Falcon Heavy test flight

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Falcon Heavy test flight
Falcon Heavy Demo Mission (40126461851).jpg
Falcon Heavy liftoff from pad LC-39A
Rocket Falcon Heavy
Configuration Falcon Heavy R
Flight no. 1
Manufacturer SpaceX
Operator SpaceX
Launch
Date 20:45:00, 6 February 2018 (UTC) (2018-02-06T20:45:00Z)
Window 2 hours 30 minutes
Site Cape Canaveral, Florida, U.S.
Pad Launch Complex 39
Outcome Success
Payloads
Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster
Target orbit
Reference system Sun
Regime pseudo-Mars transfer orbit

The Falcon Heavy test flight (also known as Falcon Heavy demonstration mission) was the first attempt by SpaceX to launch a Falcon Heavy rocket on 6 February 2018 at 20:45 UTC.[1] The successful launch introduced the Falcon Heavy as the most powerful rocket in operation,[2] producing five million pounds-force (22 MN) of thrust and having more than twice the lift capacity of the NASA Space Shuttle launch system.[3]

Mission overview

The mission was the test flight of the Falcon Heavy launcher, intended to demonstrate the capability of the launcher while gathering telemetry throughout the flight.

Payload

The payload, Elon Musk's original Roadster, mounted on the payload adapter inside the payload fairing.

The dummy payload for this test flight was Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster, a sports car owned by SpaceX CEO Elon Musk. SpaceX stated that the payload had to be "something fun and without irreplaceable sentimental value".[1] Sitting in the driver's seat of the Roadster is "Starman", a dummy astronaut clad in a SpaceX spacesuit.[4] It has his right hand on the steering wheel and left elbow resting on the open window sill. Starman is named for the David Bowie song "Starman".[4] The car's sound system was looping the symbolic Bowie songs "Space Oddity" and "Life on Mars?".[5][6]

It was launched with sufficient velocity to escape the Earth and enter an elliptic orbit around the Sun that crosses the orbit of Mars, reaching an aphelion (maximum distance from the Sun) of 1.67 AU.[7] During the early portion of its voyage it functioned as a broadcast device, sending video back to Earth for four hours. The Roadster remains attached to the second stage.[8]

This launcher demonstration made the Roadster the first consumer car sent into space.[9] Three manned rovers were sent to space on the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions in the 1970s, and these vehicles were left on the Moon.[10] The Roadster is one of two formerly manned vehicles (albeit not a manned space vehicle) derelict in solar orbit, joining LM-4 Snoopy, Apollo 10's lunar module ascent stage.[11][12]

Also, included was Arch Mission 1.2, which is a crystal disk containing the Isaac Asimov's Foundation series of books, on the Tesla Roadster.[13]

Rocket configuration

Falcon Heavy flew in its reusable configuration, allowing for a landing approach of both side boosters and the central core. The side boosters consisted of two previously flown Falcon 9 first stages, being reused from the CRS-9 mission in July 2016 and the Thaicom 8 launch in May 2016.[14] The central core was newly built because it needs to support stronger forces during ascent, so that a regular first stage could not be used. The upper stage was the same as on a Falcon 9.[3][4][15]

Side boosters equipped with a nose cone have different aerodynamic properties than the usual Falcon 9 boosters with a cylindric interstage. For this reason, SpaceX equipped them with larger and sturdier grid fins made of titanium, to help guide the atmospheric descent accurately.[16] The central core, however, still used conventional aluminium grid fins, as its aerodynamic properties are very similar to those of a conventional Falcon 9 first stage.

The Roadster was mounted on the second stage using a custom-made payload adapter, and was encapsulated in a conventional fairing.[17] Falcon Heavy also supports the launch of Dragon capsules without a fairing.[18]

Test

Last transmitted view en route away from Earth

The Falcon Heavy maiden flight was intended to accomplish several objectives:

  • launch the Falcon Heavy from the pad through the atmosphere, including Max Q flight phase;
  • separate the side booster cores from the continuing first stage center core and upper stage
  • return the two side boosters to Cape Canaveral and land them simultaneously at Landing Zones 1 and 2
  • separate the center core and light the upper stage to orbit insertion
  • land the central first stage booster core on an autonomous spaceport drone ship, the Of Course I Still Love You, in the Atlantic Ocean
  • relight the upper stage to orbit in the van Allen belts for several hours to show radiation resistance
  • relight the upper stage again to put the payload into its heliocentric orbit, demonstrating a lifetime for the upper stage suitable for geosynchronous orbit insertion.

The purpose of including the Roadster on the maiden flight was to demonstrate that the Falcon Heavy can launch payloads as far as the orbit of Mars, and it exceeded its projected route by extending its aphelion to near the asteroid belt beyond Mars (with a perihelion at the level of Earth's orbit)[19], but did not test or demonstrate the separation of the second stage and a payload.

The launch occurred at 3:45 PM EST, or 20:45 UTC, from Launchpad 39A at Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida; the Roadster was successfully placed in its orbit, and its two booster cores returned to land at Landing Zones 1 and 2 several minutes later. The sole objective not completed was the landing of the central core; while its fate was initially ambiguous due to signal loss and heavy smoke, Musk confirmed several hours after the launch that the booster had not survived the recovery attempt.[20] Because two of the three engines necessary to land were unable to reignite, the booster hit the water at 500 kilometres per hour, 100 metres away from the drone ship.[21] The final upper stage transfer burn to solar orbit produced an orbit that will be beyond the orbit of Mars at its furthest point from the sun.[22][23]

Timeline

As the launch was a success, most planned events took place in the planned point of time. As the central core landing burn wasn't performed correctly, the exact time of the landing attempt is not known.[24]

The mission timeline was (all times approximate):[1]

Time Event
T−01:28:00 Go/no go for propellant load
T−01:25:00 Kerosene loading underway
T−00:45:00 Liquid-oxygen loading underway
T−00:07:00 Start of engine chill
T−00:01:00 Start of pre-launch checks
T−00:01:00 Propellant-tank flight pressurisation
T−00:00:45 Go/no go for launch
T−00:00:05 Start of side-booster engine ignition sequence
T−00:00:03 Start of central-core boosters engines ignition sequence
T−00:00:00 Liftoff
T+00:01:06 Max Q (maximal aerodynamic pressure)
T+00:02:29 Boosters engines cutoff (BECO)
T+00:02:33 Side boosters separate from central core
T+00:02:50 Side boosters begin boostback burn
T+00:03:04 Central-core engine shutdown/main engine cutoff (MECO)
T+00:03:07 Central core and 2nd stage separate
T+00:03:15 2nd-stage engine starts
T+00:03:24 Central core begins boostback burn
T+00:03:49 Fairing jettisoning
T+00:06:41 Side cores begin entry burn
T+00:06:47 Central core begins entry burn
T+00:07:58 Side-cores landings
~T+00:08:19 Central-core landing (failed), exact time unknown
T+00:08:31 2nd-stage engine cutoff (SECO-1)
T+00:28:22 2nd-stage engine restarts
T+00:28:52 2nd-stage engine cutoff (SECO-2)
Test continued on an experimental 6-hour-long coast in Earth orbit through the Van Allen radiation belts, followed by two burns by the third stage to target a precessing elliptical orbit around the Sun.

Results

The two boosters landing at LZ-1 and LZ-2 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

Valuable telemetry data on the performance of the launch system and its components were obtained for all stages of the test flight.

Payload

The dummy payload was placed in a heliocentric orbit, with an aphelion of 1.70 AU[25], beyond Mars. The payload has an orbital period of 1.53 years. The first four hours of the flight were streamed on YouTube.[22]

Boosters

Both boosters successfully landed almost simultaneously on the ground at Landing Zones 1 and 2 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. As the boosters were from an older generation of the Falcon 9 booster, SpaceX has ruled out using any of their major parts for a third mission. Due to the high cost and lengthy manufacturing process of the grid fins, however, those might be reused on future flights.[26]

Central core

The central core attempted to return to the autonomous spaceport drone ship "Of Course I Still Love You"(name of spaceport drone ship) but failed to light two of the three engines during the landing burn. The core crashed into the ocean 100 metres (300 ft) away from the drone ship at 500 kilometres per hour (300 mph), causing damage to two of the drone ship's station-keeping thrusters. According to Elon Musk on the post-flight conference, the central core ran out of triethylaluminum-triethylborane (TEA-TEB) igniter fluid.[27] Musk later stated that the fix to this problem was "pretty obvious", which led many to believe SpaceX was simply going to add more ignition fluid on future missions.[24]

SpaceX is using the Falcon 9 Block 5 or newer in its future launches, so the loss of the Block 4 central core did not impact SpaceX operations.[28]

Reactions

U.S. President Donald Trump tweeted:[29]

Congratulations @ElonMusk and @SpaceX on the successful #FalconHeavy launch. This achievement, along with @NASA’s commercial and international partners, continues to show American ingenuity at its best!

Former NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver advocated the cancellation of the Space Launch System program as a consequence of the success of this demonstration.[30]

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b c "Falcon Heavy Demonstration Press Kit" (PDF). SpaceX. February 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 6, 2018. 
  2. ^ Yuhas, Alan (February 6, 2018). "SpaceX Falcon Heavy launch: world's most powerful rocket blasts off – live". The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. 
  3. ^ a b Salazar, Doris Elin (February 6, 2018). "SpaceX's Falcon Heavy Rocket: By the Numbers". Space.com. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. 
  4. ^ a b c Pappalardo, Joe (February 5, 2018). "Elon Musk's Space Tesla Isn't Going to Mars. It's Going Somewhere More Important". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. 
  5. ^ Seemangal, Robin. "SpaceX Successfully Launches the Falcon Heavy—And Elon Musk's Roadster". WIRED. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2018. 
  6. ^ Hinzmann, Dennis (February 7, 2018). "Elon Musk Sent a Tesla Playing David Bowie to Mars Yesterday". Out Magazine. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. 
  7. ^ Harwood, William (February 8, 2017). "'Starman' puts Earth in the rearview mirror". Spaceflight Now. CBS News. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. 
  8. ^ McDowell, Jonathan [@planet4589] (February 8, 2018). "I now have confirmation that the Tesla remains attached to the Falcon 2nd stage, which is being observed by asteroid experts" (Tweet). Retrieved February 11, 2018 – via Twitter. 
  9. ^ "The First Car in Space". Futurism, LLC. December 30, 2017. Archived from the original on January 13, 2018. Retrieved January 14, 2018. 
  10. ^ "The Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle". NASA. November 15, 2005. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved May 16, 2010. 
  11. ^ Ryba, Jeanne (ed.). "Apollo 10". NASA. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved June 26, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Current locations of the Apollo Command Module Capsules (and Lunar Module crash sites)". Apollo: Where are they now?. NASA. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved December 27, 2014. 
  13. ^ Clemens, Danny (10 February 2018). "The SpaceX launch included a small library that could orbit the Sun for millions of years". ABC 30 Action News. Retrieved 14 February 2018. 
  14. ^ Lucchesi, Nick (February 6, 2018). "Falcon Heavy Demo Mission Today Will Send Two Used Rockets Back to Space". Inverse. Retrieved 2018-02-16. 
  15. ^ Grush, Loren (February 6, 2018). "SpaceX launches its powerful Falcon Heavy rocket for the first time". The Verge. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. 
  16. ^ Lewin, Sarah (February 7, 2018). "'Crazy Things Can Come True': Elon Musk Reacts to Falcon Heavy Launch Success". Space.com. Retrieved 2018-02-16. 
  17. ^ Clark, Stephen (February 6, 2018). "Launch timeline for Falcon Heavy's maiden flight". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2018-02-16. 
  18. ^ "Falcon Heavy". SpaceX. 2012-11-15. Retrieved 2018-02-16. 
  19. ^ Reisinger, Don (February 7, 2018). "Elon Musk's Tesla Missed Mars Orbit After Successful Falcon Heavy Launch". Fortune Magazine. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018 – via Yahoo! Finance. 
  20. ^ Clark, Stephen (February 6, 2018). "Live coverage: Falcon Heavy blasts off for first time, set for Earth departure burn". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. 
  21. ^ Krishna, Swapna (February 6, 2018). "SpaceX confirms it lost the center core of the Falcon Heavy". Engadget. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. 
  22. ^ a b Musk, Elon [@ElonMusk] (6 February 2018). "Third burn successful" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  23. ^ Harwood, William (February 6, 2018). "SpaceX Falcon Heavy launch puts on spectacular show in maiden flight". CBS News. Archived from the original on February 6, 2018. 
  24. ^ a b Malik, Tariq (February 14, 2018). "Elon Musk Explains Why SpaceX's Falcon Heavy Core Booster Crashed". Space.com. Retrieved 2018-02-16. 
  25. ^ "Pseudo-MPEC for 2018-017A". Project Pluto. February 8, 2018. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. 
  26. ^ O'Kane, Sean (February 7, 2018). "Here's what's next for SpaceX after Falcon Heavy's first flight". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-02-16. 
  27. ^ Elon Musk celebrates successful Falcon Heavy rocket launch. CBS News. February 6, 2018. Archived from the original on February 7, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2018 – via YouTube. 
  28. ^ SpaceX (6 Feb 2018). "Space X News Conference". youtube.com. Retrieved 2018-02-06. 
  29. ^ Trump, Donald [@realDonaldTrump] (7 February 2018). "Congratulations @ElonMusk and @SpaceX on the successful #FalconHeavy launch" (Tweet). Retrieved 9 February 2017 – via Twitter. 
  30. ^ Garver, Lori (February 8, 2018). "SpaceX could save NASA and the future of space exploration". The Hill. Archived from the original on February 9, 2018. 

External links

  • SpaceX: Falcon Heavy Test Flight on YouTube (6 February 2018) live broadcast feed
  • SpaceX: Live Views of Starman on YouTube (6 February 2018) live broadcast feed from the Tesla Roadster in orbit
  • SpaceX: Falcon Heavy Demo — Static Fire on YouTube (24 January 2018) static fire test of Falcon Heavy #1
  • SpaceX: Falcon Heavy Animation on YouTube (5 February 2018) animated simulated flight 1 of Falcon Heavy
  • NASA Kennedy Space Center: "Rocket Launch: February 6, 2018 | SpaceX Falcon Heavy Inaugural Flight"
  • Elon Musk: "A Red Car for the Red Planet" on Instagram (22 December 2017)
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