] 70% 1[142] 100% 156[142] 70% (up to a ceiling) for 104 weeks; flat rate remainder Social security
Iceland 13[138] 80% 12[142] 80% (up to a ceiling) 26 each[142] 80% (up to a ceiling) for first 13 weeks each; unpaid remainder
Ireland 42[119] 80% (up to a ceiling) for 26 weeks; unpaid remainder 2[143] Flat rate (minimum €230 per week)[144] 18 each[145] Unpaid Social security
Italy 22[119] 80% <1[142] 100% 26 each[142] 30% Social security
Kazakhstan 18[110] 100% 1[137] Unpaid 156[137] Unpaid Social security
Kyrgyzstan 18[110] 7x minimum wage Social security
Latvia 16[119] 80% 2[142] 80% 78 each[142] 70% Social security
Liechtenstein 20[146] 80%
Lithuania 18[119] 100% 4[147] 100% (up to a ceiling) 156[147] 100% for 52 weeks or 70% for 104 weeks; unpaid remainder Social security
Luxembourg 20[148] 100% 2[149] 100% Both parents are entitled to equal parental leave. The "first parental leave" must be taken (by either the mother or the father) immediately after the end of maternity leave. The "second parental leave" may be taken by the other parent at any time up until the child's 6th birthday.

Parental leave can be taken in a variety of formats:

  • 4 or 6 months' full-time leave
  • 8 or 12 months with 50% leave and 50% working
  • 4 months' leave split over a maximum period of 20 months
  • 1 day per week on leave for up to 20 months

The latter three options require the employer's approval. The first option is an absolute right and cannot be refused by the employer.[150]

Self-employed people are also fully entitled to parental leave.

100% up to a gross monthly salary threshold of €3,330.98. Employees with a higher gross monthly salary receive the threshold amount only.[151] Mixed (maternity leave: social security; paternity leave: 80/20 social security/employer; parental leave: depends on formula chosen - employer pays for time worked, social security pays for time on leave)
Macedonia 39[110] 100% Social security
Malta 18[119] 100% for 14 weeks 0[147] N/A 13 each[147] Unpaid Mixed (social security & employer liability)
Moldova 18[110] 100% 0[152] N/A 156[152] Partially Social security
Monaco 16[119] 90% (up to a ceiling) 0[147] N/A 0[147] N/A Social security
Montenegro 52[110] 100% Social security
Netherlands 16[119] 100% (up to a ceiling) <1[147] 100% 26 each (with part-time work)[147] Unpaid but eligible for tax-breaks Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Norway 35 (or 45)[119] 100% for 25 weeks or 80% for 45 weeks 0-10 (depending on the mother's tax contribution in Norway for the preceding three years[153]) 100% or 80% 36 or 46 (10 for mothers; 10 for fathers; 26 to be divided)[154] 100% for 46 weeks or 80% for 56 weeks (up to a ceiling) Social security
Poland 26[119] 100% 2[147] 100% 156[147] 60% for 26 weeks; flat rate for 104; unpaid remainder Social security
Portugal 17 (or 21)[119] 100% for 17 weeks or 80% for 21 3[147] 100% 13 each; "sharing bonus" of 4 weeks if initial leave shared[147] 25% Social security
Romania 18 (9 weeks before the anticipated date of birth, and 9 weeks after the anticipated date of birth)[119] 85% 5 days (15 days if an infant care course is taken). Can be taken at any point within the first eight weeks after the birth of the baby.[120] 100% One parent is entitled to:
104 weeks (so until the child reaches the age of two; if taken by the mother, it includes the maternal leave after the birth); or 156 weeks if the child has a disability (so until the child reaches the age of three).[155]

Other parent is entitled to only 4 weeks (can be taken at any point during the first 2–3 years of the child's upbringing).[155]
85% [155] Social security
Russia 20[110] 100% (up to a ceiling) 0[152] N/A 156[152] 40% (up to a ceiling) for 78 weeks; unpaid remainder Social security
Serbia 20[110] 100% 1+[152] 100% 52 (only mothers)[152] 100% for 26 weeks; 60% weeks 27-39; 30% weeks 40-52 Mixed (Social security maternity leave; employer liability paternity leave)
Slovakia 34[119] 65% 0[120] N/A 156[120] Flat rate Social security
Slovenia 15[119] 100% 12[120] 100% (up to a ceiling) for 2 weeks; flat rate remainder 37[120] 90% (up to a ceiling) Social security
Spain 16[119] (6 weeks mandatory for the mother, the other 10 can be transferred to the father[156]) 100% 4[157] 100% 156 each[120] Unpaid Social security
Sweden 12[69] 80% (up to a ceiling) 12[69] 80% (up to a ceiling) 56[69] 80% (up to a ceiling) for 56 weeks; flat rate for remainder Social security
Switzerland 14[119] 80% (up to a ceiling) 0[120] N/A 0[120] N/A Social security
Tajikistan 20[110] 100% 0[152] N/A 156[152] Flat rate for 78 weeks; unpaid remainder Social security
Turkey 16[110] 66.70% 0[152] N/A 26 (only mothers)[152] Unpaid Social security
Turkmenistan 16[110] 100% Social security
Ukraine 18[110] 100% 0[152] N/A 156[152] Flat rate for 78 weeks; childcare allowance remainder Social security
United Kingdom 52[119] (2 weeks mandatory for the mother, up to 50 of the remainder can be transferred to the father as Shared Parental Leave[158]) 90% for 6 weeks; 90%/flat rate for 32 weeks; unpaid remainder 2[120] (plus up to 50 weeks transferred from the mother as Shared Parental Leave) 90% or flat-rate (whichever is less) 13 each[120] Unpaid Mixed (employers reimbursed)
Uzbekistan 18[110] 100% 0[152] N/A 156[152] 20% of minimum wage for 104 weeks; unpaid remainder Social security

Parental leave policies in the United Nations

As international organizations are not subject to the legislation of any country, they have their own internal legislation on parental leave.

Organization Paid maternity leave Paid paternity leave Unpaid maternity leave Unpaid paternity leave Restrictions
United Nations[159] 16 weeks 100% (however, no fewer than 10 weeks must be after delivery, even if the pre-delivery leave was longer due to a late birth) 4 weeks 100% (or 8 weeks for staff members serving at locations where they are not allowed to live with their family) The fact that a staff member is or will be on parental leave cannot be a factor in deciding contract renewal. To ensure that this is enforced, if a contract ends while the staff member is on parental leave, the contract must be extended to cover the duration of such leave.

See also

Further reading

  • Altintas, Evrim; Sullivan, Oriel (Spring 2017). "Trends in fathers' contribution to housework and childcare under different welfare policy regimes". Social Politics. Oxford Journals. 24 (1): 81–108. doi:10.1093/sp/jxw007.
  • Mariskind, Clare (March–April 2017). "Good mothers and responsible citizens: Analysis of public support for the extension of paid parental leave". Women's Studies International Forum. ScienceDirect. 61: 14–19. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2017.01.003.
  • Sholar, Megan A. Getting Paid While Taking Time: The Women's Movement and the Development of Paid Family Leave Policies in the United States (Temple UP, 2016), 240 pp.
  • White, Linda A. (Spring 2017). "Which ideas, whose norms? Comparing the relative influence of international organizations on paid maternity and parental leave policies in liberal welfare states". Social Politics. Oxford Journals. 24 (1): 55–80. doi:10.1093/sp/jxw010.

References

  1. ^ "U.S. behind most of world in parental leave policy: study; Papua New Guinea, Swaziland & U.S. lag". NY Daily News. 24 Dec 2011.
  2. ^ a b Ruhm, Christopher J. (1998). "The Economic Consequences of Parental Leave Mandates: Lessons from Europe". Quarterly Journal of Economics. 113 (1): 285–317. doi:10.1162/003355398555586.
  3. ^ Addati, Laura (2015-01-01). "Extending maternity protection to all women: Trends, challenges and opportunities". International Social Security Review. 68 (1): 69–93. doi:10.1111/issr.12060. ISSN 1468-246X.
  4. ^ International Labour Organization. (2014). Maternity and Paternity at Work: Law and Practice Across the World.
  5. ^ Gualt, Barbara; Hartmann, Heidi; Hegewisch, Ariane; Milli, Jessica; Reichlin, Lindsey. "Paid Parental Leave in the United States" (PDF). Institute for Women’s Policy Research. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  6. ^ Deahl, Jessica (6 October 2016). "Countries Around The World Beat The U.S. On Paid Parental Leave". NPR.
  7. ^ Sen, Amartya. 1999. Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books.
  8. ^ a b Nussbaum, Martha. 2011. Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 34
  9. ^ a b c Geyer, Johannes; Haan, Peter; Wrohlich, Katharina (1 January 2014). "The Effects of Family Policy on Mothers' Labor Supply: Combining Evidence from a Structural Model and a Natural Experiment" – via RePEc - IDEAS.
  10. ^ Kluve, J.; Tamm, M. (2013). "Parental Leave Regulations, Mothers' Labor Force Attachment and Fathers' Childcare Involvement: Evidence from a Natural Experiment". Journal of Population Economics. 26 (3): 983–1005. doi:10.1007/s00148-012-0404-1.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Ronsen, Marit; Kitterod, Ragni Hege (July 2014). "Gender-Equalizing Family Policies and Mothers' Entry into Paid Work: Recent Evidence from Norway". Feminist Economics. 21: 59–89. doi:10.1080/13545701.2014.927584.
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External links

  • BBC article on proposed parental leave in Germany designed to halt the decline in the birth rate and male/female workplace inequality
  • BBC article on declining birth rate in Italy
  • BBC article on declining birth rate in Poland and new schemes designed to increase it
  • BBC article on success of Norway's parental leave scheme
  • BBC guide to parenthood policies in Europe (n.b. In this BBC article parental leave means unpaid leave)
  • Trends in Maternity Leave for First-Time Mothers in the US
  • TUC page about maternity rights in the UK
  • Center for Law and Social Policy on need for reform in the US
  • Canadian Labour Standards Government website
  • International Network on Leave Policy and Research
  • Parental Leave in 21 Countries
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