Family dictatorship

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A hereditary dictatorship, or family dictatorship, in political science terms a personalistic regime, is a form of dictatorship that occurs in a nominally or formally republican or socialist regime, but operates in practice like an absolute monarchy or despotate, in that political power passes within the dictator's family. Thus, although the key leader is often called president or prime minister rather than a king or emperor, power is transmitted between members of the same family due to the overwhelming authority of the leader. Sometimes the leader has been declared president for life and uses this power to nominate one of his or her family as successor.

A family dictatorship is different from a monarchy (where the descent is required by general constitutional law), or a political family (where members of the family possess informal, rather than formal and overwhelming political authority).

Distinguishing features

A family dictatorship is different from an absolute monarchy, and the ruler does not usually base his or her authority on the concept of divine right. In the latter, the transition of power within a family is required by general law as part of the state's constitutional arrangement, and continues to apply to all successions in the regime. In the former, this arrangement is not required by general law. In some cases, a special law might be enacted to formally nominate one particular family member of the present leader as the successor. In other cases, the law of the state may even formally provide for elections, but control exerted by the leader on the political and electoral process ensures a hereditary succession. Furthermore, whether each succession succeeds depends on the level of authority and control of the leader. As a result, modern family dictatorships often transition into a non-familial (non-personalistic) regime after a small number of successions: usually just one, and rarely more than two.

A family dictatorship is also different from other political families. In the latter, informal power and influence accrued to the family enables the family to continue to hold political power, often through open and contested elections. In the former, the family uses either formal legal or political power or control to ensure a familial succession, and usually via a controlled or uncontested election, or no election at all.

Because a family dictatorship exerts significant control on its succession, a successor is often determined well in advance. However, because it often lacks a formal general law basis for the succession, there are often long periods of uncertainty as to the identity of the successor. As often happens in other types of totalitarian regimes which plan their own succession, after a successor is determined or short-listed, they often go through a significant period of "grooming", in which the successor gains the experiences and qualifications aimed to make him or her attain the authority necessary to lead the regime.

Successful transitions of power

Kim Jong-Un, supreme leader of North Korea and member of the three-generation Kim dynasty is a prominent example of family dictatorship.

Dates in parentheses denote the period of rule.

Europe

Central and South America

Asia

The Al-Assad family has ruled Syria since 1971.
  • North Korea: Kim Il-sung (1948–1994), succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il (1994–2011), succeeded by his son Kim Jong-un (2011–present). Kim Jong-il did not officially take office until 1997, when his father was posthumously given the position of Eternal President. On 2 June 2009, it was reported that Kim Jong-il's youngest son, Kim Jong-un, was to be North Korea's next leader.[3] Like his father and grandfather, he was given an official sobriquet, The Great Successor and The Brilliant Comrade.[4] It was reported that Kim Jong-il was expected to officially designate the son as his successor in 2012,[5] but Kim Jong-il died in 2011 and Kim Jong-un was nevertheless announced as his successor.[6] The 2013 edition of the "Ten Fundamental Principles of the Korean Workers' Party" – Article 10, Clause 2 – states that the Party and Revolution must be carried "eternally" by the "Baekdu (Kim's) bloodline".[7] See also Kim Dynasty.
  • Iraq: Abdul Salam Arif (President, 1963–1966); succeeded by his brother Abdul Rahman Arif (1966–1968).
  • Syria: Hafez al-Assad (1971–2000), succeeded by his son Bashar al-Assad (2000–present). Bashar's elder brother, Basil al-Assad, had been designated for the presidency but died in 1994, six years prior to his father's death. See also Al-Assad family.

Africa

Indirect successions

Unfulfilled successions

Potential successions

Notes

  1. ^ Aglionby, William A. (1669), The Present State of the United Provinces of the Low-Countries. John Starkey.
  2. ^ Elsie, Robert. Historical Dictionary of Albania. Plymouth: Scarecrow Press, Inc. 2010. p. 195. Vickers, Miranda. The Albanians: A Modern History. New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd. 1999. p. 217.
  3. ^ North Korean leader Kim Jong-il 'names youngest son as successor', The Guardian, 2 June 2009
  4. ^ "North Korea: A 'Brilliant Comrade'". The New York Times. 12 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
  5. ^ "Report: NKorea's Kim has pancreatic cancer", Associated Press, 12 July 2009.
  6. ^ Fackler, Martin (2011-12-19). "Kim's Heir Likely to Focus on Stability". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  7. ^ The Twisted Logic of the N. Korean Regime, Chosun Ilbo, 2013-08-13, Accessed date: 2017-01-11
  8. ^ Ramzan Kadyrov was First Deputy Prime Minister 2004–2005 and Prime Minister 2005–2007
  9. ^ The Steel Butterfly Still Soars. The New York Times. October 6, 2012.
  10. ^ https://www.romania-insider.com/recently-declassified-c-documents-show-ceausescu-succession-scenarios-romanias-economic-situation/amp/
  11. ^ "Qaddafi's son declares he's leaving politics", Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 22 August 2008.
  12. ^ "Süddeutsche Zeitung am 12. Oktober 2011: Verwirrung um Festnahme von Gaddafi-Sohn Mutassim". Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  13. ^ "Mugabe - Vom Freiheitskämpfer zum Despoten". Welt. November 21, 2017. Retrieved 2018-08-04.
  14. ^ "Sie flog auf Staatskosten zum Shoppen nach New York". Bild. November 16, 2017. Retrieved 2018-08-04.
  15. ^ "Das Volk hungert, die First Lady shoppt". Der Tagesspiegel. September 1, 2017. Retrieved 2018-08-04.
  16. ^ Aziz, Muhammad Abdul and Hussein, Youssef (2002) "The President, the Son, and the Military: Succession in Egypt" Arab Studies Journal 9/10: pp. 73–88
  17. ^ https://foreignpolicy.com/2012/05/04/venezuela-the-succession/
  18. ^ Haley Sweetland Edwards, “AZERBAIJAN: WikiLeaks depicts lifestyles of Baku's rich and powerful”, Los Angeles Times, 25 Dec 2010, Accessed 26 Mar 2013
  19. ^ Holding, APA Information Agency, APA (2017-02-21). "Mehriban Aliyeva appointed first vice-president of Azerbaijan". Retrieved 2017-02-21.
  20. ^ Oliphant, Roland (11 October 2015). "Meet the pint-sized dictator: The 11-year-old heir groomed in North Korea-style dynasty for Belarus". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  21. ^ "Why does Belarus President Lukashenko take son Kolya to work?". BBC News. 1 October 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2017.
  22. ^ "Cambodian strongman's son assumes powerful military role". Phnom Penh: The Straits Times. June 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018-07-11.
  23. ^ "After the Mugabes, which African dynasties remain?". BBC News. 19 November 2017. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
  24. ^ Johnson, RW (September 3, 2006). "Playboy waits for his African throne". London, Cape Town: Times Online. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
  25. ^ Kazakhstan: Apparent Rift Opens Within Nazarbaev Family. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  26. ^ "Kazakh president's daughter appointed head of Senate committee", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 16 September 2016.
  27. ^ "Rosario Murillo Has Two Options to Follow Ortega in Nicaragua as President". confidencial.com.ni. July 28, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  28. ^ "Sara for President? Duterte just trusts daughter, not trying to hold on to power, says Palace". GMA Network. September 25, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  29. ^ "Rody eyes daughter Sara as successor". The Philippine Star. September 23, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  30. ^ "Duterte says remark about daughter as his successor a 'joke'". Sun.Star. September 30, 2017. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  31. ^ https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/4782015/vladimir-putin-russia-daughter-katerina-leader-kremlin-dynasty/
  32. ^ "Tajik President's Son Cements Mayoral Post With Election To Dushanbe Legislature". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty's Tajik Service. April 3, 2017. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  33. ^ "Daughter Of Tajik President Named Deputy Head Of Major Bank". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty's Tajik Service. July 18, 2017. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  34. ^ "Daughter Of Tajikistan's President Elected To Upper Chamber Of Parliament". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty's Tajik Service. May 29, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2017.
  35. ^ "Die Nachfolge Erdogans: alles bleibt in der Familie". Stuttgarter Nachrichten. July 18, 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  36. ^ "Erdogans Macht soll in der Familie bleiben". Saarbrücker Zeitung. July 18, 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  37. ^ "Bei den Erdogans bleibt alles in der Familie". Rheinische Post. July 23, 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  38. ^ "Wie Erdogan seinen Schwiegersohn Albayrak zum Nachfolger aufbaut". Der Tagesspiegel. July 22, 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  39. ^ "Zoff um Erdogan-Nachfolge? Die Türkei diskutiert über diesen Rempler". HuffPost. August 4, 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
  40. ^ "Turkmen President's Son Becomes Senior Lawmaker In Parliament". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. March 21, 2017. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
  41. ^ "El hijo de Nicolás Maduro se prepara para ser el sucesor de la revolución chavistar". La Información. Retrieved August 4, 2018.

See also

External links

  • Dynasties of the ex-USSR
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